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in mass in front of Geary's regiments. At the same time a regiment from Cruft's had been sent around by the bridge to cross the Chickamauga, and, if possible, to gain the heights of the ridge on the south side of the river, the possession of which would give us a plunging fire upon the enemy in the gorge. Two companies had nearly gained the summit when they were recalled. The artillery had opened with marked effect, the enemy's guns were hauled to the rear, his troops seen moving, and before one o'clock he was in full retreat. Williamson's brigade followed him over the mountain, while skirmishers from the Sixtieth and One Hundred and Second New-York regiments pursued him through the gap. Efforts were made to burn the railroad bridges; but the rebels were driven from them, and the fires extinguished.
During the artillery firing the Major-General commanding the division of the Mississippi arrived, and gave directions for the pursuit to be discontinued. Later in the day, soon after three o'clock, I received instructions from him to have a rcconnoissance made in the direction of Tunnel Hill—the enemy's line of retreat—for purposes of observation, and to convey to the enemy the impression that we were still after him. Gross's brigade was despatched on this service. About two miles out he ran upon a small force of rebel cavalry and infantry, and pursued them about a mile and a half, when he fell upon what he supposed to be a division of troops posted on the hills commanding the road. The brigade returned at eight o'clock, and went into bivouac. Colonel Gross's report in this connection closes by saying that "we found broken caissons, wagons, dead and dying men of the enemy strewn along the way to-a horrible extent"
As some misapprehension appears to exist with regard to our losses in this battle, it is proper to observe that the reports of my division commanders exhibit a loss of sixty-five killed and three hundred and seventy-seven wounded, about one half of the latter so severely that it was necessary to have them conveyed to the hospital for proper treatment. They also show of the enemy killed and left on the field one hundred and thirty. Of his wounded we had no means of ascertaining, as only those severely hurt remained behind, and they filled every house by the wayside as far as our troops penetrated. A few of our wounded men fell into the enemy's hands, but were soon retaken. We captured two hundred and thirty prisoners and two flags, to make no mention of the vast amount of property and materiel that fell into our hands. Adding to the number of prisoners and killed as above stated the lowest estimated proportion of woundod to killed usual in battle, would make the losses of the enemy at least three to our one.
From this time the operations of the right wing, as it was now called, became subordinate to those of the column marching to the relief of the garrison at Knoxville. Instructions reached me from the headquarters of the military divi
sion to remain at Ringgold during the twentyninth and thirtieth, unless it should be found practicable to advance toward Dalton without fighting a battle, the object of my remaining, as stated, being to protect Sherman's flank, with authority to attack or move on Dalton should the enemy move up the Dalton and Cleveland road. In retreating, the enemy had halted a portion of his force at Tunnel Hill, midway between Ringgold and Dalton, and, as he evinced no disposition to molest Sherman, my command rested at Ringgold. I was kept fully advised of the rebel movements, through the activity and daring of the Second Kentucky cavalry, which had joined me on the twenty-eighth. In obedience to verbal directions given me by the commander of the division, the railroad was thoroughly destroyed for two miles, inctuding the bridges on each side of Ringgold, by Palmer's and Cruft's commands; also the depot, tannery, all the mills, and all materiel that could be used in the support of an army. We found on our arrival large quantities of forage and flour. What was not required by the wants of the service was either sent to the rear or burned. Our wounded were as promptly and as well cared for as circumstances would permit. Surgeon Moore, Medical Director of the array of the Tennessee, voluntarily left his chief to devote himself to their relief, and under his active, skilful, and humane auspices, and those of the medical directors with the divisions, they were comfortably removed to Chattanooga on the twenty-eighth. My sincere thanks are tendered to all the officers of the medical staff for their zealous and careful attentions to the wounded on this as well as on former fields. Especially are they due to Surgeon Ball, Medical Director of Geary's division, and to Surgeon Menzies, Medical Director of Cruft's division.
