Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

in full view of the enemy. In consequence of tempting to carry the point of the mountain, to the bad condition of the roads, General Sherman's do so. troops were occupied all of Sunday in getting By four o'clock on the morning of the twentyinto position. In the mean time, the river hav- fourth, General Hooker reported his troops in ing risen, both pontoon-bridges were broken by position and ready to advance. Finding Lookout rafts sent down the river by the enemy, cutting Creek so much swollen as to be impassable, he off Osterhaus's division from the balance of Sher- sent Geary's division, supported by Cruft's two man's troops. It was thought this would delay brigades, to cross the creek at Wauhatchie and us another day ; but during the night of the work down on the right bank, while he employed twenty-second, two deserters reported that Bragg the remainder of his force in constructing temhad fallen back, and that there was only a strong porary bridges across the creek on the main road. picket-line in our front. Early on the morning The enemy, being attracted by the force on the of the twenty-third, I received a note from Major road, did not observe the movements of Geary General Grant directing me to ascertain by a until his column was directly on their left, and demonstration the truth or falsity of this report. threatened their rear. Hooker's movements were

Orders were accordingly given to General facilitated by the heavy mist which overhung the Granger, commanding the Fourth corps, to form mountain, enabling Geary to get into position his troops and to advance directly in front of without attracting attention. Fort Wood, and thus develop the strength of the Finding himself vigorously pushed by a strong enemy. General Palmer, commanding the Four-column on his left and rear, the enemy began to teenth corps, was directed to support General fall back with rapidity; but his resistance was Granger's right with Baird's division refused and obstinate, and the entire point of the mountain in echelon; Johnson's division, Fourteenth corps, was not carried until about two P.M., when Gento be held in readiness under arms in the in- eral Hooker reported by telegraph that he had trenchments, to reönforce at any point. How-carried the mountain as far as the road from ard's corps was formed in mass behind the centre Chattanooga valley to the “ White House." Soon of Granger's corps. The two divisions of Gran- after, his main column coming up, his line was ger's corps, Sheridan's and Wood's, were formed extended to the foot of the mountain, near the in front of Fort Wood-Sheridan on the right, mouth of Chattanooga Creek. His right, being Wood on the left, with his left nearly extending still strongly resisted by the enemy, was reënto Citico Creek. The formation being completed forced by Carlin's brigade, First division, Fourabout two P.M., the troops were advanced steadily teenth corps, which arrived at the "White and with rapidity directly to the front, driving House" about five P.M., in time to take part in before them, first the rebel pickets, then their the contest still going on at that point. Continreserves, and falling upon their grand-guards uous and heavy skirmishipg was kept up in stationed in their first line of rifle-pits, captured Hooker's front until ten at night, after which something over two hundred men, and secured there was an unusual quietness along our whole themselves in their new position before the en- front. emy had sufficiently recovered from his surprise With the aid of the steamer Dunbar, which to attempt to send reënforcements from his main had been put in condition and sent up the river camp. Orders were then given to General Gran. at daylight of the twenty-fourth, General Sherger to make his position secure by constructing man by eleven A.M. had crossed three divisions temporary breastworks, and throwing out strong of the Fifteenth corps, and was ready to advance pickets to his front. Howard's corps was moved as soon as Davis's division of the Fourteenth corps up on the left of Granger with the same instruc commenced crossing. Colonel Long, (Fourth Ohio tions, and Bridge's battery (Ill.) was placed in cavalry,) commanding Second brigade, Second position on Orchard Knob. The troops remained division cavalry, was then ordered to move up in that position for the night.

