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there. Some petty officer came in there and Question. What do you know with regard to looked at us, and wanted to know how badly we the attack and capture of Fort Pillow? were hurt. I said, “Pretty bad," and asked him Answer. All I know about that is, that General for water, and he made some of the men fetch us Shipley arrived here on the thirteenth of April. some. We lay there until the gunboat came up He took me one side, and told me that as he and commenced shelling, when they made us get passed Fort Pillow he was hailed from a gunboat, out of that-help ourselves out the best way we and told that there had been severe fighting there; could. Three of our own men were helping the that he saw a flag of truce at Fort Pillow, and wounded out of the houses, when they commenc-that, after passing the Fort a little distance, he ed burning them. As soon as they saw I could saw the American flag hauled down, or the halwalk a little, they started me up to headquarters liards shot away, he did not know which; and he with a party. When we got to the gully the afterward saw a flag, which was not raised higher gunboat threw a shell, which kind of flurried than a regimental flag, and that he believed Fort them, and we got out of sight of them. I got Pillow had surrendered. He then offered me alongside of a log, and laid there until a party two batteries of light artillery, which he said from the boat came along picking up the were fully manned and equipped. He repeated wounded.
this same conversation to General Brayman, as I Question. Did they have a hospital there that understand, after arriving at Cairo. the rounded were put in ?
Question. Did he give any reason why he did Answer. There were four or five huts there to not undertake to assist the garrison at Fort Pilgether which they put them in. That was all low? the hospital I saw.
Answer, No, sir. Question. Do you know whether they burned Question. From his conversation, did you any body in there?
gather that he was in a condition to render asAnswer. I do not know, but they hallooed to sistance ? us to “Get out, if we did not want to get burn- Answer. (After a pause.) It struck me as the ed to death." I told an officer there, who was most remarkable thing in the world that he had ordering the houses to be burned, to let some of not found out positively; had not landed his batthe men go in there, as there were some eight or teries, and gone to the assistance of Fort Pillow. nine wounded men in there, and a negro who Question. Under what circumstances did you had his hip broken. He said: “The white men understand he was there? can help themselves out, the damned nigger Answer. The steamer on which he was passed shan't come out of that." I do not know whether by there. I am under the impression that he they got the wounded out or not. I got out, be- had also two or three hundred infantry on the cause I could manage to walk a little. It was steamer. very painful for me to walk, but I could bear the pain better than run the risk of being burned Dr. Chapman Underwood, sworn and examup.
ined. Question. Do you know any thing about rebel By Mr. Gooch: officers being on the boat, and our officers asking Question. Where do you reside? them to drink?
Answer. I reside in Tennessee. Answer. Yes, sir. There were several rebel Question. Were you at Fort Pillow, or on officers on board the Platte Valley. I went on board a gunboat, during the attack there? board the boat, and took my seat right in front Answer. Yes, sir; I was there. of the saloon. I knew the bar-tender, and want Question. What was your position ? ed to get a chance to get some wine, as I was Answer. I was sent from there, about ten days very weak. I was just going to step up to before that, on detached service, looking after the bar, when one of our officers, a lieutenant or convalescents, and returned on the Saturday a captain, I don't know which, stepped in front evening before the fight on Tuesday morning. I of me and almost shoved me away, and called up was Acting Assistant Surgeon. The regiment one of the rebel officers and took a drink with was not full enough to have a surgeon with the him; and I saw our officers drinking with the regular rank. rebel officers several times.
Question. Will you state what came within
your own observation in connection with the atCOLUMBUS, KENTUCKY, April 24, 1864. tack and capture ? Colonel William H. Lawrence, sworn and ex- Answer. I roomed with Lieutenant Logan, amined.
First Lieutenant of company C, Thirteenth TenBy the Chairman :
nessee cavalry. About sun-up, I got up as usual. Question. What is your rank and position in About the time I got up and washed, the pickets the army?
ran in and said Forrest was coming to attack the Answer. I am Colonel of the Thirty-fourth Fort. I started up to the Fort. Lieutenant New Jersey volunteers.
Logan knew the feeling the rebels had toward Question. Where are you stationed now, and me, and told me to go on the gunboat. how long have you been there stationed ?
