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hundred thousand dollars in gold changed hands--the exact position and probable strength of the in the space of a few minutes, to the profit of army of North-Virginia. Uncle Sam and his handy mariners. The main Had the weather been more propitious, the chance being secure, the romance can be dis- operations of the reconnoitring party would unpensed with. But to the record.
doubtedly have been more extended. But, as it On the fifth of February, as the Cumberland is, enough has been ascertained to justify even was making the best of her way toward Mobile, the sacrifice of the heroic spirits, who, having her captain and passengers felicitating themselves passed unscathed through a hundred leaden on the speedy termination of a prosperous run, storms, were destined here to fall martyrs to the with large profits looming up in perspective, a great rebellion. Two hundred and fifty in killed, check was suddenly put to their gayety by the wounded, and missing, will cover our total loss, appearance of the much-dreaded enemy. At the of which ten per cent will correctly indicate our time she was sighted from the deck of the De killed and mortally wounded Soto, about half-past eight o'clock in the morn- As the principal fighting was done by General ing, the Cumberland was in twenty-nine degrees Warren, I will first give a detailed account of the forty minutes north latitude, and eighty-seven operations of the Second corps. The Second degrees thirty minutes west latitude. On sight-corps, under the command of Brigadier-General ing her the De Soto immediately gave chase, and Cauldwell, General Warren being temporarily was soon running at the rate of twelve and a indisposed, left camp at seven o'clock on Saturhalf knots, gaining on the Cumberland (which day morning, taking the road leading to Morthe stranger was known to be) very fast, al-ton's Ford. The men were supplied with three though she had been reported as a fifteen-knot days' rations, as were all the troops engaged in vessel. At twenty minutes past ten the Cum- the reconnoissance. berland was under the guns of the De Soto, from The corps reached the cavalry reserve within which a boat was hoisted to board the prize. half a mile of the Rapidan, at ten o'clock A.M., Captain Blakeney, commanding the Cumberland, when a consultation between Generals Cauldtogether with her officers and crew, were then well, Webb, and Hayes, commanding respectively transferred to the De Soto, when a prize crew of the First, Second, and Third divisions, was held, twenty-seven men and two engineers, command- and a crossing of the river decided upon. Bried by Acting Master Partridge, were sent from gadier-General Hayes, commanding the Third the cruiser to the Cumberland, and she was division, was directed to lead the advance, which brought into this port under convoy of the De he did in person, fording the river waist-deep, on Soto, as already mentioned.
foot, at the head of General J. T. Owen's Third The cargo of the Cumberland is a well-assorted brigade. The rebel sharp-shooters, in rifle-pits, one, and very valuable. Among other things on the other side, kept up a galling fire, while a found on board, were one hundred barrels of battery, stationed on the hills to the right, and a gunpowder and a large number of Enfield rifles. mile beyond the ford, hotly shelled the advanc. She has also in her hold a very large quantity ing column. of fine gray rebel uniform cloth, and bales upon Captain Arnold, in command of battery A, bales of superior navy blue, besides an immense First Rhode Island artillery, and which has so number of ready-made rebel uniforms, boots and often been mentioned in connection with the Seshoes-in short, every thing necessary for the cond corps, was at this time placed in position outfit of both sea and land forces. I have it on on a bluff several hundred yards from the river good authority that the cargo cost seventy thou- on the north side, and did excellent service in sand pounds in gold, in England; that the ship responding to the enemy's guns, which were was sold there for fifty thousand pounds, and mainly directed against the fording party. The that ten thousand pounds more were expended fire of the enemy was unusually wild, and but on her in Havana. The cargo has not yet been few casualties occurred in General Owen's bridisturbed, and it is therefore impossible to tell gade. whether there are any cannon in the hold, and On reaching the south bank of the river, a the captain and passengers, of course, keep dark charge was made on the rebel rifle-pits, and on the subject; although, as the captain was en-twenty-eight men and an officer captured. A gaged only in Havana, and most of the passen- few of the prisoners regarded their situation gers are from that place, it is just possible that when taken with indifference, and the majority they know nothing about the matter.
seemed inclined to rejoice rather than weep at the fate which had befallen them. The prisoners
taken were members of Virginia, Georgia, and Doc. 104.