at once, follow Sherman's advance closely, and The Tennessee River having risen considerably to proceed to carry out his instructions of the from the effect of the previous heavy rain-storm, day before, if not required by General Sherman it was found difficult to rebuild the pontoon- to support his left flank. Howard's corps moved bridge at Brown's Ferry. Therefore, it was de- to the left about nine A. M., and communicated termined that General Hooker should take Oster- with Sherman about noon, haus's division, which was still in Lookout val Instructions were sent to General Hooker to ley, Geary's division, and Whitaker's and Grose's be ready to advance, on the morning of the twenbrigades of the First division, Fourth corps, under ty-fifth, from his position on the point of Lookout Brigadier-General Cruft, and make a strong de- Mountain to the Summertown road, and endeavmonstration on the northern slope of Lookout or to intercept the enemy's retreat, if he had not Mountain, for the purpose of attracting the en- already withdrawn, which he was to ascertain emy's attention in that direction, and thus with- by pushing a reconnoissance to the top of Lookout drawing him from Sherman while crossing the Mountain. The reconnoissance was made as diriver at the mouth of South-Chickamauga. Gen- rected, and having ascertained that the enemy eral Hooker was instructed that in making this had evacuated during the night, General Hooker demonstration, if he discovered the position and was then directed to move on the Rossville road strength of the enemy would justify him in at- with the troops under his command, (except Carlin's brigade, which was to rejoin its divi- fied to meet and take the best advantage of sion,) carry the pass at Rossville, and operate emergencies, which necessitated material modi. upon the enemy's left and rear. Palmer's and fication of that plan. It is believed, however, Granger's troops were held in readiness to ad- that the original plan, had it been carried out, vanca directly on the rifle-pits in their front as could not possibly have led to more successful soon as Hooker could get into position at Ross- results. The alacrity displayed by officers in ville. In retiring on the night of the twenty- executing their orders, the enthusiasm and spirit fourth, the enemy had destroyed the bridges displayed by the men who did the work, cannot over Chattanooga Creek on the road leading from be too highly appreciated by the nation, for the Lookout Mountain to Rossville, and in conse- defence of which they have on so many other quence General Hooker was delayed until after memorable occasions nobly and patriotically extwo o'clock p.M., in effecting the crossing of the posed their lives in battle. creek.

| Howard's corps, (Eleventh,) having joined About noon, General Sherman becoming heav- Sherman on the twenty-fourth, his operations ily engaged by the enemy, they having massed a from that date will be included in Sherman's strong force in his front, orders were given for report, as will also those of Brigadier-General J. General Baird to march his division within sup- C. Davis's division of the Fourteenth corps, porting distance of General Sherman. Moving who reported for duty to General Sherman on his command promptly in the direction indicated, the twenty-first. he was placed in position to the left of Wood's General Granger's command returned to Chatdivision of Granger's corps. Owing to the diffi- tanooga, with instructions to prepare and hold culties of the ground, his troops did not get in themselves in readiness for orders to reënforce line with Granger's until about half-past two General Burnside at Knoxville. On the twenty. P.M. Orders were then given him, however, to sixth, the enemy were pursued by Hooker's and move forward on Granger's left, and within sup- Palmer's commands, surprising a portion of porting distance, against the enemy's rifle-pits their rear-guard near Greysville, after nightfall, on the slope and at the foot of Missionary Ridge. capturing three pieces of artillery and several The whole line then advanced against the breast- hundred prisoners. The pursuit was continued works, and soon became warmly engaged with on the twenty-seventh, capturing an additional the enemy's skirmishers; these, giving way, re- piece of artillery at Greysville. Hooker's adtired upon their reserves, posted within their vance encountered the enemy, posted in the pass works.

through Taylor's Ridge, who, after an obstinate Our troops advancing steadily in a continuous resistance of an hour, were driven from the pass line, the enemy, seized with panic, abandoned with considerable loss in killed, wounded, and the works at the foot of the hill, and retreated prisoners. Our loss was also heavy. precipitately to the crest, whither they were A large quantity of forage and some additionclosely followed by our troops, who, apparently al caissons and ammunition were captured at inspired by the impulse of victory, carried the Ringgold. On the twenty-eighth, Colonel Long hill simultaneously at six different points, and (Fourth Ohio cavalry) returned to Chattanooga, so closely upon the heels of the enemy, that from his expedition, and reported verbally that many of them were taken prisoners in the on the twenty-fourth he reached Tyner's Station, trenches. We captured all their cannon and destroying the enemy's forage and rations at ammunition, before they could be removed or that place, also some cars, and doing consideradestroyed. After halting a few moments to re- ble injury to the railroad. He then proceeded to organize the troops, who had become somewhat Doltawah, where he captured and destroyed some scattered in the assault of the hill, General trains loaded with forage; thence he proceeded Sherman pushed forward in pursuit, and drove to Cleveland, remaining there one day, destroythose in his front, who escaped capture, acrossed their copper-rolling mill and a large depot of Chickamauga Creek. Generals Wood and Baird, commissary and ordnance stores. being obstinately resisted by reenforcements Being informed that a train of the enemy's from the enemy's extreme right, continued fight-wagons was near Charleston, on the Hiawassee, ing until darkness set in, slowly but steadily and was probably unable to cross the river on driving the enemy before them. In moving account of the break in their pontoon-bridge, upon Rossville, General Hooker encountered after a few hours' rest he pushed forward with Stuart's division and other troops; finding his a hope of being able to destroy them, but found, left flank threatened, Stuart attempted to escape on reaching Charleston, that the enemy had reby retreating toward Greysville, but some of his paired their bridge, and had crossed their trains force, finding their retreat threatened in that safely, and were prepared to defend the crossing quarter, retired in disorder toward their right with one or two pieces of artillery, supported by along the crest of the ridge, where they were an infantry force, on the north bank. He then met by another portion of General Hooker's returned to Cleveland, and damaged the railcommand, and were driven by these troops in road for five or six miles in the direction of the face of Johnson's division of Palmer's corps, Dalton, and then returned to Chattanooga. by whom they were nearly all made prisoners. On the twenty-eighth, General Hooker was or.