Question. What do you mean by that? Answer. I am stationed at Columbus, and Answer. Well, they had been hunting mebave been there since the end of January last. l had shot at me frequently. Faulkner's regiment, and a part of another, was raised in the country were about five hundred black soldiers in all where I knew all of them. I was a notorious there, and about two hundred whites able for character with them, and always had to leave duty. There were a great many of them sick whenever they came around. The Lieutenant ad- and in the hospital. vised me to go on board the gunboat for safety, Question. What happened after that ? and I did so. The attack came on then, and we Answer. They then got our cannon in the Fort, fired from the gunboat, I think, some two hun- and turned them on us, and we had to steam off dred and sixty or two hundred and seventy up the river a little, knowing that they had got rounds, and the sharp-shooters on the boat were a couple of ten or twelve pounder Parrott guns. firing, J among the rest. We fought on, I think, They threw three shells toward us. We steamed until about one or half-past one. The rebels had off up the river, anchored, and lay there all night. not made much progress by that time. They We returned the next morning. We got down then came in with a flag of truce, and firing ceas- near there, and discovered plenty of rebels on ed from the Fort and gunboat, and all around the hill, and a gunboat and another boat lying They had a conference, I think, of about three at the shore. We acted pretty cautiously, and quarters of an hour. They returned with the held out a signal, and the gunboat answered it, flag of truce; but in a very short time came and then we went in. When we got in there, back again with it to the Fort, and had another the rebel General Chalmers was on board, and interview. During the time the flag of truce several other officers-majors, captains, orderlies, was in there, there was no firing done from eith-etc.--and bragged a great deal about their vicer side, but we could see from the gunboat up tory, and said it was a matter of no consequence. the creek that the rebels were moving up toward They hated to have such a fight as that, when the Fort. The boat lay about two hundred yards they could take no more men than they had there. from the shore, right opposite the Quartermaster's One of the gunboat officers got into a squabble department. By the time the first flag of truce with them, and said they did not treat the flag got to the Fort, they commenced stealing the of truce right. An officer-a captain, I think Quartermaster's stores, and began packing them who was going home, came up, and said that, off up the hill. For an hour and a half, I reckon, “Damn them, he had eighteen fights with them, there seemed to be above one or two hundred but he would not treat them as prisoners of war men engaged in it.
after that," and that he intended to go home, and Question. This was before the capture of the would enlist again. Chalmers said that he would Fort?
treat him as a prisoner of war, but that they Answer. Yes, sir; while under the protection would not treat as prisoners of war the "homeof the flag of truce. When the last flag of truce made Yankees," meaning the loyal Tennesseeans. started back from the Fort, in three minutes, or There were some sick men in the hospital, but I less, the firing opened again, and then they just was afraid to go on shore after the rebels got rushed in all around, from every direction, like a there. I merely went on shore, but did not preswarm of bees, and overwhelmed every thing. tend to leave the boat. The men-white and black—all rushed out of Question. Did you see any person shot there the Fort together, threw down their arms, and the next morning after you returned ? ran down the hill, but they shot them down like Answer. I heard a gun or a pistol fired up the beeves, in every direction. I think I saw about bank, and soon afterward a negro woman came two hundred run down next to the water, and in, who was shot through the knee, and said it some of them into the water, and they shot was done about that time. I heard frequent them until I did not see a man standing.
shooting up where the Fort was, but I did not go Question. How many do you think were shot up to see what was done. after the capture of the Fort, and after they threw down their arms ?
Fort Pillow, Tennessee, April 25, 1864. Answer. Well, I think, from all the informa- Captain James Marshall, sworn and examtion I could gather, there were about four hun- ined. dred men killed after the capture, or four hun-| By the Chairman : dred and fifty. I think there were about five Question. What is your rank and position in hundred and odd men killed there. A very great the naval service ? majority of them were killed after the surrender. Answer. I am an Acting Master, commanding I do not suppose there were more than twenty the United States steamer New Era, gunboat men killed before the Fort was captured, and the Number Seven. men threw down their arms and begged for Question. Where is your boat ? quarter.
Answer. My boat has been twenty-four hours' Question. Was there any resistance on the run from Fort Pillow. Since the attack here. part of our soldiers after the capture of the that has been changed. At the time the Fort was Fort?
| attacked, I was to make my principal headquarAnswer. None in the world. They had noters here. chance to make any resistance.
