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Judgment of Rhadamanthus, by J. K.
Paulding

K.

Kidnappers' Cove

L.

Logic

Le Brun

Lionel Granby, Chapter VI

"" "VII

"" "VIII

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II li il v

Lines 9, 157. 166, 311, 3i2, 380,

Lines, by P. P. Cooke

Lines on the Statue of Washington,

Lines to a Wild Violet

q Lines Written at the Grave of a

Friend

Linnieus and Wilson

Love and Poetry

Lady Leonore and her Lover

Liberian Literature

Lay of Ruin, by Miss Drapnr

Living Alone, by Timothy Flint

Life a Brief History ...

Leaves from my Scrap Book

Lake

Leaf from my Scrap Book

>,^ Losing and Winning ..

* Lecture, by James M. Garnett, No. 2,

"' " No. 3,

"No. 4,

""No. 5,

Laughing Girl

Learned Languages, by Matuew L'ary,

Love and Constancy, by E. Burke

Fisher

Letter to B., by Edgar A. Poe

Learned Languages

Life's Stream, by Lucy T. Johnson,

M.

Mother and Child

Memory

Macedoiue

Marcelia

Metzengerstein, by Edgar A. Poe

Martorelli

^Maxwell's Speech

MSS. of Benjamin Franklin

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March Court

Memoirs of Mrs. Ilemans

My Books

My First Attempt at Poetry

MSS. of John Randolph 461,

Marcus Curtins

Miseries of Bashfulness

Martin Luther Incognito, by J. W.

Alexander

Moses Pleading Before Pharaoh

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Song

Song of Lee's Legion

Some Ancient Greek Authors

Sonnet, by Edgar A. Poe

Swan of Loch Oich

Science of Life, by Mathew Carey

^St-quel to Belles of Williamsburg

Stanzas, by James F. Otis

Scenes in CauiDillia, by Lieut. Slidell,

Stanzas, by Wm. Gilmore Simms

Stanzas, by Mrs. E. F. Ellet

Sacred Song, by William Maxwell...

Supplement - 133, 341,

T.

To Mira. by L. A. Wilmer

To

Translation

To the Wood Nymphs

To Hellen, by Edgar A. Poe

To Randolph, of Roanoke

Tale of Jerusalem, by Edgar A. Poe,

To the Evening Star

To , N. P. Willis

To an Artist

To a Coquette *....

To , by George Lunt

To C. A. Perdicaris

Thy Home and Mine

To , of Norfolk

ToaLock of Hair

To J s

Tour to the Isthmus 554,

To , by Wm. Gilmore Simms

To a Tortoise Shell Comb, by Mrs. E.

F. Ellet

Two Sisters

Traits of a Summer Tourist

To My Wife, by Lindley Murray

To Anna

Tributary Stanzas

'lis the Last Day of Summer

To a Na:i,i !,.-- One

Tragedies of Silvio Pellico, by Mrs.

E. F. Ellet

U.

Unknown Flowers

Ulea Uolstein

Lniversal Sympathy, by Edwin Saun-
ders

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SELECT'IONS,

Fountain of Oblivion 100

MSS. found in a Bottle 33

Specimens of Ancient Love-Letters, 39

EDITORIAL ARTICLES.

Autography 205. 601

Chief-Justice Marshall 317

Lynch Law 389

Loyalty of Virginia 317

Maelzel's Chess Player 318

Pina Kidia 573

Right of Instruction , 573, 058

CRITICAL NOTICES.
A.

Address to Rev. D. L. Carroll 65

Addressee Lucian Minor 66

American Almanac for 1836 68

American in England 192

Anthon's Sallust 392

Armstrong's Notices of the War of

1812 450

Adventures in Search of a Horse 593

American Almanac for 1837 720

Address of Professor Dew 721

Address of Mr. Roszell 706

Address of Mr. Lee 786

Anderson's Oration 52

B.

Bulwer's Rienzi 197

Bubbles from tbe Brunnens of Nassau, 339

Book of Gems 584

Bland's Chancery Reports 731

C.

Crayon Miscellany 04

Clinton Bradshaw 68

Christian Florist 128

Conti 196

Carey's Autobiography 203

Cooper's Switzerland, Part 1 401

Colton's Religious State of the Coun-
try 453

Camperdown 513

Cooper's Switzerland. Part II , 7-0

D.

Doctor 506

Diaper's Lecture 596

E.

Edinburgh Review 47

English Annals 68

Eulogies on Marshall 181

Emilia Harrington 191

Episcopal Church in Virginia 282

Elkswatawa 589

F.

Flora and Thalia * 460

G.

Glass' Life of Washington 62

Georgia Scenes 287

Godwin's Necromanev 615

Vol. II.

RICHMOND, DECEMBER, 1835.

No. 1.