Mississippi regiments. The brigade was posted
in line of battle to the left and half a mile beCROSSING OF THE RAPIDAN. yond the ford, under the shelter of several crests
HEAQUARTERS ARMY OF THE Poromao, of hills, the fire of several rebel guns being still
Monday, February 8, 1864. } directed upon them from the heights above the The heavy reconnoissance sent out to the ford. Rapidan on Friday evening and Saturday morn- The Thirty-ninth and One Hundred and Twening last, returned to camp last night, having, it is ty-sixth New-York were then deployed as skirasserted, accomplished the object of its mission mishers nearly at right angles with the river, with orders to force back the enemy as far as possi- ing Inspector-General of the division, had the ble. Sharp skirmishing then ensued, the enemy's top of his hat blown away by a shell during the line gradually retiring before our skirmishers. engagement. The right wing of the skirmish-line was com- General Kilpatrick, accompanied by battery C, manded by Colonel Bull, of the One Hundred Third artillery, Lieutenant Kelly, left camp at and Twenty-sixth, and the left by Lieutenant- seven o'clock A.M. on Saturday morning, and, Colonel Baird, of the same regiment, and here it after several feints, crossed at Culpeper Mine is but just to state that the latter officer won the Ford, where six rebel pickets belonging to Hamphighest commendation from General Hayes and ton's Legion were found posted. On crossing, other general officers for an exhibition of gal-detachments were sent out to scour the country lantry seldom witnessed on the battle-field. in every direction. Colonel Alger, commanding
Colonel Bull, it will be remembered, was dis- the Fifth Michigan, was sent on the macadamized missed for misbehavior in presence of the enemy pike to Robertson's Tavern; while General Kilat the surrender of Harper's Ferry. Assured of patrick, with the main body, proceeded down the his innocence of the charge of cowardice, he was Fredericksburgh plank-road to the vicinity of afterward reinstated by the President, and by Chancellorsville, meeting no infantry force, and the Governor of his State promoted from Major but small parties of cavalry, who fell back before to Lieutenant-Colonel—the position which he now his advance. holds in his old regiment. Those of his regi. In accordance with instructions, he returned ment instrumental in his dismissal, are now to the vicinity of Culpeper Ford on Saturday ready to testify to his merit as a gallant soldier. night, to await further orders, and was there diAt twelve m., Colonel Carroll, commanding the rected to return to camp, which he did the next First brigade of General Hayes's division, crossed day. On recrossing, Major White, with one batto the support of the Third, and at five p.m., Col- talion, was sent up the river, for the purpose of onel Powers, Second brigade, followed.
capturing any pickets which might be stationed The position occupied by Colonel Powers's at the upper fords. He recrossed the river at brigade being an exposed one, his command suf- Jacob's Mills, where four or five videttes were fered more than any other. It was nearly dusk taken prisoners. when the brigade mentioned got into position, General Kilpatrick's reconnoissance concluand at this time the heaviest fighting occurred. sively proves that no force of the enemy occupies The Thirty-ninth and One Hundred and Twenty- the country east of Mine Run. The small parties sixth New-York, having occupied the picket-line of cavalry all belonged to Hampton's Legion, all day, were relieved by the Fourteenth Con- which is stationed at Fredericksburgh. More necticut, which suffered more severely than any than half the videttes have no horses, are selother regiment engaged during the day.