Question. Were you present with your gunQuestion. And they did not attempt to make boat at the time Fort Pillow was attacked and any?
captured ? Answer None that I could discover. There Answer. I was.
Question. Please describe that affair.
Major Bradford signalled to me that we were Answer. At six o'clock, on the morning of the whipped. We had agreed on a signal that, if twelfth of April, Major Booth sent me word that they had to leave the Fort, they would drop down the rebels were advancing on us. I immediately under the bank, and I was to give the rebels got the ship cleared for action. I gave the men canister. I was lying up above here, but the their breakfasts. I had no idea that there would rebels turned the guns in the Fort on us—I think be a fight. I thought it would merely be a little all of them--and a Parrott shot was fired, but skirmish. I went out into the stream. Major went over us. I had to leave, because, if I came Booth and myself had previously established down here, the channel would force me to go signals, by which he could indicate certain points around the point, and then, with the guns in the where he would want me to use my guns. He Fort, they would sink me. Had I been below first signalled me to commence firing up what we here at the time, I think I could have routed call Number One ravine, just below the Quarter- them out; but part of our own men were in the master's department, and I commenced firing Fort at the same time, and I should have killed there. Then he signalled me to fire up Coal Creek them as well as the rebels. The rebels kept firravine Number Three, and I then moved up there. ing on our men for at least twenty minutes after Before I left down here at ravine Number One our flag was down. We said to one another that the rebel sharp-shooters were firing at me rapid- they could be giving no quarter. We could see ly. I came along up, and the women and child- the men fall, as they were shot, under the bauk. ren, some sick negroes, and boys, were standing I could not see whether they had arins or not. I around a great barge. I told them to get into was fearful that they might hail in a steamboat the barge if they wanted to save themselves, and from below, capture her, put on four or five when I came down again I would take them out hundred men, and come after me. I wanted of danger. They went in, and I towed them up to get down so as to give warning, and I did and landed them above Coal Creek, where the send word to Memphis to have all steamboats rebel sharp-shooters commenced firing at them. stopped for the present. The next morning the The next time I moved up Coal Creek ravine I gunboat Twenty-eight and the transport Platte told them to go on up to a house, as the rebels Valley came up. were firing upon them. The trees and bushes Question. When did you go ashore after the around them there probably prevented them from Fort had been captured ? being hit. On knowing that they were fired at Answer. I went ashore the next morning, much, I kept a steady fire up to about one o'clock. about ten o'clock, under a flag of truce, with a At that time the fire had ceased or slackened; | party of men and an officer, to gather up the and every thing seemed to be quieting down, and wounded and bury the dead. I found men lying I thought, perhaps, they were waiting to get a / in the tents and in the Fort, whose bodies were little rest. My men were very tired, not having burning. There were two there that I saw that had any thing to eat since morning, and the offi- day that had been burned. cers nothing at all. I ran over on the bar to Question. What was the appearance of the clean out my guns and refresh my men. We had remains ? What do you infer from what you fired two hundred and eighty-two rounds of shell, saw ? shrapnel, and canister, and my guns were get- Answer. I supposed that they had been just ting foul. While we were lying on the bar, a set on fire there. There was no necessity for flag of truce came in-the first one. It was, I burning the bodies there with the buildings, beshould judge, about half-past six o'clock. While cause, if they had chosen, they could have dragthe flag of truce was in, some of the officers ged the bodies out. There was so little wood came to me and told me the rebels were robbing about any of those tents that I can hardly unthe Quartermaster's department. I went out on derstand how the bodies could have been burned the deck, and saw them doing so. Some of the as they were. officers said that we should go in and fire upon Question. Were the tents burned around the them; that we could slay them very nicely. I bodies ? remarked to them that that was not civilized Answer. Yes, sir. On the fourteenth of April warfare; that two wrongs did not make a right; (the second day after the capture) I came up and that if the rebels should take the Fort after again. I had a lot of refugees on board, and as ward, they would say that they would be justi- I came around I hoisted a white flag, intending fied in doing any thing they pleased, because I to come in and see if there were any wounded had fired on them while the flag of truce was in, or unburied bodies here. When I landed here, although they were thus violating that flag of I saw, I should judge, at least fifty cavalry over truce themselves. They were also moving their on Flower Island, and while I was lying here forces down this hill, and were going up the ra- with a white flag, they set fire to an empty coal vine. When I saw that, I got under way, and barge I had towed over there. I put the refugees stood off for the Fort again, intending to stop it. on the shore, took down the white flag, and I had only seventy-five rounds of ammunition started after them, and commenced shelling left, but I told the boys that we would use that them, and the gunboats Thirty-four and Fifteen at any rate. The flag of truce started and went and the despatch-boat Volunteer came down out, and I do not think it had been out more and opened on them. We did not see the rebthan five minutes when the assault was made. I els then, but saw where they were setting