On the twenty-ninth, Major-General Palmer returned to Chattanooga with his command, having in charge such prisoners as remained in Ringgold. On the thirtieth, the enemy, being reassured by the cessation of our pursuit, sent a flag of truce to our advanced lines at Catoosa, by Major Calhoun Henham, requesting permission to bury his dead and care for his wounded abandoned on the field of his last disaster at Ringgold. Copies of this correspondence have heretofore been forwarded. Also on the thirtieth, under instructions from department headquarters, Gross's brigade, Cruft's division, marched for the old battle-field at Chickamauga to bury our dead ; and on the first of December, the infantry and cavalry remaining left Ringgold—Geary and Cruft to return to their old camps, and Osterhaus to encamp in Chattanooga valley.
The reports of the commanders exhibit a loss in the campaign, including all the engagements herein reported, in killed, wounded, and missing, of nine hundred and sixty. Inconsiderable in comparison with my apprehension, or the ends accomplished, nevertheless, there is cause for the deepest regret and sorrow. Among the fallen are some of the brightest names of the army. Oreighton and Crane, of the Seventh Ohio; Acton, of the Fortieth Ohio; Bushnell, of the Thirteenth Illinois; Elliott, of the One Hundred and Second NewYork, and others whose names my limits will not allow me to enumerate, will be remembered and lamented as long as courage and patriotism are esteemed as virtues among men.
The reports of commanders also show the capture of six thousand five hundred and fortyseven prisoners, (not including those taken by Palmer at Greysvillo, of which no return has been received;) also seven pieces of artillery, nine battle-flags, not less than ten thousand stand of small arms, one wagon train, and a large amount of ammunition for artillery and infantry, forage, rations, camp and garrison equipage, caissons and limbers, ambulances, and other impediments. The reports relating to the capture of the flags are herewith transmitted.
In the foregoing it has been impossible to furnish more than a general outline of our operations, relying_ upon the reports of subordinate commanders to give particular and discriminating information concerning the services of divisions, brigades, regiments, and batteries. Those reports are herewith respectfully transmitted. The attention of the Major-General commanding is especially invited to those of the division commanders. As to the distinguished services of those commanders I cannot speak in terms too high. They served me, day and night, present or absent, with all the well-directed earnestness and devotion they would have served themselves had they been charged with the responsibilities of the commander. The confidence inspired by their active and generous cooperation early inspired me to feel that complete success was inevitable.
My thanks are due to General Carlin and his brigade for their services on Lookout Mountain on the night of the twenty-fourth. They were posted in an exposed position, and when attacked repelled it with great spirit and success. I must also express my acknowledgments to MajorGeneral Palmer and his command for services rendered while belonging to my column. Lieutenant Avers, of the Signal corps, with his assistants, rendered me valuable aid in his branch of the service during our operations.
Major Reynolds, the Chief of Artillery of Geary's division, proved himself to be a skilful artillerist, and requires especial mention for his services. His batteries were always posted with judgment, and served with marked ability. The precision of his fire at Lookout and Ringgold elicited universal admiration. .
To my staff more than ever am I indebted for the assistance rendered upon this occasion. Major-General Butterfield, Chief of Staff, always useful in counsel, was untiring and devoted on the field. Captain H. W. Perkins, Assistant Adjutant-General, Colonel James D. Fcssenden, Major William H. Lawrence, Captain R. II. Hall, Lieutenants P. A. Oliver, and Samuel VV. Taylor, aids-de-camp, bravely and intelligently performed all their duties.
Lieutenant H. C. Wharton, a promising young officer of engineers, reported to me from the staff of the Major-General commanding the department, and was unwearied in his assistance, both as an engineer and as an officer of my personal staff.
Major-General Howard has furnished me for transmittal his able report of the operations and services of the Eleventh corps from the time it passed my command, November twenty-second, to that of its return, December seventeenth. As it relates to events of which I had no personal knowledge, it only remains to comply with his wishes, with the request that the Major-General commanding the department will give it his especial attention. I may add that the zeal and devotcdness displayed by this corps and its commander, in performing all the duties assigned them, and in cheerfully encountering its perils and privations, afford me great satisfaction.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Headquarter* Armies or The United Statbs, )
Is The Field, Culpbper Court-Iiodhk, Va., y
March 25, 1S64. )
Respectfully forwarded to Major-General II. W.
