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Sec. 11. That all treasury notes heretofore lished in general orders, for the information of issued of the denomination of five dollars shall the army and navy. continue to be receivable in payment of public Sec. 17. The forty-second section of the act dues, as provided by law, and fundable at par for the assessment and collection of taxes, apunder the provisions of this act, until the first proved May first, 1863, is hereby repealed. of July, 1864, east, and until the first of Oc- Sec. 18. The Secretary of the Treasury is heretober, 1864, west of the Mississippi River; but by authorized and required, upon the application after that time they shall be subject to a tax of of the holder of any call certificate, which, by thirty-three and a third cents on every dollar the first section of the act to provide for the promised on the face thereof; said tax to attach funding and further issue of treasury notes, to said notes wherever circulated, and said notes approved March twenty-third, 1863, was requir. to be fundable and exchangeable for new treas-ed to be hereafter deemed to be a bond, to issue ury notes, as herein provided, subject to the de- to such holder a bond therefor, upon the terms duction of said tax.
provided by said act. Sec. 12. That any State holding treasury Approved February seventeenth, 1864. notes, received before the times herein fixed for
S. COOPER, taxing said notes, shall be allowed until the first
Adjutant and Inspector-General. day of January, 1865, to fund the same in six per cent bonds of the confederate States, payable twenty years after date, and the interest
Doc. 98. payable semi-annually. But all treasury notes received by any State after the time fixed for
VALUABLE SUGGESTIONS taxing the same, as aforesaid, shall be held to have been received, diminished by the amount ADDRESSED TO THE SOLDIERS OF THE CONFEDERATE of said tax. The discrimination between the
STATES. notes subject to the tax and those not so subject
BY REV. A. B. LONGSTREET, LL.D. shall be left to the good faith of each State, and the certificate of the Governor thereof shall in
CHAPTER I. each case be conclusive.
I do not know that the attempt has ever been Sec. 13. That treasury notes heretofore is made to improve soldiers by an address to their sued, bearing interest at the rate of seven dollars reason and understanding. I propose to try the and thirty cents on the hundred dollars per an experiment, beginning with the new recruits. num, shall no longer be received in payment of It has grown into a proverb that “one hundred public dues, but shall be deemed and considered regulars will whip four hundred raw troops." bonds of the confederate States, payable two! The history of all wars proves this to be sub. years after the ratification of a treaty of peace stantially true. And yet, the hundred and four with the United States, bearing the rate of in- hundred are made up of the same material. How terest specified on their face, payable the first happens it that there is such a disparity between of January in each and every year.
them? Can mere drilling make one man bolder Sec. 14. That the Secretary of the Treasury than another ? Impossible, as is proved by the be and he is hereby authorized, in case the ex. fact, that when brought into battle for the first igencies of the Government should require it, to time they are all alike-all equally alarmed and all pay the demand of any public creditor, whose equally apt to run. But the regulars soon be debt may be contracted after the passage of this come accustomed to battle, and nothing gives us act, willing to receive the same in a certificate of alarm to which we are accustomed. They soon indebtedness, to be issued by said Secretary in discover, too, that the roar of cannon and the such form as he may deem proper, payable two bursting of bombs, which terrify them so much years after a ratification of a treaty of peace with in the first battle, are the most harmless of all the United States, bearing interest at the rate of implements of warfare brought into the field. six per cent per annum, payable semi-annually, They are better than raw troops simply because and transferable only by special indorsement, they have got over the fears of raw troops. If, under regulations to be prescribed by the Secre- therefore, it were possible for new recruits to entary of the Treasury; and said certificate shall gage in their first battle with the coolness and be exempt from taxation in principal and in- self-possession of veterans, they would be equal terest.