It will be seen by the above report that the dered by General Grant to remain at Ringgold original plan of operations was somewhat modi- until the thirtieth, and so employ his troops as

VOL. VIII.-Doc. 14

La

to cover the movements of General Sherman,

ORDNANCE OFFICER'S REPORT. who had received orders to march his force to

ORDNANCE OFFICE the relief of Burnside, by way of Cleveland and

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Loudon. Palmer's corps was detached from the

CHATTANOOGA, Tenn., Jan. 16, 1864. I force under General Hooker, and returned to

Brigadier General W. D. Whipple, Assistant Cl'attanooga.

Adjutant-General Department of the Cum- I have the honor to annex hereto consolidated

berland: returns of prisoners, captured property, and cas

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith a

list of all ordnance and ordnance stores captured ualties. I am, General, very respectfully, Your obedient servant,

from the enemy, together with a list of expendiGEORGE H. THOMAS,

tures and losses by our own troops in the recent Major-General U. 8. A. Commanding. I battle of Chattanooga. Captured from the en

emy : DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND-REPORT OF CAS CANNON, FIELD-GUNS, AND HOWITZERS.

UALTIES DURING THE BATTLE OF CHATTANOOGA, | Smooth Bores.-Six-pounder guns, 8: twelveNOVEMBER, 1863.

pounder guns, light, confederate pattern, 13; Fourth Army Corps, Major-General Granger:

twelve-pounder guns, model 1857, Leeds and First division, Major-General Stanley, 19 killed,

Company, New Orleans, 6; twelve-pounder field 85 wounded—aggregate, 104; Second division,

howitzers, 3. Total smooth bores, 30. Major-General Sheridan, 135 killed, 1151 wound

Rifled Guns.—Three-inch, confederate pattern, ed-aggregate, 1286 ; Third division, Brigadier-11.; ten po

1; ten-pounder Parrott guns, model 1861, 4; General Wood, 150 killed, 851 wounded-aggre

six-pounder field, 2; six-pounder James, 1. Togate, 1001. Total, 2391.

tal rified guns, 8. Twenty-four pound guns, 2. Fourteenth Army Corps-Major-General Pal- Total number of pieces captured, 40. mer: First division, Brigadier-General Johnson,

Artillery carriages, .28; caissons, 26; battery 46 killed, 258 wounded aggregate, 304 : Third wagons, 4; travelling forge, 1. A good many division, Brigadier-General Baird, 97 killed, 461 parts of harness were captured, but no complete

I sets: 2336 rounds of artillery ammunition wounded and missing-aggregate, 565. Total, 869.