Ilallech, Washington, D. C.:
I know of no objection to the substituting of this for Major-General Hooker's original report of his operations in the battle of Chattanooga.
Attention is called to that part of the report giving, from the reports of the subordinate commanders, the number of prisoners and small arms captured, which is greater than the number really captured by the whole army.
D. S. Grant,
Lieutenant-General United States Army. GENERAL WM. P. SMITH'S REPORT.
Headquarters Military Division 1
■ Of The Mississippi, V
Nashville, Tksn., January y, ISfri. J
Brigadier-General John A. Rawlins, Chief of
General: I have the honor to submit the following report of engineering operations done with reference to the battle of Chattanooga, November twenty-third, twenty-fourth, and twenty-fifth.
Frequent and careful reconnoissances had dedetermined that Missionary Ridge, from the tunnel to the Chickamauga, was not occupied by the enemy, and that a passage of the river could be forced at the mouth of the Chickamauga. General Grant having determined to attempt the seizure of that portion of the ridge, the preparatory steps were first to put the works at Chattanooga into defensible condition, in order to allow a comparatively small force to hold that place, and thus to bring every available man into the field.
To do this, heavy details were made and kept constantly at work before the battle, so that on Saturday, November twenty-first, the works were all in a condition to defy assault. Second. Bridge material had to be collectod for the bridges and put in convenient position for use.
There was in the department of the Cumberland one regular bridge-train, which was scattered from Bridgeport to Chattanooga; this, by the strenuous exertions of Lieutenant Ceo. W. Dressen, fourth artillery, was collected in the vicinity of Brown's Ferry, by Wednesday, November seventeenth. The two saw-mills in my charge were also run night and day, and a new bridge started, under the superintendence of Captain P. V. Fox, Michigan Engineers. The river at the point designated to throw the bridge, was, at the time of measurement, one thousand two hundred and ninety-six feet in width, and the current gentle, so that no trouble was anticipated in the mechanical part of the operation.
In order to afford facilities for the occupation of the north bank of the creek, and to allow a cavalry force to break the railroad between Knoxville and Dalton, the Chickamauga also required bridging at its mouth. This stream was about one hundred and eighty feet in width, with a sluggish current. The North-Chickamauga, which is a stream emptying into the Tennessee River on the right bank about eight miles above Chattanooga, offered such facilities for launching the boats, that it was determined to put them in the water there and float them down, loaded with soldiers, to the point of crossing, as an operation quicker and more quiet than that of launching them at the place of passage. By Friday night, November twenty-sixth, one hundred and sixteen boats were in the creek, furnished with oars and crews, the creek cleared of snags to its mouth, and all the citizens in the vicinity put under strict guard to prevent the information getting to the enemy.
The boats were taken to the creek over byroads through the woods, and not exposed to view of the rebels in any point of the distance. In the matter of selecting the roads, cleaning the creek, furnishing crews for the boats, and keeping tbe citizens under guard, I must acknowledge my obligations to Colonel Daniel McCook, commanding a brigade posted near the mouth of North-Chickamauga. The rost of the bridgematerial, and boats, (about twenty-five,) packed behind the river ridge of hills, and within four hundred yards of the place of crossing, entirely concealed from the enemy. During this time the Tennessee River, swollen by rains in the upper country, brought down drift-wood in such quantities, and' of such a character, that, on Friday night, or early Saturday morning, tho pontoon-bridge at Chattanooga was carried away, and so much of the material lost that it was impossible to re-lay it. On Saturday night the flying ferry at Chattanooga was disabled, and the pontoon-bridge at Brown's Ferry was so injured that it was not re-laid till Tuesday, November twentieth. This left to us for communication only the steamer Dunbar, at Chattanooga, and a horse ferry-boat at Brown's Ferry. On Monday night, however, the flying ferry was repaired and again in operation. Fortunately, the troops had all been placed in position before the disasters, and the only effort was to lull the enemy into
security under the idea that no attack could b« made with our communication so cut. The fear was, that it would be imposible to throw a bridge across the river for General Sherman's command, or that, if thrown, it could be maintained as long as it was needed. On Monday, November twenty-third, General Thomas moved to the front to reconnoitre, and occupied Indian Hill, with his left on Citico Creek. Captain Merrill and Lieutenant Wharton, of the Engineer corps, were instructed to attend to tho building of bridges across that stream. On Monday night, at twelve M., the boats with the designated brigade left the North-Chickamauga and quietly effected a landing on the left bank of the Tennessee, both above and below the mouth of the South-Chickamauga, and the business of ferrying over troops then began. The rise in the river had increased its width so that wo had not been able to accumulate boats sufficient for th>e bridges across the Tennessee, therefore only one was commenced. Lieutenant Dressen, in charge of the regular pontoon-train, began the construction of this bridge about five o'clock A.m. on the twentyfourth, taking from the ferry the boats of his train as fast as they were needed, and allowing the others to be used in crossing troops. Colonel George P. Bucll, in command of the Pioneer brigade, soon after the boats had landed their first load, deployed his men on the right bank, and went to work vigorously to clean up the ground on the shore, and level it when necessary for the passage of troops to the boats, and also to prepare a steamboat landing.