dom relieved, and are sometimes obliged to walk Some little disorder at one time occurred on twenty-three miles to their post of duty. The the right of the skirmish-line, but it was almost rebels are represented as being engaged in reinstantly checked by the officers in command. planking the road from Chancellorsville to Orange The fight continued fiercely until half an hour Court-House, and are laying out several new after dusk, when the cannonading and musketry roads through the wilderness. ceased, and all was quiet except occasional shots Twelve or fifteen prisoners were captured by from the sharp-shooters. At half-past eight P.M. General Kilpatrick, and he returned to his camp General Webb's Second division was ordered to yesterday evening, without having lost a man ford the river to support the Third.
during his reconnoissance. At cavalry headquarAt midnight, General Warren, who had come ters last night, no special details of General Merdown to the front in the afternoon, received or- rill's operations had been received, except that he ders to recross his troops, which he did in good had been to Madison Court-House, and that he order and without being molested by the enemy. was, at the time his courier was despatched on One division of the Third corps-the Second - Saturday night, at Barnett's Ford. He had enmarched on Saturday afternoon to the support of countered no considerable force of the enemy, General Warren ; but their services were not and had met with no losses. needed.
The First corps, General Newton, left its camp General Alexander Hayes, commanding the on the night of Friday, fifth instant, and proThird division of the Second corps, whose reck-ceeded to the vicinity of Raccoon Ford. The less daring on many a battle-field has excited the corps, which was afterward followed by two diastonishment and admiration of his troops, met visions of the Third, encamped two miles from the with a narrow escape while on the other side of river ; but no important demonstrations against the river.
the enemy were made. A rebel bullet pierced his trowsers, burying Warren's movements on the left seem to have itself in his saddle, without, however, inflicting drawn the main body of the enemy to Morton's a wound. Above the flag of his division is a Ford; while at Raccoon Ford but comparatively white silk streamer, presented to him by mem | a small body was observable on the opposite bank bers of his command, bearing the words : “My of the river. Our total loss is covered by two God, my country, and General Hayes." The in- hundred, but a small proportion being among scription is indorsed by "the boys," among whom the killed. Nearly one hundred rebel prisoners he is a great favorite. Captain J. C. Lynch, Act-'were sent to headquarters this morning.
VOL. VIII.-Doc. 29
GENERAL OWEN'S OFFICIAL REPORT. Colonel Bull, were handled by their commanders
Second Corps, February 8, 1864. 3 I am indebted to Captain Joseph Hyde and LieuI have the honor to report that on Saturday, tenant P. C. Rogers, of my staff, for their prompt the sixth instant, at seven o'clock, I marched my and intelligent conveyance of my orders to differcommand in the direction of Morton's Ford, in ent portions of the line. accordance with orders received about three hours I am, sir, with great respect, your obedient previous to that time. I arrived at the headquar- servant,
JOSHUA T. OWEN, ters of the cavalry reserve within half a mile of
Brigadier-General Volunteers. the ford, at ten o'clock A.m., and halted. At Lieutenant Join S. SULLIVAN, thirty-five minutes past ten, I received orders to
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General. cross the river, which I succeeded in doing, and pushed the enemy back about half a mile; and then, under orders not to press the enemy too
Doc. 105. hard, but to skirmish with him, if he appeared so disposed, I halted my advance, and made my
THE NEGROES IN MISSOURI. disposition to hold the favorable ground which I
AN ORDER BY GENERAL ROSECRANS. had taken.