6175 stand of small arms, mostly Enfield; 28 Eleventh Army Corps—Major-General How

cavalry sabres, 549 infantry accoutrements, 511 ard: Second division, Brigadier-General Stein

bayonet-scabbards, 1911 cartridge-pouches, 439 wehr, 25 killed, 176 wounded, 124 missing-ag

cartridge-boxes, 149 cartridge-box plates, 165 gregate, 325 ; Third division, Major-General

cartridge-box belts, 165 waist-belts, 149 waistSchurz, 1 killed, 14 wounded, 10 missing-ag

| belt plates, and 55,000 rounds infantry ammugregate, 25. Total, 350.

nition. Twelfth Army Corps-Major-General Slocum:

Our own troops lost and expended 211 stand First division, Brigadier-General Williams, not of.

of small arms, 171 infantry accoutrements, 1977 engaged: Second division, Brigadier-General rounds artillery ammunition, 1,560,125 rounds George, 56 killed, 255 wounded, 4 missing-ag

infantry ammunition. gregate, 345. Total, 345.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, Grand Total, 529 killed, 3281 wounded, 141

T. G. BAGLER,

Captain and Chief of Ordnance Department Cumberland. missing-aggregate, 3955. The following is a copy of a telegram just re

MAJOR-GENERAL HOOKER'S REPORT. ceived from Major-General Granger at Knoxville.

HEADQUARTERS ELEVENTH AND TWELFTH CORPs, The list of casualties in the Fourth army corps,

LOOKOUT VALLEY, TENX., Feb. 4, 1864. 5 on the previous page, is compiled from the state | Brigadier-General W. D. Whipple, A. A. G.. ment of staff-officers at this place. The dis Army of the Cumberland : crepancy cannot be explained until General) GENERAL: I have the honor to submit the folGranger's report is received:

lowing report of the part taken by my command [By telegraph from Strawberry Plains, Janu in the operations of the army which resulted in ary sixteenth, 1854, via Calhoun, Tenn.]

driving the rebel forces from their position in the

vicinity of Chattanooga, and of its participation To General G. H. Thomas, Chattanooga, Tenn. : immediately afterward in their pursuit.

Loss in Sheridan's and Wood's divisions 2544 In order that these operations may be distinctmen; in Stanley's, about 200. G. GRANGER, ly understood, that the troops concerned be

Major-General. known and receive the honor due them, it is nec

essary to premise by stating that the general atREPORT OF REBEL DESERTERS AND PRISONERS OF

| tack was ordered to be made on the enemy's exWAR RECEIVED AND CAPTURED FROM OCTOBER

treme right at daylight on the twenty-first of 20, 1863, TO DECEMBER 1, 1863.

November, and that preparatory orders were October November Aggregate. sent through me on the eighteenth, for the Elev. Deserters,.......... 41 532 573 enth corps to cross to the north bank of the TenPrisoners, .......... 98 5471 5569 nessee River on the twentieth. At this time the

Eleventh corps and a part of the Twelfth corps Grand Total, ....139 6003 6142 | were encamped in Lookout Valley, opposite to

the left of the enemy's line. In consequence of Geary's division, supported by Whitaker's the non-arrival of the force mainly relied on to brigade, of Cruft's division, was ordered to prolead off, the attack was postponed until the fol- ceed up the valley, cross the creek near Waulowing morning, and again postponed until the hatchie, and march down, sweeping the rebels twenty-fourth, for the same reason. Meanwhile from it. The other brigade of the Fourth corps orders were received for the Eleventh corps to go was to advance, seize the bridge just below the to Chattanooga, where it reported on the twenty- railroad, and repair it. Osterhaus's division was second. This divided my command, and, as the to march up froin Brown's Ferry, under cover of orders contemplated no advance from Lookout the hills, to the place of crossing; also to furnish Valley, application was made by me to the Ma- supports for the batteries. The Obio battery jor-General commanding the department, for au- was to take a position on Bald Hill, and the Newthority to accompany the Eleventh corps, assignYork battery on the hill directly in the rear. The ing, as a reason, that it was my duty to join that Second Kentucky cavalry was despatched to ob part of my command going into battle. This was serve the movements of the enemy in the direcacceded to, and, preparatory to leaving, invita- tion of Trenton, and the Illinois company to pertion was sent for Brigadier-General Geary, who form orderly and escort duty. This disposition was the senior officer in my absence, to examine of the forces was ordered to be made as soon afwith me the enemy's position and defences, and ter daylight as practicable. to be informed at what points I desired to have THE ENEMY-LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN AND THE VALLEYS. his troops held. This was to enable me to make