to veterans. Is this impossible ? Certainly not; Sec. 15. The Secretary of the Treasury is au- for most of the troops with which Bonaparte thorized to increase the number of depositories, fought the battle of Waterloo were new levies, so as to meet the requirements of this act, and and they fought as gallantly as the best on the with that view to employ such of the banks of field. This they did from confidence in their the several States as he may deem expedient. General. They, doubtless, felt all the alarms com
Sec. 16. The Secretary of the Treasury shall mon to troops engaging in battle for the first time, forthwith advertise this act in such newspapers but they did not yield to their fears. And to this published in the several States, and by such point it seems to me any raw troops may bring other means as shall secure immediate publi- themselves by the force of reason alone, especially city; and the Secretary of War and the Secre- when assisted a little by experienced officers. tary of the Navy shall each cause it to be pub- Let each man go into the battle-field with this
VOI. VIII.—Doc. 28
of reflections : "I shall be frightened of become a hero upon the same principle. I am course. At what? Why, at the danger to which aware of the military dogma that men, to become my life is exposed. Well, now, what is really good soldiers, must first become mere machines. the extent of the danger ? In the most sanguin. If this be true, then it were better for us (policy ary battle, not one fifth of the combatants are aside) to make up our armies of stout, able-bodied killed or wounded. The chances are, therefore, negroes, inured to toil, than of their high-minded, five to one that I shall not be hurt. The pro- chivalrous, but more feeble masters. At the portion of the slightly and recoverably wounded opening of the war, our armies were composed is to the killed and mortally wounded as five is mainly of troops of the latter class—men of scito one. The chances are, therefore, five to one, ence, men of wealth, men of the learned profesthat if touched at all, I shall not be mortally sions, Congressmen, legislators, professors, and wounded. The cannon are the common engines students-all accustomed to a life of comparative which unnerve men. Now, of the whole number ease. There was little drilling of them, or time for of killed in battle, not more than one in one hun-drilling them, before they were engaged in a series dred are killed by cannon.* A hundred to one, of battles. The conscript laws filled our ranks therefore, that those noisy bellowers do not hurt with men from all grades of society, and of all me. The alternative is presented to me to stand descriptions of character - in the main, hardmy ground in spite of my fears, or to run. Now, working, strong-muscled, able-bodied men, acin which is the most danger? Why, surely in customed to hard living and constant fatigue. running; for, as a general rule, of a given num- They have been long in the machine factory, long ber, more men are killed in flight than in fight. enough to have every attribute of humanity drillWhile I stand my ground, I am all the time de- ed out of them. Has this class proved themselves stroying, weakening, and disheartening the ene- to be better soldiers than the other? Have they my, and encouraging my companions in arms. fought better? Have they gained any more vicVictory, therefore, is likely to insure my safety. tories? Have they endured any more hardships, But in running, I may be killed by the very and with more patience? Let the advocates of men whom I would have disabled had I stood machinery answer these questions. firm. I weaken our forces, throw the battle upon The dogma which I have been considering is a reduced number, expose them to increased la- not only false, but is in the highest degree misbors and losses, become then an object of their chievous. If scientific war be but a conflict of batred and contempt, dispirit them and invigor- | machines, it necessarily follows that the power ate the foe, not only for this battle, but for all which has the greatest number of machines must future battles. The regulars show that battles in the end be victorious. How is it possible for lose their terrors when we become used to them; nine millions of population-six, we may sayhow am I ever to become used to them by run to bring into the field as many men as can twenning? If I save my life by it, I increase the dan-ty-three millions? And yet we seem to be trying ger of being made prisoner a hundred-fold. Fear the hopeless experiment. Every body is to be or no fear, then, I will fight as long as the regu- called to arms. In reason's name, I ask, Why? lars fight.”
