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EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, " THE 1960 ASSOCIATION."
outer works, and by the time I reached the field, CHARLESTON, Nov. 10, 1860.
at ten o'clock, A.M., had forced the enemy to In September last several gentlemen of
their main fortifications, situated on the bluff or Charleston met to confer in reference to the po
bank of the Mississippi River, at the mouth of sition of the South in the event of the accession of Mr. Lincoln and the Republican party to The fort is an earthwork, crescent-shaped: is power. This informal meeting was the origin leicht fast in
eight feet in height and four feet across the top, of the organization known in this community as
surrounded by a ditch six feet deep and twelve “ The 1860 Association."
feet in width; walls sloping to the ditch, but The objects of the Association are:
perpendicular inside; it was garrisoned by 1. To conduct a correspondence with leading
with leading four hundred troops, with six pieces of field-armen in the South, and, by an interchange of
tillery. A deep ravine surrounds the Fort, and information and views, prepare the slave States
from the Fort to the ravine the ground descends to meet the impending crisis.
rapidly. 2. To prepare, print, and distribute in the Assuming command. I ordered General Chal. slave States tracts, pamphlets, etc., designed to mers to advance his line, and gain position on awaken them to a conviction of their danger, I the slope, when our men would be perfectly proand to urge the necessity of resisting Northern tected from the heavy fire of artillery and musand Federal aggression.
ketry, as the enemy could not depress their 3. To inquire into the defences of the State,
te pieces so as to rake the slope, nor could they and to collect and arrange information which
fire on them with small arms, except by mountmay aid the Legislature to establish promptly ling the breastworks and exposing themselves to an effective military organization.
the fire of our sharp-shooters, who, under cover To effect these objects, a brief and simple con
pie con- of stumps and logs, forced them to keep down stitution was adopted, creating a President, a linside the works. Secretary and Treasurer, and an Executive Com-|
After several hours' hard fighting, the desired mittee, specially charged with conducting the position was gained, not, however, without conbusiness of the Association. One hundred and
red and siderable loss. Our main line was now within sixty-six thousand pamphlets have been pub
an average distance of one hundred yards from lished, and demands for further supplies are re.
the Fort, and extended from Coal Creek, on the ceived from every quarter. The Association is right, to the bluff or bank of the Mississippi now passing several of them through a second River, on the left. and third edition.
| During the entire morning the gunboat kept The Conventions in several of the Southern
up a continuous fire in all directions, but withStates will soon be elected. The North is pre
out effect, and, being confident of my ability to paring to soothe and conciliate the South by dis- take the Fort by assault, and desiring to prevent claimers and overtures. The success of this further loss of life I sent
further loss of life, I sent, under flag of truce, a policy would be disastrous to the cause of South-demo
demand for the unconditional surrender of the ern union and independence, and it is necessary
garrison, a copy of which is hereto appended, to resist and defeat it. The Association is pre
marked No. 1, to which I received a reply, paring pamphlets with this special object. Funds
marked No. 2. are necessary to enable it to act promptly. “The The gunboat had ceased firing, but the smoke 1860 Association" is laboring for the South, and of three other boats ascending the river was in asks your aid.
view, the foremost boat apparently crowded with I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
troops, and believing the request for an hour ROBERT N. GOURDIN,
was to gain time for reenforcements to arrive, Chairman of the Executive Committee.
and that the desire to consult the officers of the
gunboat was a pretext by which they desired Doc. 139.
improperly to communicate with her, I at once
sent the reply, copy of which is numbered 3, THE FORT PILLOW MASSACRE. directing Captain Goodwin, Assistant AdjutantREPORT OF GENERAL FORREST.*
General of Brigadier-General Chaliners, to reHEADQUARTERS FORREST'S CAVALRY DEPARTMEN
main until he received a reply, or until the expirJackson, TENX., April 26, 1864.