At this time the enemy's pickets formed a conuse of the telegraph in communicating with him

tinuous line along the right bank of Lookout advisedly during the progress of the fight, should

Creek, with the reserves in the valleys, while his a favorable opportunity present itself for him to

main force was encamped in the hollow, half-way advance.

up the slope of the mountain. The summit itself THE ADVANCE UPON AND CAPTURE OF LOOKOUT was held by three brigades of Stevenson's diviMOUNTAIN.

sion, and these were comparatively safe, as the On the twenty-third, the commander of the only means of access from the west, for a distance department requested me to remain in Lookout of twenty miles up the valley, was by two or Valley, and make a demonstration as early as pos- three trails, admitting of the passage of but one sible the next morning on the point of Lookout man at a time, and even these trails were held at Mountain, my command to consist of the parts of the top by rebel pickets. For this reason no ditwo divisions. Later in the day, (the twenty- rect attempt was made for the dislodgment of third,) a copy of a telegram was received from the this force. On the Chattanooga side, which is Major-General commanding the military division less precipitous, a road of easy grade has been of the Mississippi, to the effect that in the event made, communicating with the summit by zigthe pontoon-bridge at Brown's Ferry could not zag lines running diagonally up the mountainbe repaired in season for Osterhaus's division of side ; and it was believed that before our troops the Fifteenth corps to cross by eigbt o'clock A.m. should gain possession of this, the enemy on the on the twenty-fourth, the division would report top would evacuate his position, to avoid being to me. Soon after, another telegram, from the cut off from his main body, to rejoin which headquarters of the department instructed me, in would involve a march of twenty or thirty miles. the latter case, to take the point of Lookout Viewed from whatever point, Lookout Mountain, Mountain, if my demonstrations should develop with its high, palisaded crest and its steep, ragits practicability. At two o'clock A.M., word ged, rocky, and deeply furrowed slopes, presentwas received that the bridge could not be put in ed an imposing barrier to our advance, and when serviceable condition for twelve hours; but, to to these natural obstacles were added almost inbe certain on the subject, a staff-officer was determinable well-planned and well-constructed despatched to ascertain, and a quarter-past three fences, held by Americans, the assault became A.M. on the twenty-fourth, the report was con- an enterprise worthy of the ambition and renown firmed.

of the troops to whom it was intrusted. On the GENERAL HOOKER'S ACTUAL COMMAND.

northern slope, midway between the summit and

the Tennessee, a plateau or belt of arable land As now composed, my command consisted of

enriches the crest. There a continuous line of Osterhaus's division, Fifteenth corps; Cruft's,

earthworks had been thrown up, while redoubts, of the Fourth, and Geary's, of the Twelfth, (ex

redans, and pits appeared lower down the slope, cepting from the two last-named divisions such

to repel an assault from the direction of the river. regiments as were required to protect our com

On each flank were rifle-pits, epaulements for batmunications with Bridgeport and Kelly's Ferry ;) Battery K, of the First Ohio, and Battery K,

teries, walls of stone, and abattis to resist attacks First New-York, of the Eleventh corps, (the two

from either Chattanooga or Lookout valley. In having horses but for one ;) a part of the Second

the valleys themselves, were earthworks of still Kentucky cavalry, and company K, of the Fif

greater extent. teenth Illinois cavalry-making an aggregate THE ADVANCE OF THE UNION TROOPS—THE MOUNforce of nine thousand six hundred and eighty

TAIN TAKEN. one. We were all strangers, no one division Geary commenced his movement as instructed, ever having seen either of the others.