We have plenty of men enrolled to whip all the Now, in all this, I put love of country, Yankee Yankees in the field at this time, if our men will insolence, and brutality entirely out of the ques- but fight as they did at the beginning of the war! tion ; for with panic-stricken troops, carrying in Did we lose the battle of Mission Ridge from their bosoms no antidote for their fears or moral want of men ? No, but from derangement of our remedy for their natural defects, these considera- machinery. And why should that defeat run us tions are utterly worthless, as has been most la- all crazy? I see nothing alarming in it. One of mentably proven in our last great battle. The the bitter fruits of the dogma in question is that remedy is found in the foregoing train of reflec-officers who subscribe to it will take no pains to tions. They cannot make brave men of cowards; inspire their men with courage, self-confidence, they cannot prevent fears on the battle-field ; but and high-toned patriotism, but will treat them they surely ought to make the coward and the pretty much as they would so many prize-fighttimid fight manfully in spite of their infirmities. ers. Away with the false, demoralizing dogma! Officers should impress them on the minds of Soldiers, you are moral agents; do for yourselves, their new recruits; and as such men fight well then, what I would do for you, if I could. Nerve under a general in whom they have confidence, yourselves up by your own mental energies to they should always, if practicable, be attached to deeds of noble daring and unflinching valor, the brigade, division or corps in whose generals though your enemy be three to your one. they have the most confidence. Lord Wellington is reported to have said that by nature he
CHAPTER II. was a great coward, but that his pride of character, self-respect, and love of country predominated My first chapter was addressed to raw recruits. over his fears. The consequence was, that he It was not designed to dissipate their fears in became the hero of heroes. I see no reason why battle, for no counsel can do this ; but to teach every soldier in the confederate army might not them to be good soldiers in spite of their fears
to show them that if they will consult their own I state this upon the authority of a brigadier-general of personal safety, they will fight in fear rather than many battles, who has turned his attention to this matter on the field.
run from fear. I now address the soldiers generally. Much that I have said to the first class rior numbers, when possessed of superior valor. is equally applicable to this.
Let the renegades remember this, and retrieve Men who engage in battle expecting to be their credit by fighting gallantly in their next whipped, are very certain to be whipped. The battle. reason is plain; they fight without object and There are other considerations which it seems without spirit-their thoughts more occupied in to me should divest numbers of their terrors to finding apologies for running than the achieve- reflecting troops ; at least so far as to raise them ment of victory. Now, I can conceive of but above cowardly conduct. these four things which can induce a rational be- These truths all will admit; the more men in ing to expect defeat in battle :
the army, the more unwieldy and sluggish does 1st. Superiority in numbers opposed to him. it become, the more difficult is it to make them 2d. Superiority in arms.
effective in action, the more on the sick-list, the 3d. Superiority in valor.
more killed by a given number of shots, the more 4th. Superiority in generalship.
transportation and provisions do they require, Let us consider these matters in their order : and the more unlikely that they will have a com
1. Superiority in Numbers. This is the bug- mander capable of directing their movements skilbear that made cowards of us for thirty years fully and usefully. These are most serious drawbefore we seceded, which seems to have turned backs to a large army, especially when far away the heads of half the nation, civil and military, from home. They will, of themselves, exhaust within the last two months, and which seems it in time. A small army, then, has every advan. likely to make us destroy ourselves to keep the tage of a large one, except in the single matter Yankees from destroying us.
of numbers. They are more immediately under I have already bestowed a few remarks upon the eye of their commander, more readily conthis head; let us consider it a little more in de-centrated, more prompt in reaching the points of tail. To give the instances in which brave men attack, lose fewer in battle, and in retreat (orderconquered twice and thrice their numbers would ly retreat I mean) are absolutely unapproachable be to write a book. Take a few cases from our by their cumbersome foe. These facts are of own history. At Big Bethel one thousand three themselves sufficient to account for the many hundred confederates put to confusion and flight victories which inferior numbers have gained over four thousand Federals. At the battle of Black- superior. Let us suppose that Grant commands burn's Ford (Bull Run) one brigade whipped twice a hundred thousand men, and Johnston but fifty its number. At the first battle of Manassas thir- thousand. There are twenty positions between ty-eight thousand completely routed seventy-five Dalton and Atlanta which Johnston may occupy, thousand. It is said the Yankees fight better now with the certainty of whipping Grant, if his men than they did then; and that the Western Federals will fight bravely. (It is to be hoped he has exfight better than the Eastern. This may be true, amined all these positions.) Should he be driven but it would be a harmless truth if we did not from one of these positions after hard fighting, fight worse. We whipped Western troops at his losses, compared with those of the enemy, will Chickainauga, and we would have whipped them be about as one to five. And so of all the other again at Mission Ridge if a brigade or more of our positions. But there is one view of the subject men had not played the coward.