wood-piles on fire, and we followed them clear Twenty-eight here when I came down the day round, and drove them off. At this time I re- after the fight, and came alongside of her. ceived information that the body of Lieutenant Question. Do you know any thing about any Akerstrom had been burned ; that it was he who of our officers showing civilities to the rebel ofiwas burned in the house. Some of the refugees cers after all these atrocities? told me this, and also that they had taken him Answer. I saw nothing of that kind but one out and buried him. There was also one negro lieutenant, who went up around with them on who had been thrown in a hole, and buried alive. the hill. Who he was I do not know, but I reWe took him out, but he lived only a few min-collect noticing his stripe. utes afterward. After we had followed these Question. Did he belong to the navy or army? rebels around to the head of Island Thirty, I Answer. He belonged to the army. I saw the came back to the Fort, landed, and took on board rebel General Chalmers but once. When I came the refugees I had put on shore. The next down here that morning I was the ranking offimorning the three gunboats landed here, and we cer; but the Captain of gunboat Twenty-eight sent out pickets, and then sent men around to had commenced negotiations with the flag of look up the dead. We found a number there truce, and I told him to go on with it. I met not buried, beside one man whose body was so those men in the cabin of the Twenty-eight on burnt that we had to take a shovel to take up business. I was not on board the Platte Valley his remains.
but once, except that I crossed over her bow Question. Was he burned where there was a once or twice. I was not on her where I could tent or a building ?
see any thing of this kind going on. Answer. Where there was a building.
Question. How many of our men do you supQuestion. Do you know whether there were pose were killed after they had surrendered ? any wounded men burned in those buildings? Answer. I could not say. I have been told
Answer. I do not. All I know about that is that there were not over twenty-five killed and what I was told by Lieutenant Leming, who said wounded before the Fort was captured ? that while he was lying here wounded, he heard Question. Do you know how many have been some of the soldiers say that there were some killed in all ? wounded negroes in those buildings, who said, Answer. My own crew buried, of those who “You are trying to get this gunboat back to were left unburied, some seventy or eighty. shell us, are you, God damn you," and then shot The Platte Valley buried a great many, and the them down. I went to Memphis, and then had gunboat Twenty-eight buried some. to go to Cairo. I was then ordered to patrol the Question. What number do you suppose esriver from here (Fort Pillow) to Memphis. I caped out of the garrison ? started down on my first trip on Friday morning Answer. I have no means of knowing. I last. I arrived at Memphis on Friday afternoon. I have understood that the rebels had one hundred I mentioned there the manner in which our men and sixty prisoners—white men ; but I think it had been buried here by the rebels, and said that is doubtful if they had that many, judging from I thought humanity dictated that they should the number of men we have found. be taken up, and buried as they ought to be. By Mr. Gooch: The General ordered some men to be detailed, Question. Where did those men come from with rations, to come up here and rebury them whose bodies we have just seen unburied ? properly. They have come here, and have been Answer. I should judge they came from the engaged in that work since they came up. hospital. One of them had a cane, showing
Question. How many have you already that he was not a well man, and they had on found ?
white shirts-hospital clothing; and, as you saw, Answer. We have found already fifty-two one looked thin, very thin, as if he had been white men and four officers, besides a great many sick. colored men.
Question. How far are these bodies lying from Question. Had the blacks and whites been the hospital ? buried together indiscriminately?
Answer. I should think about one hundred Answer. We have not found it so exactly; we and fifty yards. have found them in the same trench, but the Question. Would men, escaping from the Fort, white men mostly at one end, and the black inen run in that direction ? at the other ; but they were all pitched in in any Answer. They would be very apt to run in way-some on their faces, some on their sides, almost any direction ; and they would be more some on their backs.
likely to run away from the stores that these Question. Did you hear any thing said about rebels were robbing. giving quarter or not giving quarter on that oc- By the Chairinan: casion ?