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE MISSOORI, I In a short time, the enemy began to concen
St. Louis, Tuesday, March 1, 1864. trate troops in my immediate front, and to ad- | I. Missouri, for the coming year, needs all the vance a stronger line of skirmishers. I commu- slave and other labor she has within her own nicated this fact to corps headquarters, through border. Humanity, as well as justice, forbids the signal officer, and asked for reënforcements. sending away to other States our helpless slaves. At ten minutes past three P.M., Colonels Carroll Moreover, bad men have been engaged in steal. and Powers reported to me, by order of General ing and carrying negroes out of the State, and Hayes, and I massed their brigades (First and selling even those who were free. The exportaSecond, of the Third division) under cover from tion of negroes from Missouri is therefore prothe enemy's fire, and in a position whence they hibited. Nevertheless, the interests of the servcould be readily deployed to the right or left, as ice demand that all able-bodied slaves, fit for circumstances might require. The enemy kept military duty in this department, be received to up a vigorous fire of small-arms during the day, fill up the quotas of the various districts requirand, at intervals, a heavy artillery fire from a ed by the draft. Every one is therefore interestbattery in position on his left. Fresh troopsed in having them promptly enlisted. were arriving continuously, and in great haste. II. All officers acting under orders of the At twenty minutes past five P.M., the enemy Provost-Marshal General, and all commanders of opened with a heavy fire from his batteries, and troops in this department, will see that this orshortly afterward advanced and attacked vigor- der is obeyed within their respective districts or ously our right and right centre; but it was commands, and will promptly arrest all who atfutile, as, under the personal supervision of the tempt to violate it, and send them to their district General commanding the division, the enemy was headquarters for trial and punishment for violamet and repulsed at all points.
tion of military orders. At fifty minutes past seven P.M., I was order-/ III. Officers enlisting slaves will be careful to ed to hold myself ready to recross the river, take none unfit for service; but when they take which I did at half-past eleven. All the troops a slave recruit, the master must receive the debehaved well. I am satisfied with the Third bri- scriptive list specified in paragraph fifth, General gade. It will do its duty, and never disgrace the Orders, No. 135, of November fourth, 1863, from Second corps.
these headquarters, evidencing this claim on the , The passage of the river, under the enemy's Government; and the result is thenceforth under fire, I consider as worthy of special notice, and I the charge of the United States, and if found specially mention the good conduct and gallant unfit for service on a final examination, is entitled bearing of my Adjutant-General, Captain Robert to a discharge and his freedom. S. Seabury, who was the first to cross the river
By command of Major-General ROSECRANS. at the head of the three hundred picked skirmish-1 o. D. GREENE, ers, and to drive the enemy back from the rifle Assistant Adjutant-General. pits, capturing twenty-seven men and two officers.
My loss was two officers wounded, and three men killed and thirty-three wounded, which is
Doc. 106. remarkably light under the circumstances; and
TREATMENT OF UNION PRISONERS. I believe that the enemy suffered much more severely.
REPORT OF COLONEL STREIGHT. The Thirty-ninth New-York volunteers, Lieu
WILLARD'S HOTEL, WASHINGTON, D. C., tenant-Colonel Hughes; the One Hundred and
March 2, 1864. Eleventh New-York Volunteers, Colonel Luck; Hon. F. W. Kellogg, House Committee on Vili. the One Hundred and Twenty-fifth New-York tary Affairs : volunteers, Colonel Crandell; and the One Hun- DEAR SIR : Agreeably to your request, I have dred and Twenty-sixth New-York volunteers, the honor to report the following facts in relation to the treatment of our officers and men by money, after expressly agreeing to deliver it, is the rebel authorities.
an act of perfidy that beggars description. It is impossible for me to give you an account I have repeatedly called the attention of the of all the acts of barbarity, inhumanity, and bad rebel authorities to the terms of my surrender, faith I have witnessed during my captivity, but and demanded that its provisions be complied I will endeavor to mention such instances as will with ; but General Winder, commandant of the give you as correct an idea of the true condition prisoners, took from me the stipulations signed of our men as possible.
by General Forrest, which he still retains, and On the third day of May last, near Rome, refuses to be governed by its provisions. My Georgia, my command having become so reduced officers, together with something near one thouby hard fighting and marching, during the seven sand other United States officers, are confined in days previous, that it was evident to me that we a large warehouse building, with an average (about one thousand five hundred officers and space of about twenty-five square feet to each men) would fall into the hands of the enemy, man. This includes all room for washing, cookand, after holding a council of war with my regi. (ing, eating, sleeping, and exercising. They have mental commanders, it was decided to capitulate, no bunks, chairs, or seats of any kind furnished and thus secure the best terms possible for the them, consequently they both sit and sleep on command as a condition of surrender. In ac- the floor. The windows of the building were encordance with this decision I met the rebel com- tirely open until about the middle of December mander, General Forrest, under a flag of truce, last, when pieces of canvas were furnished for when a stipulation was entered into between him the purpose of closing them to keep the cold and myself, whereby it was agreed that my com-out; but, as this would leave us in the dark, we mand should surrender as prisoners of war, on were compelled to leave a portion of them open the following conditions, to wit:
and endure the cold. 1. Each regiment should be permitted to re- Many of the officers were entirely destitute of tain its colors.