ation of the time proposed. COLONEL: I have the honor respectfully to for- | My dispositions had all been made, and my ward you the following report of my engagement troops were in a position that would enable me with the enemy on the twelfth instant, at Fort to take the Fort with less loss than to have withPillow :
drawn under fire, and it seemed to me so perMy command consisted of McCullock's bri- fectly apparent to the garrison that such was the gade of Chalmers's division, and Bell's brigade case, that I deemed their surrender without furof Buford's division, both placed, for the expedi-ther bloodshed a certainty. tion, under command of Brigadier-General James After some little delay, seeing a message de A. Chalmers, who, by a forced march, drove in livered to Captain Goodwin, I rode up myself to the enemy's pickets, gained possession of the where the notes were received and delivered.
The answer was handed me, written in pencil, • See Document 1, page 1, anto.
on a slip of paper without envelope, and was, as
well as I remember, in these words: “Negotia- almost decimated garrison. Fortunately for those tions will not attain the desired object.” As the who survived this short but desperate struggle, officers who were in charge of the Federal flag some of our men cut off the halyards, and the of truce had expressed a doubt as to my pre- United States flag floating from a tall mast in the sence, and had pronounced the demand a trick, centre of the Fort, came down; the forces stationed I handed them back a note, saying: “I am Gen- in the rear of the fort could see the flag, but eral Forrest. Go back and say to Major Booth were too far under the bluff to see the Fort, and that I demand an answer in plain, unmistakable when the flag descended they ceased firing; but English: Will he fight or surrender ?" Return- for this, so near were they to the enemy, that ing to my original position, before the expiration few, if any, would have survived unhurt another of twenty minutes I received a reply, copy of volley. As it was, many rushed into the river which is marked No. 4.
and were drowned, and the actual loss of life While these negotiations were pending, the will, perhaps, never be known, as there were steamers from below were rapidly approaching quite a number of refugee citizens in the Fort, the Fort; the foremost was the Olive Branch, many of whom were drowned and several killed whose position and movements indicated her in- in the retreat from the Fort. tention to land. A few shots fired into her In less than twenty minutes from the time the caused her to leave the shore and make for the bugles sounded the charge, firing had ceased, and opposite ono. Other boats passed up on the bar the work was done. side of the river; the third one turned back. | One of the Parrott guns was turned on the gun
The time having expired, I directed Brigadier- boat. She steamed off without replying. She General Chalmers to prepare for the assault. had, as I afterward understood, expended all Bell's brigade occupied the right, with his ex- her ammunition, and was, therefore, powerless in treme right resting on Coal Creek. McCullock's affording the Federal garrison the aid and protecbrigade occupied the left, extending from the tion they doubtless expected of her, when they centre to the river. Three companies of his left retreated toward the river. regiment were placed in an old rifle-pit on the left Details were made, consisting of the captured and almost in the rear of the Fort, which had Federals and negroes in charge of their own of evidently been thrown up for the protection ficers, to collect together and bury their dead, of sharp-shooters or riflemen in supporting the which work continued until dark. water-batteries below. On the right, a portion I also directed Captain Anderson to procure a of Barton's regiment of Bell's brigade, was also skiff and take with him Captain Young, a capunder the bluff and in the rear of the Fort. tured Federal officer, and deliver to Captain Mar
I despatched staff-officers to Colonels Ball and shall, of the gunboat, the message-copy of which McCullock, commanding brigades, to say to them is appended, and numbered 5. that I should watch with interest the conduct of All the boats and skiffs having been taken off the troops ; that Missourians, Mississippians, and by citizens escaping from the Fort during the enTennesseans surrounded the works, and I desired gagement, the message could not be delivered, alto see who would first scathe the Fort. Fear- though every effort was made to induce Capbain ing the gunboat and transport might attempt a Marshall to send his boat ashore by raising a landing, I directed my aid-de-camp, Captain white flag, with which Captain Young walked up Charles W. Anderson, to assume command of and down the river, in vain, signalling her to the three companies on the left and rear of the come in, or send out a boat. She finally moved Fort, and hold the position against any thing that off, and disappeared around the bend above the might come by land or water, but to take no part Fort. in the assault on the Fort.