which should quiet all fears of the soldier on the Even in the rout which these men led off, Cle- score of numbers, and it is this: that it is ab. burne's gallant band arrested the whole Federal solutely impossible for Grant to conquer Johnarmy, when they were probably four to one ston in the case supposed, because it is absolutely against him. This I regard as by far the most impossible for him to force Johnston into a figlit brilliant feat of the war. To have stood his ground upon ground of his own choosing. Upon the whole, would have been creditable to him and his men, then, there is no great cause of alarm to the sol. but in the midst of confusion and flight to have dier in the numbers opposed to him. The Fabian formed his men in an advantageous position, and policy avoids defeat at least. to have maintained it against repeated assaults 2. Superiority in Arms.-Except in artillery, of overwhelming numbers, and to hare defeated I know of no advantage the enemy have of us in them, entitles him to a monument as high as arms—certainly none to be feared. Of artillery Lookout, and to each of his men one as high as I have already spoken, and shown that they are Mission Ridge. I hope he will preserve with pe- the least formidable implements of war of any culiar care the name of every man that stood by that are used. For the destruction of fortificahim in that memorable conflict.*
tions, ships, and towns, cannon are useful; but Here, then, we have an illustration from the for field service they are the most inconvenient, same battle-field, of the difference between run- cumbersome, inefficient, expensive, worthless enning from superior numbers and fighting them gines of war that ever were invented. A man bravely. Cleburne demonstrated, under every told me he had been in six battles, and he had discouragement, that Western troops, even in the never seen a man killed by a cannon or bomb exultation of victory, may be whipped by infe- in his life. Another told me that he had belong
ed to an artillery corps for two years; that in * If the papers speak the truth, according to Brage, Bates and that time they had broken down four teams of his small brigade are entitled to all the credit that I have given to Cleburne and his men. If so, let the names be changed and the honors stand.
| in which he had no reason to believe that they
had killed a single man. They fear cannon, am departing from the subjects proposed for this then, simply because men cease to reason when article. I come now to speak of actual operations they engage in battle, and surrender themselves in the field. to their instinctive impulses.
If ten thousand engage twenty thousand, the 3. Superiority in Valor.--This the Yankees labor of fighting is about equal on both sides. have never shown, and never will show, until the human constitution can only endure a cerour troops become the biggest of fools and the tain amount of labor and fatigue, and at this point meanest of cowards.
the belligerents must stop. All other things be4. Superiority of Generalship. — Certainly ing equal, then, if the ten thousand hold on to there is no cause for fear from this source, as yet. this point, they cannot possibly be conquered;
Reason down your fears then, soldiers; but if and it's a hundred to one, that the twenty thouyou cannot, fight them out.
sand yield the contest before they reach the point
of exhaustion. CHAPTER III.