| crossed the creek at eight o'clock, captured the

entire picket of forty-two men posted to defend on reaching this high ground; but, fired by suc it, marched directly up the mountain till his cess, with a flying, panic-stricken force before right rested on the palisades, and headed down them, they pressed impetuously forward. Cobthe valley. At the same time Gross's brigade ham's brigade, occupying the high ground on the advanced resolutely, with brisk skirmishing, right, between the enemy's main line of defence drove the enemy from the bridge, and at once on the plateau and the palisades, incessantly plied proceeded to put it in repair. The firing at this them with fire from above and behind, wbile Freepoint alarmed the rebels, and immediately their land's brigade was vigorously rolling them up on columns were seen filing down the mountains the flank, and both being closely supported by from their camps, and moving into their rifle-pits the brigades of Whitaker and Creighton. Our and breastworks. At the same time numbers es-success was uninterrupted and irresistible. Betablished themselves behind the embankment of fore losing the advantages the ground presented the railroad, which enabled them, without expo-us, (the enemy had been reënforced meantime,) sure, to sweep with a fire of musketry the field after having secured the prisoners, two of Osterover which our troops would be compelled to haus's regiments had been sent forward on the march for a distance of three or four hundred Chattanooga road, and the balance of his and yards. These dispositions were distinctly visi-Cruft's divisions bad joined Geary. All the rebel ible, and, as facilities for avoiding them were efforts to resist us only resulted in rendering our close at hand, Osterhaus was directed to send a success more thorough. After two or three brigade, under cover of the hills and trees, about short but sharp conflicts the plateau was cleared. eight hundred yards higher up the creek, and The enemy, with his reinforcements, driven from prepare a crossing at that point. This was Bri- the walls and pits around Craven's house, (the gadier-General Wood's brigade. Soon after this, last point at which he could make a stand in Cruft was ordered to leave a sufficient force at force,) all broken and destroyed, were hurled in the bridge to engage the attention of the enemy, great numbers over the rocks and precipices into and for the balance of Gross's brigade to follow the valley. Wood's. Meanwhile a section of howitzers was It was now near two o'clock, and our operaplanted to enfilade the position the enemy hadtions were arrested by the darkness. The clouds, taken, and Osterhaus established a section of which had hovered over and enveloped the sumtwenty-pounder Parrotts to enfilade the route by mit of the mountain during the morning, and to which the enemy had left his camp. The bat. some extent favored our movements, gradually tery on Bald Hill enfiladed the railroad and-high-settled into the valley and completely veiled it way leading to Chattanooga, and all the batteries from our view. Indeed, from the moment we and sections of batteries had a direct or enfilad- rounded the peak of the mountain, it was only ing fire, within easy range, on all the positions from the roar of battle, and the occasional glimpse taken by the rebels. Besides, the twenty-pound our comrades in the valley could catch of our er Parrotts could be used with good effect on the lines and standards, that they knew of the strife rebel camp on the side of the mountain. With in its progress, and when, from these evidences, this disposition of the artillery, it was believed our true condition was revealed to them, their we would be able to prevent the enemy from painful anxiety yielded to transports of joy, despatching relief to oppose Geary, and also keep which only soldiers can feel in the earliest movehim from running away.

ments of dawning victory. Deeming a descent At eleven o'clock, Wood had completed his into the valley imprudent, without more accurate bridge ; Geary appeared close by, his skirmish- information of its topography, and also of the ers smartly engaged, and all the guns opened. position and strength of the enemy, our line was Wood's and Gross's then sprang across the river, established on the east side of the mountain, the joined Geary's left, and moved down the valley. right resting on the palisades, and the left near A few of the enemy escaped from the artillery the mouth of Chattanooga Creek, and this we fire, and those who did ran upon our own infantry strengthened by all the means at hand, working and were captured. The balance of the rebel until four o'clock, when the commander of the forces were killed or taken prisoners, many of department was informed that our position was them remaining in the bottom of their pits for impregnable. safety until forced out by our men.

. During all of these operations the batteries on Simultaneously with these operations the troops Moccasin Point, under Captain Naylor, had been on the mountain rushed on in their advance, the busily at work from the north bank of the Tenright passing directly under the muzzles of the nessee River, and had contributed as much to enemy's guns on the summit, climbing over our assistance as the irregularities of the ground ledges and boulders, up hill and down, furiously and the state of the atmosphere would admit of. driving the enemy from his camp and from posi- From our position we commanded the enemy's tion alter position. This lasted until twelve line of defence, stretching across Chattanooga o'clock, when Geary's advance heroically rounded valley, by an enfilading fire, and also, by a direct the peak of the mountain. Not knowing to what fire, many of his camps, some of which were in extent the enemy might be reënforced, and fear-our immediate vicinity; also, direct communicaing, from the rough character of the field of option had been opened with Chattanooga, and at a erations, that our lines might be disordered, quarter-past five o'clock Brigadier General Car. directions had been given for the troops to halt I lin, Fourteenth corps, reported to me, with his

« AnteriorContinuar »