At daylight he sent a party furnished with ropes and ringbolts to catch and make fast to shore the rafts in the Chickamauga Creek, which we learned from deserters had been made for the destruction of the bridge at Chattanooga. The duty was well performed, as all duty is by Colonel Buell, and five rafts were anchored to the shore. The rebels had intended to prepare the rafts, each with a small pilot raft having a torpedo attached, containing about fifty pounds of powder, to blow up by percussion, as they went under tho bridge.
The arrangements were not completed when they were interfered with by General Sherman's passage of the river. At daylight, eight thousand troops were across the river, and in line of battle. Soon after, work was. continued on the bridge across the river from both ends, and Captain P. V. Fox, Michigan Engineers, began the bridge across the South-Chickamauga. According to previous arrangement, Brigadier-General I. II. Wilson brought up the steamer Dunbar to assist in the passage of tho troops. About eight thousand infantry, and one battery of artillery, besides the horses of the generals and their staff, were crossed in that manner, under the energetic directions of General Wilson. At twenty minutes past twelve P.jl, the bridge across the river was complete, the one across the creek having been finished a little before, and by three o'clock r.u., the brigade of cavalry under Colonel Long had crossed and was on its march. The bridge across the river was thrown with less trouble than was anticipated, because it was found that most of the drift hugged the right bank, and to avoid the catching of the drift on the cables, anchors were dispensed with for several boats near the shore, and the structuio kept in place by guy-lines to the trees on shore. Lieutenant Dresscn deserves all praise for his intelligent energy in throwing a bridge of nearly one thousand four hundred feet in length over such a flood in such a short time. That same afternoon two pontoon-bridges were thrown across Chattanooga Creek, to connect the centre and right of General Thomas's command, the right by that time occupying the base of Lookout Mountain. On the twenty-fifth, an additional bridge was thrown across the Citico Creek at its mouth, and the unused bridge also brought down and thrown across the river at Chattanooga. On the twenty-sixth, Lieutenant Wharton and the Pioneer brigade, under Colonel George P. Bucll, were ordered to accompany the pursuing column toward Ringgold, and Colonel Buell reports the completion of a bridge across the West-Chickamauga Creek by daylight of Friday morning. Lieutenant Downing, of the Engineer corps, had been ordered to reconstruct the t\ridge near Shallow Ford, across the South-Chickamauga. On Friday, at Ringgold, orders were given to Lieutenant Wharton to attend to the destruction of the railroad at that place, and whatever mills were in that vicinity. On Sunday, Captain Morrell was ordered to accompany the column under General Gordon Granger toward Knoxville. I beg to call the particular attention of General Grant to the accompanying report of Brigadier-General Wilson, with reference to the bridge constructed under his direction, across the Little Tennessee, for the passage of General Sherman's column over that stream; also that of Captain Poe, Chief Engineer army of the Ohio. The officers of the Engineer corps were zealous and efficient. I forward with the report a map large enough to show the strategic movements made before the battle, and also a map giving the battle-field. These maps are mostly due to the exertions of Captain West, U. S. Coast Survey, of my staff, and to the labors of Captains Darr and Down, of the same department, who had been ordered to report to me by Professor Bache, Superintendent S. S., and who all deserve the thanks of the General for labors done by them. The distances were determined before the battle for the use of artillery, and the heights of artillery positions occupied by us and the enemy. Very respectfully, W. F. Smith,
Brljtadler-General, Chief Engineer Military Division of the Mls
REPORT OP BRIGADIER-GENERAL WHITAKER.