General Gilmore withdrew his forces from the Every thing being ready, the bugle sounded the Fort before dark, and camped a few miles east of charge, which was made with a yell, and the it. On the morning of the thirteenth, I again works carried, without a perceptible halt in any despatched Captain Anderson to Fort Pillow, for part of the line. As our troops mounted and the purpose of placing, if possible, the Federal poured into the fortifications, the enemy retreat-wounded on board their transports, and report ed toward the river, arms in hand, and firing to me, on his return, the condition of affairs at back, and their colors flying-no doubt expect the river. I respectfully refer you to his report, ing the gunboats to shell us away from the bluff numbered 6. and protect them, until they could be taken off My loss in the engagement was twenty killed or reệnforced.
and sixty wounded. That of the enemy unAs they descended the bank an enfilading and known ; two hundred and twenty-eight were deadly fire was poured into them, by the troops buried on the evening of the battle, and quite & under Captain Anderson on the left, and Barton's number were buried the next day by detail from detachment on the right. Until this fire was the gunboat fleet. We captured six pieces of opened upon them, at a distance varying from artillery, namely, two ten-pounder Parrott guns, thirty to one hundred yards, they were evidently two twelve-pounder howitzers, and two brass ignorant of any force having gained their rear. six-pounder guns, and about three hundred and The regiments which had stormed and carried fifty stand of small-arms. The balance of the the Fort, also poured a destructive fire into the small-arms had been thrown into the river. All rear of the retreating and now panic-stricken and I the small-arms were picked up where the enemy
threw them down-a few in the Fort, the balance of the twenty-second of February, 1864, with the scattered from the top of the hill to the water's Eighty-fourth Illinois, Colonel Waters, Seventyedge.
fifth Illinois, Colonel Bennett, Thirty-sixth In. We captured one hundred and sixty-four Fed- diana, Lieutenant-Colonel Carey, Thirtieth Inerals, seventy-three negro troops and about forty diana, Lieutenant-Colonel Hind, Eightieth Illinegro women and children, and after removing nois, Lieutenant-Colonel Kilgour, and Twentyevery thing of value, as far as able to do so, the Fourth Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel Cockerill, with warehouses, tents, etc., were destroyed by fire. battery H, Fourth U. S. artillery, Lieutenant
Among our severely wounded is Lieutenant- Heilman; effective force, officers and men, inColonel Wiley M. Reid, assigned temporarily to cluding battery, one thousand seven hundred and the command of the Fifth Mississippi regiment, ninety-six. who fell, severely wounded, while leading his My brigade having the advance, and the Thir. regiment. When carried from the field he was ty-sixth Indiana marching in front, we marched supposed to be mortally wounded, but hopes are toward Red Clay, or “ Council-Ground," on the entertained of his ultimate recovery. He is a Georgia State-line, a distance of eight miles ; arbrave and gallant officer, a courteous gentleman, rived there at half-past twelve P.M. I was there and a consistent Christian minister.
ordered by the General commanding the diviI cannot compliment too highly the conduct sion, to move on the road toward Dalton, and, if of Colonels Bell and McCullock and the officers possible, find the enemy. I advanced three miles and men of their brigades, which composed the to Wade's farm, and found the enemy's pickets, forces of Brigadier-General Chalmers. They drove them, and directed Captain Van Antwerp, fought with courage and intrepidity, and, with with his company of Fourth Michigan cavalry, to out bayonets, assaulted and carried one of the pursue them, which he did promptly, one and a strongest fortifications in the country.
half miles. Upon the cavalry rejoining the bri. On the fifteenth, at Brownsville, I received gade, we returned to Red Clay and rested for the orders which rendered it necessary to send Gen- night. eral Chalmers, in command of his own division February 23d. Marched with the division via and Bell's brigade, southward. Hence, I have | Dr. Lee's house twelve miles, to near Catoosa no official report from him, but will, as soon as Springs, Georgia, to make a junction with Fourit can be obtained, forward a complete list of our teenth corps ; arrived there about nine o'clock P.m. killed and wounded, which has been ordered to February 24th. Marched back east to Dr. Lee's be made out and forwarded at the earliest pos- house, with division. I was here directed to sible moment.
