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with him, he could be actually vulgar. He was merely vulgar, for example, when on one occasion, wishing to throw ridicule on the pacific principles of Mr. Bright, he alluded to him in the House of Commons as “the honorable and reverend gentleman." Lord Palmerston, in his reply to Mr. Milner Gibson, showed a positive spitefulness of tone and temper very unusual in him, and especially unbecoming in a losing man. A statesman may rise as he will, but he should fall with dignity. When the division was taken it appeared that there were 215 votes for the second reading and 234 against it. The government, therefore, were left in a minority of 19; 146 Conservatives were in the majority and 84 Liberals. Besides these there were such of the Peel. ite party as Sir James Graham, Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Card. well, and Mr. Sidney Herbert. Lord Palmerston at once made up his mind to resign. His resignation was accepted. Not quite a year had passed since the general elections sent Lord Palmerston into power triumphant over the routed Liberals and the prostrate Manchester School. The leaders of the Manchester party were actually driven from their seats. There was not a Cobden or a Bright to face the conqueror in Parliament. Not quite a year, and now, on the motion of one of the lieutenants of that same party returned to their position again, Lord Palmerston is ejected from office. Palmerston once talked of having his “tit-for-tat with John Russell.” The Peace party now had their tit-foriat with him. “Cassio hath beaten thee, and thou by that small hurt hast cashiered Cassio."
Lord Palmerston had the satisfaction before he left office of being able to announce the capture of Canton. The operations against China had been virtually suspended, it will be remembered, when the Indian mutuny broke out. To adopt the happy illustration of a clever writer, England had dealt with China for the time as a backwoodsman some. times does with a tree in the American forest—" girdled" it
with an axe, so as to mark it for felling at a more convenient opportunity. She had now got the co-operation of France, France had a complaint of long standing against China on account of the murder of some missionaries, for which re. dress had been asked in vain. The Emperor of the French was very glad to have the opportunity of joining his arms with those of England in any foreign enterprise. It advertised the empire cheaply ; it showed to Frenchmen how active the emperor was, and how closely he had at heart the honor and the interests of France. An expedition to China in association with England could not be much to risk, and would look well in the newspapers ; whereas if England were to be allowed to go alone she would seem to be making too much of a position for herself in the East. There was, therefore, an allied attack made upon Canton, and of course the city was easily captured. Commissioner Yeh himself was taken prisoner, not until he had been sought for and hunted out in the most ignominious fashion. He was found at last hidden away in some obscure part of a house. He was known by his enormous fatness. One of our officers caught hold of him; Yeh tried still to get away. A British seaman seized Yeh by his pigtail, twisted the tail several times round his hand, and the unfortunate Chinese dignitary was thus a helpless and ludicrous prisoner. He was not hurt in any serious way; but otherwise he was treated with about as much consideration as school-boys show toward a captured cat. The whole story of his capture may be read in the journals of the day, in some of which it were an exploit worthy of heroes, and as if a Chinese with a pigtail were obviously a person on whom any of the cour. tesies of war would be thrown away. When it was convenient to let loose Yeh's pigtail, he was put on board an English man-of-war, and afterward sent to Calcutta, where he died early in the following year. Unless report greatly belied him, he had been exceptionally cruel, even tor a
Chinese official. It was said that he had ordered the beheading of about one hundred thousand rebels. There may be exageration in this number, but, as Voltaire says in an. other case, even if we reduce the total to half, “ cela serait encore admirable."
The English and French envoys, Lord Elgin and Baron Gros, succeeded in making a treaty with China. By the conditions of the treaty, England and France were to have ministers at the Chinese Court, on certain special occasions at least, and China was to be represented in London and Paris; there was to be toleration of Christianity in China, and a certain freedom of access to Chinese rivers for English and French mercantile vessels, and to the interior of China for English and French subjects. China was to pay the expenses of the war. It was further agreed that the term "barbarian" was no longer to be applied to Europeans in China. There was great congratulation in England over this treaty, and the prospect it afforded of a lasting peace with China. The peace thus procured lasted in fact exactly a year.
Lord Palmerston then was out of office. Having nothing in particular to do, he presently went over to Compiegne on a visit to the Emperor of the French. For the second time his friendship for Louis Napoleon had cost him his place.
House of Cor ns, he must have felt that he had almost as difficult a path to tread as that of him described in “ Henry the Fourth,” who has to “ o'erwalk a current roaring loud on the unsteadfast footing of a spear." The ministry of Lord Derby, whereof Mr. Disraeli was undoubtedly the sense-carrier, was not supported by a parliamentary majority, nor could it pretend to great intellectual and administrative ability. It had in its ranks two or three men of something like statesman capacity, and a number of respectable persons possessing abilities about equal to those of any intelligent business man or country magistrate. Mr. Disraeli of course became Chancelor of the Exchequer. Lord Stanley undertook the Colonies ; Mr. Walpole made a painstaking and conscientious Home Secretary, as long as he continued to hold the office. Lord Malmesbury muddled on with Foreign Affairs somehow; Lord Ellenborough's brilliant eccentric light perplexed for a brief space the Indian Department. General Peel was Secretary of War, and Mr. Henley President of the Board of Trade. Lord Naas, afterward Lord Mayo, became Chief Secretary for Ireland, and was then supposed to be nothing more than a kindly, sweet-tempered man, of whom his most admiring friends would never have ventured to fore-shadow such a destiny as that he should succeed to the place of a Canning
and an Elgin, and govern the new India to which so many anxious eyes were turned. Sir John Pakington was made First Lord of the Admiralty, because the place of some kind had to be found for him, and he was as likely to do well at the head of the navy as anywhere else. A ridiculous story, probably altogether untrue, used to be told of President Lincolo in some of the difficult days of the American Civi) War. He wanted a commander-in-chief, and he happened to be in conversation with a friend on the subject of the war. Suddenly addressing a friend, he asked him if he had ever commanded an army. “ No, Mr. President," was the reply. “ Do you think you could command an army ?” “I presume so, Mr. President ; I know nothing to the contrary." He was appointed commander-in-chiet at once. One might without great stretch of imagination conceive of a conversation of the same kind taking place between Sir John Pakington and Lord Derby. Sir John Pakington had no reason to know that he might prove equal to the administration of the navy, and he became First Lord of the Admiralty accordingly. No Conservative Government could be supposed to get on without Lord John Manners, and luckily there was the Department of Public Works for him.
Lord Stanley was regarded as a statesman of great and peculiar promise. The party to which he belonged were inclined to make him an object of especial pride, because he seemed to have in a very remarkable degree the very qualities which most of their leading members were generally accused of wanting. The epithet Mr. Mill at a later period ally accused of wanting. Epithet Mr. Mill at a later period applied to the Tories, that of the stupid party, was the expression of a feeling very common in the political world, and under which many of the Conservatives themselves winced. The more intelligent a Conservative was the more was he inclined to chate at the ignorance and dullness of many of the party. It was therefore with particular satisfaction