Sewu. Mound, Tknti., Iikadqcirtebs Second Brioidi, )
Thikh Division, Fourth Corps, >
Army Of Thb Cuhbkhlasd, Dec. 6, 1S63. I
To Lieutennnt Wright, A.A.O., First Division,
The following report of the part taken by my brigade in storming Lookout Mountain, and driv
ing the enemy from before Chattanooga, is submitted:
On leaving Shell Mound, the One Hundred and Fifteenth Illinois, the Eighty-fourth Indiana, and the Fifth Indiana battery were detailed to defend the works erected at that place for the protection of our supply train. They were under the command of Colonel Moore of the One Hundred and Fifteenth Illinois. This duty was well performed.
Six regiments, (the Eighth Kentucky, Colonel Sydney M. Barnes; the Ninety-sixth Illinois, Colonel Thomas E. Champion; the Thirty-fifth Indiana, Colonel Mullen; the Fortieth Ohio, Colonel Taylor; Ninety-ninth Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel Cummings; Fifty-first Ohio, LieutenantColonel Wood,) under my command, left Shell Mound November twenty-third, at nine o'clock A.m. After a tiresome march over rough roads, I reported to General Cruft, division commander, at the base of Raccoon Mountain, near the mouth of Lookout Creek, having made twenty-three miles during the day.
For reasons unknown to me, the command of our brave and efficient division, General Cruft's, (two brigades,) was divided, and this brigade ordered by General Hooker to report at daylight on the morning of the twenty-fourth to BrigadierGeneral Geary, of General Hooker's command. This was done with celerity and despatch. The troops were massed under cover of the hills near Wauhatchie. They were deployed crossing Lookout Creek on the dam of a little mill, near which, by order, the knapsacks and blankets of my command were left under guard. The line of battle was as follows: Second brigade, of General Geary's division, in front on the right; Third brigade in the centre; and the First brigade on the extreme left and near the base of the mountain. These brigades were small and the division did not muster many more men for the fight than did my brigade, which was formed, the Eighth Kentucky on the extreme right at the base of the rough projecting crags, forming the summit of Lookout; the Thirty-fifth Indiana next; then the Ninety-ninth Ohio, and the Fortieth Ohio on my extreme left; next to General Geary's right the Ninety-sixth Illinois and Fifty-first Ohio were placed, one hundred yards in rear of my right, on the upper bench, to make firm my right flank. The lines of the entire storming party, though intended to be double, were, from the extent of the ground, to be assailed partially, if not entirely, in echelon; and my front had to be protected by skirmishers, which I had done. Owing to the formation of the mountain, my brigade occupying the position nearest the apex of the cone, had a shorter route in going around the mountain than those nearest its base, and ex neceuitate in advancing would and did overtake and pass the front line. Thus formed, the brigade advanced rapidly and in good order over the steep, rocky, ravine-seamed, torrent-torn sides of the mountain for nearly three miles. It was laborious and extremely tiresome! The enemy was found sheltered by rocks, trees, and timber cut to form abattis or obstructions, while tho summit of the mountain was covered with sharp-shooters concealed by the overhanging cliffs. Attacking them with vigor, we drove them before us. One of the enemy's camps being assailed by General Geary's command lower down the mountain, numbers of them fled toward the summit of the mountain and were captured by this brigade; they did not conceive it possible for a force to advance on the ground my brigade was then covering. Steadily but energetically and firmly advancing, my brigade reached the crest of Lookout's bold projecting slope. Its profile is delineated from beneath against the sky. In good order my bold command now became one line, swung round the crest, the right being the pivot, with the flags of the Fortieth Ohio on the left, and of the Eighth Kentucky on the right, floating free and triumphant.
