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Answer. Eastern Tennessee.
Question. Did they have any more to give Question. How long have you been in the you? army?
Answer. They had plenty. They were just Answer. I enlisted on the eleventh or twelfth doing it for their own gratification. They said of last July; I do not remember which day. Seward had put old Beast Butler in there, and
Question. To what regiment do you belong? they did not care how they treated us.
Question. Did you complain about not having Question. Who was your Colonel ?
enough? Answer. Colonel Strickland.
Answer. Certainly we complained, but they Answer. Where were you taken prisoner? said we had plenty. They cursed us, and said
Answer. At Zollicoffer, near the East-Tennes- we had a sight more than their men had who see and Virginia line.
were prisoners in our lines. Question. Where were you then carried ? Question. Do you feel any better now since
Answer. Right straight on to Richmond. I you have been here? was taken on the line of the railroad. We were Answer. A great deal better; like a new man burning bridges there to keep the enemy out now. I am gaining flesh now.
Question. How did you fare after you got to By Mr. Odell: Richmond ?
Question. What was your occupation before Answer. They just starved us.
you went into the army? Question. What did they give you to eat ? Answer. I was a farmer.
Answer. For forty-eight hours after we got By Mr. Julian: there they gave us only just what we could Question. Do you know how they treated their breathe; then they gave us a little piece of white own sick ? bread, and just three bites of beef. A man could Answer. No, sir. take it all decently at three bites. That is the By Mr. Odell : way we lived until we went to Danville, and then Question. Were other Tennesseeans taken we had meat enough to make half a dozen bites, prisoners the same time you were ? with bugs in it.
Answer. Yes, sir; there were twenty-four of Question. What brought on your sickness ? us taken prisoners. The small-pox was very se
Answer. Starvation. I was so starved there vere among us. Our own men said that they that when I was down I could not get up with were just trying to kill the Tennesseeans and out catching hold of something to pull myself Kentuckians. Out of the twenty-four, there up by.
were ten of us left when they started for Georgia. Question. What did you live in? •
No man can tell precisely how we were treated, Answer. In a brick building, without any fire, and say just how it was. or any thing to cover us with. Question. Had you no blankets?
L. H. Parhan, sworn and examined. Answer. No, sir; we had not. They even By Mr. Gooch : took our coats from us, and part of us had to lie Question. From what State are you? there on the floor in our shirt-sleeves.
Answer. West-Tennessee. Question. In the winter ?
Question. To what regiment do you belong? Answer. Yes, sir.
Answer. The Third West-Tennessee cavalry. Question. Did any of the men freeze ?
Question. Where were you taken prisoner ? Answer. Yes, sir; many a man just fell dead Answer. In Henry County, West-Tennessee. walking around, or trying to keep himself warm, Question. From there where were you caror, as he was lying on the floor, died during the ried ? night; and if you looked out of a window, a sen- / Answer. From there they marched us on foot, tinel would shoot you. They shot some five or some three hundred and fifty odd miles, to Desix of our boys who were looking out. Some of catur. our boys would work for the guards to get more Question. What were you given to eat ? to eat, just to keep them from starving. There Answer. Sometimes for twenty-four or thirty would be pieces of cobs in our bread, left there hours we would have a little piece of beef and by the grinding machine, half as long as my some corn-bread. finger, and the bread itself looked just as if you Question. Were you a well man when you had taken a parcel of dough and let it bake in were taken prisoner ? the sun. It was all full of cracks where it had Answer. Yes, sir ; a stout man for a little dried, and the inside was all raw.
man. I was very stout. Question. Were you hungry all the time? | Question. Were you brought to your present
Answer. Hungry! I could eat any thing in condition by want of food ? the world that came before us. Some of the Answer. Yes, sir ; and sleeping in the cold. boys would get boxes from the North, with meat They took my money and clothes and every thing of different kinds in them, and, after they had else away from me, even my pocket-comb and picked the meat off, they would throw the bones knife, and my finger-ring that my sister gave me. away into the spit-boxes, and we would pick the They were taken away when I was captured. bones out of the spit-boxes, and gnaw them over [The witness, who was so weak that he could again.