move south-east toward Dalton, crossing the ridge In closing my report I desire to acknowledge three miles north of the place known as Tunnel the prompt and energetic action of Brigadier- Hill, with my infantry and one section of artilGeneral Chalmers, commanding the forces around lery, the latter under command of Lieutenant Fort Pillow. His faithful execution of all move- Stansbury. I passed the first and second ridges ments necessary to the successful accomplish- to a road running south on the eastern base of ment of the objects of the expedition, entitles the latter, along the road to Neil's farm, six him to special mention. He has reason to be miles from Dalton. At this point I made a juncproud of the conduct of, the officers and men of tion with Colonel Long, in command of six hunhis command, for their gallantry and courage in dred cavalry. He was in position, and skirmishassaulting and carrying the enemy's works, with: ing with the enemy. He had left Charleston, out the assistance of artillery or bayonets. Tennessee, passed around on Spring-Place road,
To my staff, as heretofore, my acknowledg- thence west by Varnell's Station to the position ments are due, for their prompt and faithful de- at which I found him. Neil's farm is six miles livery of all orders.
north-west of Dalton, and three miles north of I am, Colonel, very respectfully, your obedient the Chattanooga and Dalton Railroad. We both servant,
N. B. FORREST, advanced on the wagon-road south, toward GlaMajor-General Commanding. ze's house, at the railroad. The ridge to our
right at this place, (Neil's house,) soon changes
to south-east, and continues that direction until Doc. 140.
it passes beyond Davis's house, at the western
base of the ridge, at which point the road crosses OPERATIONS AROUND DALTON, GA. to the west side of the ridge. Five hundred yards COLONEL GROSE'S REPORT,
beyond, and south-east from the passage of the
road over a ridge, a gorge separates the ridge, FIRST DIVISION, FOURTH ARMY CORPS,
through which a creek flows to the west, south BLUE SPRINGS, Tens., February 29, 1864. I lof which the ridge bears to the west of south one Major W. H. Sinclair, A.A.G. First Division: and a fourth miles to the railroad, at a point three
SIR: I have the honor to report the part taken miles north of west from Dalton, and at a point by this brigade in the recent seven days before one and a half miles east of the gorge through Dalton.
Rocky-Face Ridge, or Buzzard's Roost, forming I was ordered by the Division Commander, and a valley east of Rocky Face Ridge about one and marched to take part in the reconnoissance to a half miles wide, running from Davis's house vard the enemy from this place, on the morning south to the railroad a like distance. We stead.
HEADQUARTERS THIRD BRIGADE,
ily advanced, Colonel Long taking the lead; drove more than started before the skirmishers became the enemy from all the ridge north of the creek. closely engaged in all the woodland covering the Upon entering the valley, Colonel Long's com- ridge. The advance was steady and rapid, clearmand passed to the right, along the base of the ing the enemy from the ridge as we went. When ridge, to the west. The Eighty-fourth and Sev- my lines had reached the creek at the gorge, and enty-fifth Illinois infantry were moved forward beyond Davis's house in the valley, the skirmish. in the valley on the left of the cavalry, covering ers well advanced beyond, a staff-officer rode up the slope of the eastern ridge with skirmishers, and informed me that General Palmer desired me thrown forward and to the left to cover the ridge to have halted on the ridge. I immediately haltand flank of the line. The Twenty-fourth Ohio ed where we were. We remained in this posiwas thrown forward in rear of the cavalry to sup- tion during the afternoon, having heavy skirmishport them. In this form we pressed the enemy ing and artillery practice in the mean time, the to within three hundred yards of the railroad, enemy occupying the ridge and valley south of the command of Colonel Long driving the rebel the creek that I had possession of the day before. infantry out of their camps immediately at the With ten thousand more men on our left, Dalton, road. We continued in this position, skirmish- no doubt, would have fallen an easy prey to our ing in front, for some time, when lines of the en-arms. At night, the object of the reconnoissance emy's infantry commenced an advance upon us. being ended, we were ordered, and, with the diA few well-directed rounds from the section of vision, retired to Dr. Lee's farm, on the west of artillery, with the aid of a heavy skirmish-line, the Tunnel Hill range of ridges, and three miles brought them to a halt and put them under cov- north of that place. er. It was now near night, and learning from February 26th. At about nine o'clock A.M., I prisoners that Stewart's rebel division was in our moved my command south-east one mile, on to front, and Stevenson's near by, and not know the ridge two miles north of the Tunnel, threw ing that it was possible to have any assistance out some skirmishers on the eastern slope, met during the night, at dusk I withdrew the forces, some rebel cavalry that were attempting to fol. leaving the cavalry and Eightieth Illinois infantry low us, and drove them out of sight and hearing. at Neil's farm, and retired the residue to widow In the evening, moved down south-west into the Burk's house, reported the facts, and rested for valley at Israel's house; rested until nine o'clock the night.