Two vast armies looked upon us with beating hearts. We heard the soul-stirring vivas of our country's friends; responding, boldly we charged upon the rallying columns of the rebels. A portion of General Geary's division meeting overwhelming opposition from the rifle-pits in the orchard before reaching the White House, and having no cover, were falling back in considerable disorder; the enemy were also sending reenforcements from the summit of the mountain over a swag or depression in the cliff some three or four thousand yards to our rear on the west side of the mountain. The Eighth Kentucky, Colonel Barnes, was halted on the crest of the ridge with orders to deploy skirmishers to drive the enemy back, and to hold the crest at all hazards from an assault on the rear or flank. This was well done. The Ninety-sixth Illinois and the Fifty-first Ohio were ordered forward to assail the rifle-pits in the rear; while the Fortieth Ohio, Ninety-ninth Ohio, and Thirty-fifth Indiana assailed them on the flank. These dispositions were made at more than double-quick time, and my brigade had now passed the right of the front line.
Boldly the charge was made; the enemy resisted stubbornly; so that a hand-to-hand contest in portions of the intrenchment ensued. The force on my right, under Champion and Wood, swept down between the White House and summit The other regiments pressed tho enemy's flanks, and we drove the rebels with impetuosity along the side and down the mountain, between a quarter and half-mile beyond the White House, over breastworks, ravines, and rocks, and Lookout Mountain was ours. My command pursued them, and, with a portion of General Geary's division, formed and held the advance line—not only against the retiring foe, but against heavy reenforcements of the enemy—until we were partially relieved and reenforced by other troops. This took place near nightfall and after night. In this charge, the Fortieth Ohio, Colonel Taylor, took two pieces of cannon, which have been turned over to the ordnance officer.
A little after one o'clock P.m., the General in command of this brigade, with a portion of his staff, had possession of the White House, whence
messages were sent at two o'clock to General Cruft, division commander; General Granger, corps commander; and General Thomas, announcing our success.
Late in the evening, that brave officer, Colonel Grose, arrived with his troops on the crest in the rear of my command, where he took position. The skirmish firing of the enemy along the front was very spirited, occasionally varied by an effort to charge our lines. I directed him to throw forward his regiments to the right to tho support of the Ninety-sixth Illinois and Fifty-first Ohio, to enable Colonel Champion to take the Summertown road in order to capture tho artillery and re*bel forces on the mountain. This he declined to do, and exhibited to me a written order from General Hooker, as follows:
Headquarters Gexkral Hookbr, )
Brigadier-General Cruft, Commanding Division:
Major-General Hooker directs that as soon as the enemy are started our forces pursue to the crest of Lookout slope only, where the lines will be formed. Pursue no further than the rest until further orders. The bridges are to be made perfect after the troops have passed.
Major-Qenenl and Chief of SUIT.
This, he said, he was to obey. This order I did not see or know of until after my command had driven the enemy beyond the crest of Lookout slope, near three quarters of a mile. I was subsequently supported ably, and a portion of my command relieved from skirmish duty on the front line during the night by Colonel Grose. The enemy throw grenades or shell over the cliff, and the fire of their sharp-shooters was so galling that wo must inevitably have lost many men but for a dense cloud that enveloped the mountain-top about noon, and enshrouded friend and foe in its vapory folds. Weary with the forced inarch of the previous day, and with the fight that had been prolonged all day into the night, wet with the cold drizzling rain that fell on the mountain, yet my command were vigilant and active to maintain the position so fearlessly and boldly won.
Early on the morning of the twenty-fifth, I called for volunteers from the Eighth Kentucky infantry to scale the cliffs that overhang the crest of the ridge or point and take Lookout Rock. It was not known what force was on its top. Captain Wilson, of company C, Eighth Kentucky infantry; Sergeant II. H. Davis and private William Wilt, of company A; Sergeant Joseph Wagers and James B. Wood, of company B, and private Joseph Bradley, of company I, promptly volunteered for this purpose. It was a bold undertaking. Scaling the cliff, they took possession and unfurled our country's flag where so lately treason had defiantly flaunted her symbol of ruin.
This flag was the gift of the loyal women of Estill County, Kentucky. It has been most