T. \V. WHITE, PROPRIETOR.

FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM.

PUBLISHER'S NOTICE.

fey The gentleman, referred to in the ninth number of the Messenger, as filling its editorial chair, retired thence with the eleventh number; and the intellectual department of the paper is now under the conduct of the Proprietor, assisted by a gentleman of distinguished literary talents. Thus seconded, he is sanguine in the hope of rendering the second volume which the present number commences, at least as deserving of support as the former was: nay, if he reads aright the tokens which are given him of the future, it teems with even richer banquets for his readers, than they have hitherto enjoyed at his board.

Some of the contributors, whose effusions have received the largest share of praise from critics, and (what is better still) have been read with most pleasure by that larger, unsophisticated class, whom Sterne loved for reading, and being pleased " they knew not why, and care not wherefore"—may be expected to continue their favors. Among these, we hope to be pardoned for singling out the name of Mr. Edgar A. Poe; not with design to make any invidious distinction, but because such a mention of him finds numberless precedents in the journals on every side, which have rung the praises of his uniquely original vein of imagination, and of humorous, delicate satire. We wish that decorum did not forbid our specifying other names also, which would afford ample guarantee for the fulfilment of larger promises than ours: but it may not be; and of our other contributors, all we can say is—"by their fruits ye shall know them."

It is a part of our present plan, to insert all original communications as editorial; that is, simply to omit the words "For the Southern Literary Messenger" at the head of such articles:—unless the contributor shall especially desire to have that caption prefixed, or there be something which requires it in the nature of the article itself. Selected articles, of course, will bear some appropriate token of their origin.

With this brief salutation to patrons and readers, we gird up ourselves for entering upon the work of another year, with zeal and energy increased, by the recollection of kindness, and by the hopes of still greater success.

SKETCHES OF THE HISTORY

AND PRESENT CONDITION OF TRIPOLI, WITH SOME ACCOUNTS OF THE OTHER BAR8ART STATES.

NO. IX.—(Continued.)

About this period commenced those differences between France and the Algerine Government, which led to the overthrow of the latter, and the establishment of the French in Northern Africa; the circumstances which occasioned the dispute were however of much older date.

Between 1793 and 1798 the French Government on several occasions obtained from the Dey and merchants

of Algiers, large quantities of grain on credit, for the subsistence of its armies in Italy, and the supply of the Southern Department where a great scarcity then prevailed. The creditors endeavored to have their claims on this account satisfied by the Directory, but that incapable and rapacious Government had neither the principle to admit, her the ability to discharge such demands; every species of chicanery was in consequence employed by it in evading them, until the rupture with Turkey produced by the expedition to Egypt placing the Barbary States either really or apparently at war with the French Republic, a pretext was thus afforded for deferring their settlement indefinitely. Under the Consular regime however, a treaty of peace was concluded with Algiers on the 17th of December 1801, by the thirteenth article of which, the Government of each State engaged to cause payment to be made of all debts due by itself or its subjects to the Government or subjects of the other; the former political and commercial relations between the two countries were re-established, and the Dey restored to France the territories and privileges called the African Concessions, which had been seized by him on the breaking out of the war. This treaty was ratified by the Dey on the 5th of April 1802, and after examination of the claims on both sides, the French Government acknowledged itself debtor for a large amount to the Jewish mercantile house of Bacri and Busnach of Algiers, as representing the African creditors. Of the sum thus acknowledged to be due, only a very small portion was paid, and the Dey Hadji Ali seeing no other means of obtaining the remainder, in 1609 seized upon the Concessions; they were however of little value to France at that time, when her flag was never seen in the Mediterranean, and their confiscation merely served as pretext for withholding farther payment. In 1813, when the star of Napoleon began to wane, and he found it necessary to assume at least the appearance of honesty, he declared that measures would be taken for the adjustment of the Algerine claims; but he fell without redeeming his promise, and on the distribution of his spoils, the Jewish merchants had not interest enough to obtain their rightful portion, which amounted to fourteen millions of francs.

Upon the return of the Bourbons to the throne of France, the government of that country became desirous to renew its former intercourse with the Barbary States, and to regain its ancient establishments and privileges in their territories, which were considered important from political as well as commercial motives. For this purpose, M. Deval a person who was educated in the East and had been long attached to the French Embassy at Constantinople, was appointed Consul General of France in Barbary, and sent to Algiers with powers to negotiate. The first result of this mission, was a convention which has never been officially published; however in consequence of it the Mica" Concessions were restored to France, together with the exclusive right of fishing for coral on the coasts in their vicinity

Vol. II.—1

and various commercial privileges; in return for which the French were to pay annually to Algiers, the sum of sixty thousand francs. It appears also to have been understood between the parties, that no fortifications were to be erected within the ceded territories in addition to those already standing, and that arrangements should be speedily made for the examination and settlement of all their claims on both sides, not only of those for which provision was made in the treaty of 1801, but also of such as were founded on subsequent occurrences; after this mutual adjustment the treaty of 1801 confirming all former treaties was to be in force.