| Charge of Bayonets.-If the soldier forgets all In all that I have said to you, or mean to say else that I have written or may write, let him to you, I suppose you fight against superior num- not forget what I say upon this head. It has bers. I have endeavored to demonstrate to you been said that in all Bonaparte's battles there that there is not near the danger in meeting su- were but three instances of a fight with bayonets. perior numbers in the field that is generally sup- With these exceptions, whenever he or his adverposed. In a conflict of one thousand against two saries brought the battle to a hand-to-hand fight, thousand, the first of unyielding valor, and the one or the other party invariably gave way. Now second of common soldiery, which is likely to he fought every nation in Europe, and, with one conquer ? Every man in the world will answer : exception, always with inferior numbers. The *. The first.” Is not this an unquestionable truth ? Turks he fought in Egypt and Syria-a barbarous Why, then, will not reasonable beings reduce it people. At Acre, he fought the Turks, assisted to practice in the war? “Because," it will be by the English. I do not remember that his answered, “men cannot screw themselves up to troops ever recoiled from a charge of bayonets. unyielding valor." True, but with a man of Be that as it may, we all know that up to his common-sense, it should require but very little Russian campaign, his battles were little else screwing to do that which will insure him victo- than one unbroken series of victories. I have ry, or no valor. When I was a boy, about thir- inquired of a number of our officers and soldiers teen years of age, my father lived fourteen miles whether they ever witnessed a fight with bayofrom Augusta. On the road to the city, there nets during the war, and I have not found the was one point where a man had been murdered, man who has seen such a thing. And yet I have and another where a woman had been killed, and heard of a hundred, if not five hundred, charges stories were rife in the neighborhood of terrific being made during the war. In all these chargsights seen at these places at night. I do not es, then, one or the other party must have given suppose that a house full of gold could have in- way. Now what is the conclusion from all this? duced me to pass them alone at night. One day Why, that whether you fight with civilized or my father remarked, in my presence: “I never barbarous nations, or with civilized and barbarous allowed my children to be frightened with foolish mixed, with royalists or republicans, with equal stories about ghosts, etc. There is my or unequal numbers, (the disproportion not bewho, if necessary, would go from here to Augus- ing very great) you have only to stand firm in a ta at midnight, with no more fear than I would bayonet-fight, to assure you of victory. There feel at doing so." “Mercy on me!" thought I ; is nothing in war more certain than this. When "how little my father knows of his !" But the the battle, then, comes to a cross of bayonets, remark had a magical effect upon me. It set me whatever may be your alarms, see it through, to thinking of the folly of my fears, the glory I and your triumph is sure. should have in verifying my father's opinion of Charging up to the Cannon's Mouth. - This is me, and the shame that I should feel at his dis- considered the very acme of heroism. Well, now, covering that he had over-estimated me, and I there is not the one tenth part of the danger in it began to entertain a timid desire to prove my that is generally supposed. The reason is plain. heroism. Not long after this I was belated, and Cannon cannot be constantly adjusted to an had to pass one of these places at night, and ever-approaching object. Many of you know alone. I was awfully alarmed as I approached how wildly they shoot, until the gunner, by a the spot, but I determined to go slowly by it. number of experimental shots, “gets the range," When I reached it my fears rapidly subsided; as it is called, even of a stationary object. But "and now," thought I, “ if I can only tell, when that range is lost with every approach of the obI get home, that I stopped and searched for ghosts ject to the cannon. None but the most expert and blue-lights, and listened for groanings, etc., riflemen could hit a squirrel rapidly descending a what an honor it will be for me!" I did so, and tree. Now, the movement of a cannon to hit an thenceforward became a tolerably brave boy. approaching regiment must be like that of the
Now, if such inducements as these could make rifleman's gun, constantly lowering, but with a a timid boy act the hero, why should not love of variable velocity, as the regiment approaches country, the glory of victory, and the shame of more or less rapidly. If the regiment oblique a defeat, make even cowards act the hero? But I little from the first line of approach, the cannon
must undergo two adjustments to hit it: the one “A peaceable dissolution of the Union is someperpendicular, and the other lateral. Now, who times suggested. is competent to make the lubberly thing fulfill “Let us allow that the result could be effected all these conditions ? No man that ever lived or peaceably. ever will live. To keep a cannon sighted upon a “The next thing we should want would be a moving object is difficult enough, but to load and standing army. The John Brown affair cost us fire it, and still keep it on the moving object, is im- three hundred thousand dollars. Make the calpossible. “Marching up to the cannon's mouth,"culation. then, if done quickly, is demonstrably less dan-' “You would maintain a line of posts all along gerous than remaining stationary at exact cannon- your frontier. range.