| blankets until our Government sent a quantity 2. The officers were to retain their side-arms. to us in the fore part of the winter. The supply
3. Both officers and men were to retain their of blankets is now exhausted, and officers who haversacks, knapsacks, and blankets; and all have been captured during the last six weeks private property of every description was to be have none furnished them. respected and retained by the owner.
The rations furnished both officers and men The above terms were in a measure respected by the rebels consist of about one pound of corn while we remained with General Forrest; but no bread, made from unbolted meal, and one fourth sooner were we turned over to the rebel author- of a pound of poor fresh meat per day. The ities than a system of robbing commenced, which meat has been issued to the prisoners but about soon relieved us of every thing valuable in our half the time since the first of December last. In possession. The blankets, haversacks, and knap- addition to the rations of bread and meat, as sacks were taken from my men at Atlanta. They above stated, the prisoners draw about two were also robbed of nearly all their money, and quarts of rice to one hundred men. There is a most of them lost their overcoats at the above- sufficient quantity of salt furnished, and a very named place. Here, too, the colors and side- small quantity of vinegar. I will here remark arms were taken from us. My men were turned that in a few instances, say six or eight times at into an inclosure without shelter of any kind, most, a small quantity of sweet potatoes has destitute of blankets and overcoats, as I have been issued instead of the rations of meat. before stated, and kept under guard for four The above is the sum total of the rations isdays, during which time a most disagreeable sued to our officers and men now prisoners of cold storm prevailed; after which they were war. sent forward to Richmond and soon exchanged. The condition of our unfortunate enlisted men,
My officers were sent to Richmond after a stay now in the hands of the enemy, is much worse of about ten days in Atlanta. On our arrival at than that of the officers. From early in May the rebel capital, we were all searched separately, last, when I arrived in Richmond, to about the and all moneys found in our possession were first of December, all the enlisted men were taken from us. For a few days thereafter we taken to what is called Belle Island, and turned were allowed to draw small sums of our money into an inclosure, like so many cattle in a slaughfor the purpose of purchasing food. But this ter-pen. Very few of them had tents, or shelter privilege was soon denied us.
of any kind, and the few tents furnished were so I then asked and obtained permission from the poor and leaky as to render them but little betrebel authorities for the officers to send home forter than none. money, clothing, and provisions. The clothing All the prisoners are taken to Libby when and provisions were generally delivered to the they first arrive in Richmond, for the purpose of parties ordering them, providing the package or counting them and enrolling their names; con. box containing them was not broken open and sequently I had a fair chance to see their condirified of its contents before it reached its destina- tion when they arrived. Fully one half of the tion, which was frequently the case; but in no prisoners taken since May last were robbed by case within my knowledge has the money been their captors of their shoes, and nearly all were delivered to the owner. The retention of this robbed of their overcoats, blankets, and haversacks. At least one third of them had been com- volunteers, was thrown into one of these cells pelled to trade their pants and blouses for mere and kept there for forty-eight hours, without rags that would scarcely hide their nakedness. any thing to eat or drink during the time. He Very many of them were entirely bareheaded, was not allowed any blankets nor his overcoat. and not a few, as late as the middle of December, The weather was very damp and cold, and he, at were brought in who had nothing on but a pair that time, was suffering from a most severe of old ragged pants and a shirt, being bareheaded, wound in the hip. barefooted, and without a blouse, overcoat, or. On the night of the nineteenth of December I blanket.