I not raise his head, appeared to be so much exhausted by talking that the Committee refrained about twenty sticks of wood, and in order to from further examination. As they were moving cut that up we would have to pay a man for away from his bed, he spoke up and said: “I the use of an axe by giving him a piece of the am better now than when I came here. I have stick for splitting up the rest. We lay right some strength now. I hope I shall get better, on the ground in the snow. Twenty of us tofor I want to see my old father and mother once gether would lay with our feet so close to the more."]
fire that the soles of our boots would be all drawn,
and we would get up in the morning all shiverJames Sweeney, sworn and examined. ing, and I could not eat what little food I did By Mr. Gooch:
get. Question. Where did you reside when you en Question. What is the cause of your sickness? listed ?
Answer. Just the food we got there, and this Answer. Haverhill, Massachusetts.
exposure. Eating this corn-bread continually Question. To what company and regiment do gave me the diarrhea. We would get thirsty, you belong?
and drink that river-water. We had little bits Answer. Company E, Seventeenth Massachu of beef sometimes ; generally it was tough, more setts.
like a piece of india-rubber you would rub penQuestion. When were you taken prisoner ? cil-marks out with. What little food we did get Answer. First of February.
was so bad we could not eat it. At first, for Question. Where?
five or six days, we could eat it pretty well, but Answer. Six miles from Newbern, North-Car- afterward I could not eat it. olina.
| Question. Have you been brought to your Question. Where were you then carried ? present condition by your treatment there? Answer. To Richmond.
Answer. Yes, sir; by the want of proper food, Question. How were you treated after you and exposure to the cold ? were taken prisoner ?
Answer. We had no breakfast that day. We John C. Burcham, sworn and examined. started out early in the morning-the One Hun- By Mr. Julian. dred and Thirty-second New-York was with us— Question. Where did you enlist, and in what without any thing to eat. We had nothing to regiment ? eat all that day, and they made us sleep out all Answer. I enlisted in Indianapolis, in the that night without any thing to eat. It rained Seventy-fifth Indiana regiment, Colonel Robinthat night; then they marched us the next day son. thirty miles, to Kingston, without any thing to Question. When were you taken prisoner, and cat, except it was, about twelve o'clock, one of where? the regular captains, who had some crackers in Answer. I was taken prisoner at Chickamauga, his haversack, gave us about one each, and some on the twentieth of September. of the boys managed to get an ear of corn from Question. Where were you carried then ? the wagons, but the rest of them were pushed Answer. The next day they took us to Atlanback by the guns of the guard ; then we were ta, and then on to Richmond. kept in the streets of Kingston until about nine Question. What prison were you put in ? o'clock, when we had a little pork and three bar- Answer. I was on Belle Isle five or six days rels of crackers for about two hundred of us. I and nights, and then they put me in a prison got three or four crackers. Then they put us in over in town. freight cars that they had carried hogs in, all Question. How did they treat you there? filthy and dirty, and we were nearly frozen by Answer. Rough, rough, rough. the time we got to Goldsborough ; and near Question. What did they give you to eat? Weldon they camped us in a field all day long, Answer. A small bit of bread and a little like a spectacle for the people to look at, and piece of meat; black beans full of worms. Somewhen we got to Richmond they put us in a com- times meat pretty good; sometimes the meat mon for a while, and then we were taken to was so rotten that you could smell it as soon as prison. About eleven o'clock that day they you got it in the house. We were used rough, brought us some corn-bread. They gave me I can tell you. about three quarters of a small loaf, and a dip- Question. Did they leave you your property ? per of hard black beans with worms in them. Answer. They took every thing we had before We were kept there all night. If we went ever we got to Richmond; my hat, blankets, near the window, bullets were fired at us. Two knife. We did not do very well until we got or three hundred men lay on the floor. I was some blankets from our Government; afterward kept between three and four weeks on Belle Isle. we did better. Before that we slept right on the Question. How was it for food there?
floor, with nothing over us except a little old Answer. That night they gave us a piece of blanket one of us had. corn-bread about an inch thick, two or three Question. What was their manner toward you? inches long. Some nights we would have a couple Answer. I call it pretty rough. If a man did of spoonfuls, may be, of raw rice or raw beans; not walk just right up to the mark, they were other nights they would not give us that. A down on him, and not a man of us dared to put squad of one hundred men of us would have his head out of the window, for he would be
shot if he did. Several were shot just for despatch from Richmond to have the body sent that.
there? Question. What is the cause of your sickness?! Answer. All the information I got about the
Answer. Nothing but exposure and the kind despatch was from Dr. Walker, who said they of food we had there. I was a tolerably stout were going to take the body to Richmond, and man before I got into their hands; after that I bury it where no one could find it. was starved nearly to death..