| “You would also want a navy, though Norfolk A word more and I have done. Possibly, be-only produces a few fishing-smacks, except the fore the war ends, you may get under a general | vessels built there by order of the Government. who may command you to pursue a routed foe. “You would pay a Southern President, with In that event, stop not as long as you can keep all the ordinary government officials. You would your feet. Bear hunger and thirst to the utmost pay a diplomatic corps. point of endurance, rather than stop; and cut “You would have to pay for an independent off your arm sooner than pause to gather booty Senate and House of Representatives, and for a at such a time. The reason is obvious: when new Judiciary. your enemy is in flight, he is impotent, and you “Perhaps you think all this would be readily destroy him without hazard to yourselves. His managed. They tell you you are rich. We teil dispersion is so great that he cannot be brought you, that no purely agricultural people ever was to face you again for months, if ever. His all rich. The wealth of Philadelphia alone is equal falls into your hands. His spirit is broken for to the entire wealth of the State of Virginia. all time. And oh! remember, as we pass along, | “Take the Post-Office alone. The total rethat all these evils, half told, become yours, when ceipts from the post-offices in Virginia for 1857–58, you flee.
were $242,951; the expenditures were $453,Soldiers ! lay to heart the things that I have 848. In South-Carolina, the receipts were $101,written, and reduce them to practice, and our 145; the expenditures were $248,600. In Alaliberty is sure.
| bama, the receipts were $111,092; the expenditures were $248,750. In Mississippi, the receipts
were $88,458; the expenditures were $332,508. Doo. 99.
In Arkansas, the receipts were $35,727; the ex
penditures were $244,589. THE FIRE AND BLOOD OF REVOLUTION.
How is this deficien
cy made up now? Part of it is made up thus : The following was published under the above The receipts in the State of New-York are $1,title in the Charlottesville (Virginia) Revier, in 488,711; the expenditures are $1,154,141. In April, 1861, before Virginia had passed her ordi- Massachusetts, the receipts are $565,633; the nance of secession:
expenditures are $425,237. In most of the North"That is the cue. They propose to give you ern States there is a deficit. But in all the Southa taste of Mr. Yancey's medicines. It will be a ern States the deficit is enormous. The whole nice little operation. Sowing wheat is nothing Northern deficit is some $800,000. The whole to marking time and walking sentry at two o'clock Southern deficit is some $3,000,000. in the night, under a drizzling rain. Shucking “Suppose, however, the civil war disposed of. corn is flat, compared to a charge of bayonets. Suppose the government established. Suppose
“You will also make your arrangements to us with our army, our navy, our fortifications. have your barnyards lit up at night with the fires Suppose us to have survived the shock with some of the revolution. Set your boots at the head of slaves left, and our depreciated lands. What the bed, for at any moment the same fires may then? We belong to a Southern confederacy. be sputtering and crackling on the roof of your | The Cotton States begin an agitation for the redwelling-house.
opening of the slave-trade, or some coolie sysá Glistening bayonets on the south bank of tem. Our remaining negroes are to compete, if the Potomac in front, burning straw-ricks and they succeed in their schemes, with the new burning houses behind you, something worse labor. At all events, we are still to be a section, than that, perhaps, in the shape of death pro- a section as regards the Cotton States, which has duced by invisible and unconfrontable agencies, no trade with the other section. We are still to the State deprived of its labor, those laborers have sectional quarrels. There are still to be escaping by hundreds, or sold at half their value charges and counter-charges, aggressions and in the South, your fields uoploughed, your public counter-aggressions. We have not conquered a works ruined, land depressed to the lowest figure, peace. State stocks, insurance stocks, bank stocks, rail- “We have now two sections to plague us. On road stocks, hawked at a mere song—these would the frontier we have to guard against the North. be the immediate effects of the Fire and Sword ” On the South we have to meet the extreme views which Governor Wise proposes in his speech at of the Gulf States. After a while, perhaps, Vir. Norfolk.
ginia would have lost her slaves, and she, with