received a communication, purporting to come I have seen hundreds of our men taken to the from one in authority, stating that for one hunhospitals thus clad, and in a dying condition, Idred dollars in greenbacks, and two silver have frequently visited the hospital, and have watches, myself and friend would be permitted conversed with large numbers of dying men, to pass the guard. Some days previous to this, brought there from the Island, who assured me one of my officers succeeded in making his esthat they had been compelled to lie out in the cape in this way, and although I was not withopen air, without any medical attendance, though out apprehension that it was a trap, nevertheless for several days they had been unable to walk. I resolved to try the experiment. Accordingly, Though destitute of any thing like quarters, and Captain B. C. G. Reed, of the Third Ohio, and nearly naked during the cold, stormy, and chilly myself, went to the designated place at the apfall season, the first and chief complaint of all I pointed hour, where we were assured it was all saw and talked with was on account of an in- right. We complied with the terms and passed sufficiency of food. I will here remark that in out, but no sooner were we outside the guard no instance have the rebel authorities furnished lines, than Lieutenant La Touche, the Adjutant clothing or blankets to our men. During the of the prison, and seven men, sprang out from a winter large numbers of our men were frozen. I concealed place and commenced firing upon us heard one of the rebel surgeons in charge say before halting us. that there were over twenty of our men who We were unarmed, and could do nothing but would have to suffer amputation from the effects surrender. We were taken back to the prison, of the frost. This was before the coldest weather put in irons, and thrown into one of these filthy had commenced.
holes called cells, where we were kept for three Some time in the fore part of December a por- weeks on bread and water. The weather was tion of our men were removed from the Island very cold during the time, and we nearly perishto some large buildings, where they were more ed. There was a large amount of filth in the comfortably quartered, but there has been no cell which I could not induce them to remove, time since May last but what more or less men nor could I get them to permit me to remove it. have been kept on the Island, in the open air, I asked for paper, pen, and ink, to write to the and without blankets or overcoats. It is a com- rebel authorities. I also asked for a box to sit mon thing for the rebels to keep our men for on, of which there was a large number in the several days without food. This was particularly cells. But every thing was denied me. At the the case with a portion of the Gettysburgh pri- time I was taken to the cell, there were six of oners. Some went as long as six days without our men confined in one of these cells for atfood, and were compelled to march during the tempting to escape. They had been there for six time. The officers captured at Chickamauga as- days without blankets, and two of them were sure me that they and their men were robbed of very sick. They were released at the end of every thing. Many of them lost their coats, hats, seven days of their confinement. and boots as soon as captured, and then were I might continue to enumerate instances of a nearly starved and frozen.
similar character, but these will answer to give I trust you will pardon me for the tedious you an idea of what is daily taking place. I canlength of this communication. If you will bear not describe to you the loathsome filthiness of with me, I will only call your attention to a few these cells. They are infested with an innumerof the outrages practised on our officers and men able number of rats and mice, and they have no in the prison discipline. Under the building mark of having been cleaned since they were known as Libby Prison is a large cellar, in which built. It is needless for me to say that no man they have several cells partitioned off. Several can survive a long confinement in a place of this of them are without any light, but some have kind; and although I am acquainted with several windows below the pavement. These cells are persons who have been confined there, I do not used for the purpose of confining securely such know one who can now be called a well man. of the prisoners as the authorities may fear will! As I have before remarked, it is impossible for attempt to escape, as well as such who may me to enumerate in this communication but a chance to offend some one of the many petty few of the many acts of barbarity which have officials and prison attachés.
come under my notice, though I have endeavored Some of our unfortunate men are continually to give you a sample of such as will enable you confined in these filthy holes on one pretext or to form a correct conclusion relative to the treatanother. It is the uniform practice to feed any ment our unfortunate men are receiving at the and all persons sent to these cells on bread and hands of the inhuman people with whom we are water only. Lieutenant Reed, of the Third Ohiol now at war. They seem lost to every principle