Question. Did Colonel Dahlgren make any
speech or read any papers to his command ? Daniel Gentis, sworn and examined."
Answer. No, sir; not that I ever heard of. By the Chairman :
They questioned me a great deal about that. Question. What State are you from?
The colonel of the Ninth Virginia cavalry quesAnswer. Indiana.
tioned me about it. I told him just all I knew Question. When did you enlist, and in what about it. I told him I had heard no papers read, company and regiment ?
nor any thing else. Answer. I enlisted on the sixth of August, Question. Did you ever hear any of your fel. , 1861, in company I, Second New-York regiment low-soldiers say they ever heard any such thing
Question. Where were you taken prisoner? at all.
Answer. I was taken prisoner at Stevensville, Answer. No, sir; and when I started I had Virginia ; I was there with Colonel Dahlgren, on no idea where I was going. Kilpatrick's expedition.
Question. Were you in prison at Richmond ? Question. Were you taken prisoner at the Answer. I was there for four days, but I same time that Colonel Dahlgren was killed ? was at Dr. Walker's pretty nearly a month and
Answer. I was there when he was killed, but a half. I was taken prisoner the next morning.
Question. During the four days you were in Question. What do you know about the man- prison did you see any of our other soldiers in ner of his death, and the treatment his body prison there? received ?
Answer. Yes, sir. Answer. He was shot within a foot and a half Question. How did they fare? or two feet of me. I got wounded that same Answer. We all fared pretty rough on cornnight. The next morning I was taken prisoner, bread and beans. Those who were in my ward and as we came along we saw his body, with his are here now sick in bed. clothes all off. He was entirely naked, and he Question. How happened it that you fell into was put into a hole and covered up.
the hands of Dr. Walker particularly? Question. Buried naked in that way?
Answer. The way it came about was this : In Answer. Yes, sir ; no coffin at all. Afterward the morning I asked some officers of the reghis body was taken up and carried to a slue and ular regiment for a doctor to dress my wound. washed off, and then sent off to Richmond. A One of the doctors there said he could not do despatch came from Richmond for his body, and it. I spoke to a lieutenant, and asked him to be it was sent there.
kind enough to get some doctor to dress it, and Question. It has been said they cut off his he got this Dr. Walker. The doctor asked me finger?
to go to his house, and stay there if I would. Answer. Yes, sir; his little finger was cut off, I told him “certainly I would go.". The coland his ring taken off.
onel of the rebel regiment said that the doctor By Mr. Odell:
could take me there, and I staid until Captain Question. How do you know there was a ring Magruder came up there and told Dr. Walker on his finger?
that I had to be sent to Richmond. Answer. I saw the fellow who had it, and Question. Where were you wounded ? who said he took it off. When they took his Answer. In the knee. body to a slue and washed it off, they put on [At this point the Committee concluded to it a shirt and drawers, and then put it in a box examine no more of the patients in the hospital, and sent it to Richmond.
as most of them were too weak to be examined Question. How far was that from Richmond ? without becoming too much exhausted, and be
Answer. It was about forty miles from Rich- cause the testimony of all amounted to about the mond, and about ten miles from West-Point. same thing. They therefore confined the rest of
Question. How were you treated yourself ? their investigation to the testimony of the sur
Answer. I fared first-rate. I staid at the geons in charge, and other persons attending house of a Dr. Walker, of Virginia, and Dr. upon the patients.] Walker told me that a private of the Ninth Virginia cavalry took off Colonel Dahlgren's artificial Surgeon B. A. Van Derkieft, sworn and exam. leg, and that General Ewell, I think it was, or ined. some General in the Southern army who had By the Chairman: but one leg, gave the private two thousand dol- Question. Are you in the service of the United lars for it, (confederate currency.) I saw the States; and if so, in what capacity ? private who took it, and saw him have the leg. Answer. I am a Surgeon of volunteers in the By the Chairman :
United States service; in charge of Hospital Di. Question. How do you know they received a vision Number One, known as the Naval Hos
pital, Annapolis, and have been here since the ter. We have men here now who say that for first of June, 1863.