The annual sum required by Omar for the Concessions, was much greater than any which had been previously paid for them by France; Hussein however immediately on his elevation to the throne, raised it to two hundred thousand francs, and he moreoverdcclared, that the debt acknowledged to be due to his subjects must be paid, before any notice were taken of claims which were still liable to be contested. In opposition to these demands, the French endeavored to prove their right to the territories of Calle and Bastion de France by reference to ancient treaties both with Algiers and the Porte, in which no mention is made of payment for them; with regard to the claims, they insisted that the only just mode of settlement, was by admitting into one statement all the demands which could be established on either side, and then balancing the account. The Dey however remained firm in his resolution, and exhibited signs of preparation to expel the French from the Concessions, when their government yielded the point concerning the amount to be annnually paid.

A compromise was made respecting the claims between the French Government and the Agents of the Algerines, on the 28th of October, 1819; as the articles of this agreement have never been published, its terms are only to be gathered from the declarations of the French Ministers in the Legislative Chambers, and the semi-official communications in the Monileur the organ of the Government. From these it appears that the French Government acknowledged itself indebted for the sum of seven millions of francs, to Messrs. Bacri and Busnach, which was to be received by them in full discharge of claims on the part of Algiers, under the thirteenth article of the treaty of 1801; from this sum however was to be retained a sufficiency to cover the demands of French subjects against Algiers under the same article, which demands were to be substantiated by the Courts of Law of France; finally, each party was to settle the claims of its own subjects against the other, founded on occurrences subsequent to the conclusion of the said treaty. The French historical writers affect to consider this arrangement entirely as a private affair between their Government and the Jewish merchants, and indeed the Ministry endeavored at first to represent it in that light to the Legislature; but they were forced to abandon this ground when they communicated its stipulations, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs declared in the Chamber of Deputies, that the Dcy had formally accepted it on the 12th of April 1820, and had admitted that the treaty of 1801 was thereby fully executed.

In order to comply with this arrangement, a bill requiring an appropriation of seven millions of francs was

in June, 1820, submitted by the French Ministry to the Legislative Chambers, in both of which its adoption was resisted by the small minority then opposed to the Government. The debates on this occasion are worthy of notice, as many of the arguments advanced against the appropriation, have been since employed to defeat the bill for executing the treaty of 1831 by which the United States were to be indemnified for the injuries inflicted on their commerce by Napoleon. The claims against France were in both cases pronounced antiquated and obsolete [vieilles reclamations, criances dechuts] and the fact that they had long remained unsettled, was thus deemed sufficient to authorize their indefinite postponement. The great diminution to which the creditors had assented, was considered as affording strong presumption that their demands were destitute of foundation; and the probability that many of the claims, had been purchased at a low price by the actual holders, from the persons with whom the contracts were originally made, was gravely alleged as a reason for not satisfying them. The ad vantages secured to France by each Convention were examined in detail, and compared with the sums required for extinguishing the debts; and the Ministry were in both cases censured for not having obtained more in return for their payment. It is not surprising to hear such sentiments avowed by men educated in the service of Napoleon, but it is painful to find them supported by others distinguished for their literary merits, and for their exertions in the cause of liberty.

The bill for the appropriation of the seven millions of francs, was passed by a large majority in both Chambers, the influence of the Crown being at that period overwhelming. Four millions and a half were in consequence paid within the ensuing three years to the Jewish merchants, who having thus received the whole amount of their own demands retired to Italy; the remaining two and a half millions were retained by the Government of France in order to secure the discharge of the claims of its subjects, under the treaty of 1S01, which were yet pending in the Courts of the Kingdom. At the retention of this sum, the Dey was, or affected to be at first much surprised, and he insisted that the Government should hasten the decisions of the Courts; however as years passed by without any signs of approach to a definitive settlement, his impatience became uncontrollable. Moreover in addition to the annoyance occasioned by this constant postponement, he was much dissatisfied, on account of the fortifications which the French were erecting at Calle, contrary as he insisted to the understanding between the parties at the time of its cession. To his observations and inquiries on both these subjects he received answers from the French Consul which were generally evasive and often insulting, until at length wearied by delays and having strong reason to believe that M. Deval had a personal interest in creating obstacles to an adjustment of the difficulties, he determined to address the French Government directly. Accordingly in 1826 he wrote a letter to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of that country, in which after indignantly expressing his sense of the conduct of the French Government, in the retention of this large sum and the erection of fortresses in the Concessions, he required that the remainder of the seven millions should be immediately paid intoliis own hands,

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