Question. From the hospital clothing they had Answer. No, sir; but our Paymaster here on ; from their appearance, showing that they could tell you what he heard some of their offi- had been wounded or sick persons; and from cers say.
the bruised appearance of their heads, as if they Question. Do you know any thing about the had been killed by having their brains knocked transport Platte Valley being here?
out, do you infer that they were hospital paAnswer. She was lying alongside the gunboat tients that had been murdered there?
Answer. I should. I should be just as posi- more than twenty-five or thirty killed before the tive of that as I should be of any thing I had place was captured ; that all the rest were killed not actually seen.
after the capture, and after the flag was down. Question. You take it that they were sick or Question. Were you on the ground the day wounded men, endeavoring to escape from the after the fight? hospital, who were knocked in the head ?
Answer. Yes, sir. Answer. I should say so.
Question. Did you discover upon the field, or
| learn from any information derived there, of any Paymaster William B. Purdy, sworn and ex- act of peculiar barbarity ? amined.
Answer. I saw men who had been shot in the By the Chairman :
face, and I have since seen a body that was Question. What is your rank, and where have burned outside of the Fort. The day after the you been stationed, and in what service ? | fight I did not go inside the Fort at all.
Answer. Acting Assistant Paymaster of the Question. Did you see the remnants of one navy. I have no regular station or quarters at who had been nailed to a board or plank? present; but on the day of the attack on Fort Answer. I did not see that. Pillow I was acting as Signal Officer on the gun- Question. Then it was another body that had boat Number Seven.
been burned which you saw ? Question. Will you state what you observed Answer. Yes, sir. that day, and afterward, in relation to that af- Question. It has been said that men were fair ?
buried alive. Did any such information come to Answer. After our flag was down, I saw the your notice. rebels firing on our own men from the Fort, and Answer. I heard of it, but did not see it. I should say that while the flag of truce was in, Question. What was said about it? before the Fort was captured, I could see the reb- Answer. A young man said he saw one in the els concentrating their forces so as to be better morning up there who was alive, and he went able to take the Fort.
back a short time afterward to attend to him, but Question. Do you mean that they took advan- he was then dead; and I have heard of others tage of the flag of truce to place their men in who crawled out of their graves, and were taken position so as to better attack the Fort ?
up on the Platte Valley, but I do not know about Answer. Yes, sir; I could see them moving them. down to their new positions, and, as soon as the Question. Where was this man you found flag of truce was out, firing commenced from burned ? these new positions.
Answer. He was inside of a tent. Question. Do you understand such move Question. Do you suppose him to have been ments to be in accordance with the rules of war- burned with the tent ? fare?
Answer. Yes, sir. I took him to be a white Answer. No, sir; I do not.
man, because he was in the quarters where the Question. Had you any conversation with one white men were. of General Chalmers's aids about their conduct Question. So far as you could observe, was here?
any discrimination made between white and Answer. Yes, sir; with one who said he was black men, as to giving no quarter ? an aid-de-camp to General Chalmers, and a cap- Answer. I should think not, from all I could tain in the Second Missouri cavalry. He told see, because they were firing from the top of me that they did not recognize negroes as United a hill down the bluff on all who had gone down States soldiers, but would shoot them, and show there to escape. them no quarter-neither the negroes nor their Question. Did you notice how these men had officers.
been buried by the rebels ? Question. When was this?
Answer. I saw officers and white men and Answer. That was the day after the capture black men thrown into the trenches-pitched in of the Fort, while the flag of truce was in. He in any way, some across, some lengthways, some then spoke in relation to the Tennessee loyal on their faces, etc. When I first saw them, I troops. He said they did not think much of noticed a great many with their hands or feet them; that they were refugees and deserters; sticking out. and they would not show them much mercy Question. Have you lately discovered any that either.
are still unburied ? Question. Was this said in defence of their Answer. Yes, sir. conduct here?
Question. Did you see the three there to-day Answer. No, sir ; there was not much said that were lying unburied ? about that. He opened the conversation him Answer. No, sir ; I heard about them, but did self.
not go to see them. Question. How many of our men do you suppose were killed here after our tag was down, Eli A. Bangs, sworn and examined. and they had surrendered ?
By the Chairman : Answer. I have no idea, only fro n what citi. Question. Do you belong to the navy or the zens have told me. They said the e were not l army?