P.M. Was ordered and marched westward to the February 25th. At early day Brigadier-General Stone Church, near Catoosa Platform, and rested Cruft, division commander, promptly came up the balance of the night. with the other two brigades, and by his orders February 27th. Started at twelve o'clock u., all moved forward to Neil's farm, the enemy hav- and marched to Ewing's farm, north nine miles, ing reoccupied the ridge where the road passes and camped for the night. over toward Davis's house, and for near a mile to February 28th. Marched at seven o'clock a.m. the north. Our lines were soon formed, my bri- Arrived in camp at this place at twelve o'clock m. gade on the ridge to the right, covering the sum- Command in good condition. mit and extending well over the western slope; I can with pleasure refer to the prompt and the Thirtieth Indiana, Seventy-fifth and Eightieth willing coöperation and obedience of the officers Illinois in the front line, from right to left, in the and men of my command during this short camorder I have named them ; the Eighty-fourth paign, and I regard myself as truly fortunate, in Illinois, Twenty-fourth Ohio, and Thirty-sixth being surrounded by first-class officers, both of Indiana in the second line. The Second brigade, infantry and artillery, and braver soldiers never Colonel Champion, formed on my left, Colonel went upon a battle-field. Long's cavalry extending his left, the other bri- My staff-officers and non-commissioned staff gade, Colonel Dickerman, in reserve. It was now have alike my kindest regards for their efficient about nine A.M. Major-General Palmer appeared aid and assistance during the dangers and faon the field, and wished to see me. I reported tigues. to him in front on the skirmish-line. After con- The following shows the casualties of the brisultation, the General informed me that we would gade while on the reconnoissance : not advance until General Baird's division should Colonel J. E. Bennett, Seventy-fifth Illinois. arrive in the valley to my right. About eleven Wounded, one commissioned officer, six enlisted o'clock all was ready and I sounded the forward, men; missing, one commissioned officer; total, and the whole line moved off in splendid order. two commissioned officers, six enlisted men; agI rode with Colonel Bennett, Seventy-fifth Illi- gregate, eight. nois, whose battalion was the battalion of direc- Lieutenant-Colonel W. M. Kilgour, Eightieth tion. Was upon the summit of the ridge, with Illinois.—Wounded, four enlisted men, total, good opportunities to observe well the movements four enlisted men ; aggregate, four. and grandeur of the scene, to the right and left Colonel L. H. Waters, Eighty-fourth Illinois.of the long blue lines moving to battle. A more Wounded, three enlisted men; total, three en. grand sight my eye has never beheld. The di- listed men; aggregate, three. rection was left oblique, to keep the bearing of Lieutenant-Colonel 0. D. Hurd, Thirtieth In. the ridge, my artillery following the lines closely, diana.- Missing, three enlisted men; total, three and bearing past at every halt. We had not enlisted men; aggregate, three.