five or six months they have been compelled to Question. State what you know in regard to lie on the sand. I have no doubt about the the condition of our exchanged or paroled pris- correctness of their statements, for the condition oners who have been brought here, and also of their skins shows the statements to be true. your opportunities to know that condition ? Their joints are calloused, and they have cal
Answer. Since I have been here I think that louses on their backs, and some have even had from five to six thousand paroled prisoners have the bones break through the skin. There is one been treated in this hospital as patients. They instance in particular that I would mention. One have generally come here in a very destitute and man died in the hospital there one hour before feeble condition; many of them so low that they the transfer of prisoners was made, and, as an die the very day they arrive here.
act of humanity, the surgeon in charge of the Question. What is the character of their com- hospital allowed the friends of this man to take plaints generally, and what does that character him on board the vessel in order to have him indicate as to the cause ?,
buried among his friends. This man was brought Answer. Generally they are suffering from here right from the Richinond hospital. He was debility and chronic diarrhea, the result, I have so much covered with vermin and so dirty that no doubt, of exposure, privations, hardship, and we were not afraid to make the statement that ill-treatment.
the man had not been washed for six months. Question. In what respect would hardship and Now, as a material circumstance to prove that ill-treatment superinduce the complaints most these men have been badly fed, I will state that prevalent among these paroled prisoners ? we must be very careful in feeding them when
Answer. These men, having been very much they arrive here, for a very light diet is too much exposed, and not having had nourishment enough for them at first. to sustain their strength, are consequently pre- Question. You have accompanied us as we disposed to be attacked by such diseases as have examined some of the patients in the hospidiarrhæa, fever, scurvy, and all catarrhal affec- tal to-day. Do their statements to us, under tions, which, perhaps, in the beginning are very oath, correspond with the statements which they slight, but, on account of want of necessary made when they first arrived here? care, produce, after a while, a very serious dis- Answer. They are quite they same; there is ease. For instance, a man exposed to the cold no difference. Every man makes the same statemay have a little bronchitis, or perhaps a little ment, and we therefore believe it to be true. All inflammation of the lungs, which, under good say the same in regard to rations, treatment, extreatment, would be easily cured—would be con- posure, and privations. Once in a while I have sidered of no importance whatever ; but being found a man who pretended to have been treated continually exposed, and not having the neces- very well, but by examining closely I find that sary food, the complaint is transformed, after a such men are not very good Union men. time, into a very severe disease.
Question. You say that about six thousand Question. Is it your opinion, as a physician, paroled prisoners have come under your superthat the complaints of our returned prisoners vision and treatment ? are superinduced by want of proper food, or Answer. Yes, sir. food of sufficient quantity, and from exposure ? Question. State generally what their condition Answer. Yes, sir.
has been. Question. What is the general character of the Answer. Very bad, indeed. I cannot find statements our prisoners have made to you in terms sufficient to express what their condition regard to their treatment ?
was. I cannot state it properly. Answer. They complained of want of food, of Question. You have already stated that, as a bad food, and a want of clothing. Very often, general thing, they have been destitute of cloththough not always, they are robbed, when taken ing ? prisoners, of all the good clothes they have on. Answer. Yes, sir; dirty, filthy, covered with There is no doubt about that, for men have often vermin, dying. At one time we received three arrived here with nothing but their pants and hundred and sixty patients in one day, and fourshirts on; no coat, overcoat, no cap, no shoes or teen died within twelve hours; and there were stockings, and some of them without having had six bodies of those who had died on board the any opportunities to wash themselves for weeks transport that brought them up here. and months, so that when they arrive here, the Question. What appeared to be the complaint scurf on their skin is one eighth of an inch thick ; of which they died ? and we have had several cases of men who have Answer. Very extreme debility, the result of been shot for the slightest offence. There is a starvation and exposure — the same as the very man now here who at one time put his hand out weak man you saw here, [L. H. Parham.] of the privy, which was nothing but a window Question. We have observed some very emacim the wall, to steady himself and keep himself ated men here, perfect skeletons, nothing but from falling, and he was shot, and we have been skin and bone. In your opinion, as a physician, obliged to amputate his arm since he arrived here. what has reduced these men to that condition ? These men complain that they have had no shell Answer. Nothing but starvation and exposure.
Question. Can you tell the proportion of the suffering from hospital gangrene, which is the men who have died to the number that have result of not having their wounds dressed in lately arrived from Richmond ?
time, and having too many crowded in the same Answer. If time is allowed me, I can send the apartment. We have had men here whose statement to the Committee.
wounds have been so long neglected that they Question. Do so, if you please.
have had maggots in them by the hundred. Answer. I will do so. I will say that some of these men who have stated they were well treat- Acting Assistant Surgeon J. H. Longenecker, ed, I have found out to have been very bad to sworn and examined. the Union men.
By Mr. Gooch: Question. Are those men you have just men Question. What is your position in the United tioned as having been well treated an exception States service ? to the general rule ?
Answer. Acting Assistant Surgeon. Answer. Yes, sir; a very striking exception. Question. How long have you been stationed
Question. Have you ever been in charge of con- here? federate prisoners ?
Answer. Since the twenty-seventh of July, Answer. Yes, sir.
1863. Question. State the course of treatment of our Question. Will you state what has been the authorities toward them.
condition of our paroled prisoners, received here Answer. We have never made the slightest from the rebels, during the time you have been difference between our own men and confederate stationed here? prisoners when their sick and wounded have Answer. As a general thing, they have been been in our hands.
very much debilitated, emaciated, and suffering. Question. You have treated both the same ? from disease, such as diarrhea, scurvy, lung dis
Answer. Yes, sir. When any one of their eases, etc. men, wounded or sick, has been a patient in our Question. In your opinion, as a physician, by hands, we have treated him the same as we do what have these diseases been produced ? our own men.
Answer. By exposure and want of proper By Mr. Julian :
food, I think. Question. Have their sick and wounded been Question. Are you able to form any opinion, kept separate from ours, or have they been kept from the condition of these men, as to the quantogether ?
tity and quality of food which they have reAnswer. In Washington they were kept sepa-ceived ? rate, but at Antietam, where an hospital was es- Answer. From their appearance and condition, tablished, in order to have the patients treated I judge the quality must have been very bad, and where they were injured, the Union and confed- the quantity very small, not sufficient to preserve erate patients were treated together and alike. the health. At Hagerstown almost every body is secesh. Question. We have seen and examined several Well, the most I can say is, that some of the se- patients here this morning, who are but mere cesh ladies there came to me and stated that they skeletons. They have stated to us, as you are were very glad to see that we treated their men aware, that their suffering arose wholly from the same as ours.
the want of proper food and clothing. In your Question. It is sometimes said, by the rebel opinion, as a medical man, are these statements newspapers, at least, that they have given the true ? same rations to our prisoners that they give to Answer. I believe that these statements are their own soldiers. Now, I want to ask you, as correct. We have had some men who look very a medical man, if it is possible, with the amount well. How they managed to preserve their of food that our prisoners have had, for men to health I am not able to say ; but, as a general retain their health and vigor, and perform active thing, the men we receive here are very much service in the field ?
debilitated, apparently from exposure, and want Answer. I do not believe that the rebels could of sufficient food to keep up life and health. fight as well, or make such marches as they have Question. Are you acquainted with the case of done, upon such small rations as our prisoners Howard Leedom? have received.
Answer. Yes, sir; I am. Question. Can the health of men be preserved Question. Will you state about that case ? upon such rations as they have given our pris- Answer. I did not see the patient until recentoners ?
Ily, when he was placed in my charge. I found Answer. No, sir; it cannot, not only on ac- him with all his toes gone from one foot in consecount of quantity, but quality. I have seen quence of exposure. He has suffered from pneusome specimens of their rations brought here by monia also, produced by exposure, and there our paroled prisoners, and I know what they are. have been very many cases of pneumonia here,
Question. As a general rule, what is the effect produced by the same cause, many of whom of treating men in that way?
have died; and we have held post-mortem examAnswer. Just what we hear every day — men inations upon many of them, and found ulcers dying from starvation and debility. Many of upon their intestines, some of them being ulcer. these men — mostly all the wounded men —arelated the whole length of their bowels.