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CHAPTER IV.

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

Statistics of strikes and lockouts are being regularly collected and published by Government bureaus in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Italy. The statistics for Austria, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Italy are published in the form of annual reports, and those for Belgium and Canada from month to month. The statistics for Denmark are published annually in brief form in the statistical yearbook, and a detailed report for three years has been published in the form of a special report. In Switzerland statistics of labor disputes have been published since 1887 in the annual reports of the managing committee of the Swiss federation of labor (a), but these reports hardly have the same standing as Government publications.

The Austrian Government has been collecting statistics of labor disputes since 1891. The reports for the years 1891 and 1892 were published by the Government (b), but not for general distribution. The figures for these years presented in this chapter were obtained from Volume XI of the Foreign Reports of the British Royal Commission, the original publications not being available. The report for 1893 was published in the form of a supplement to the monthly statistical bulletin of the burcau of statistics of the Austrian ministry of commerce (c). The report for 1894 was the first that appeared in the form of a regular annual report of the bureau of statistics of Austria (d), a decree of the imperial ministry of commerce dated December 7, 1893, requiring the publication annually of such statisties. In 1898 a special bureau of labor statistics was created in Austria by

a Rapport Annuel du Comité Directeur de la Fédération Ouvrière Suisse et du Secrétariat Ouvrier Suisse.

b Zusammenstellung der in den Jahren 1891 und 1892 stattgefundenen Arbeitseinstellungen im Gewerbebetriebe.

c Beilage der statistischen Monatschrift, 1894. Herausgegeben vom Statistischen Departement im k. k. Handelsministerium.

d Die Arbeitseinstellungen im Gewerbebetriebe in Oesterreich während des Jahres 1894. Herausgegeben vom Statistischen Departement im k. k. Handelsministerium.

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imperial decree, and the work of collecting and publishing strike and lockout statistics was transferred to this bureau. The report for 1897 (a), published in 1899, was the first to appear under this new régime. The reports for the years 1891 to 1897, inclusive, do not cover disputes in the agricultural, forestry, and mining industries. Since 1898, however, the mining industry has been included, and the report for that year contains not only the detailed statistics of strikes and lockouts in the mining industry for the years 1894 to 1898, but also a summary of all strikes and lockouts for these years, with the statistics of mine disputes included.

As now published, the Austrian reports on strikes and lockouts contain a series of six tables, showing (1) strikes for the current year according to geographical distribution; (2) strikes according to industries; (3) a general summary of strikes; (+) comparative figures for a series of years beginning with 1894; (5) details of each individual strike during the current year, and (6) details of each individual lockout. The tables are preceded by an explanatory and descriptive analysis, with charts showing fluctuations. Appendices contain brief reviews of industrial conditions, tables showing contributions of trade unions in aid of strikes, and copies of papers and documents relating to the strikes and lockouts reported. The statistics relate to the crown lands represented in the Imperial Austrian Parliament, namely, Bohemia, Bukowina, Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Küstenland, Moravia, Styria, Galicia, Tyrol and Vorarlberg, Silesia, Carinthia, Salzburg, Carniola, and Dalmatia. The data for the statistics are obtained from the local authorities who are furnished with blank schedules of inquiry prepared by the Austrian labor bureau and distributed through the ministry of commerce and the ministry of agriculture. These local authorities obtain the information from the employers and employees concerned and also by personal investigation. The reports thus far published cover labor disputes during the years 1891 to 1900, inclusive.

In Belgium statistics of strikes have been collected and published monthly by the Belgian labor bureau since January, 1896, in accordance with the law of April 12, 1895, which created this bureau, and which requires the publication of such information in its monthly bulletin. The data published each month consist of statistical tables showing the date of beginning and ending of each strike, the locality, number of establishments and strikers involved, the occupations of the latter, and the causes and results, together with a brief analysis. As the statistics have not been published in annual summary form, they could not be used in the present report.

a Die Arbeitseinstellungen und Aussperrungen im Gewerbebetriebe in Oesterreich während des Jahres 1897. Herausgegeben vom k. k. arbeitsstatistischen Amte im Handelsministerium.

Canada has likewise published in similar form, since October, 1900, statistics of labor disputes in the Monthly Labor Gazette, issued by the Canadian department of labor. As these statistics have not been published in summary form, they could not be used in this report.

In Denmark statistics of strikes and lockouts have been collected since the beginning of the year 1997, in compliance with a law passed December 16, 1895. The statistics have been published in brief form each year in the statistical yearbook of Denmark. In 1901 the data for the three years 1897, 1898, and 1899 were published collectively in a more detailed form in a report of the Danish statistical bureau.(a) This report contains an analysis and summaries of the strikes and lockouts, copies of the schedules of inquiry, and details of each individual strike and lockout occurring in 1897, 1998, and 1899. The principal facts shown are the number, time, duration, causes, and results of strikes and lockouts, the number and location of establishments involved, the number and occupations of persons affected, wage loss, assistance received, and cases of arbitration.

In France the collection and publication of statistics of strikes was begun by the French bureau of labor immediately upon its organization, October 1, 1891. Since 1860 efforts have been made by the minister of commerce and industry to obtain reports of strikes from the prefects of the departments. In 1885 a circular calling for such reports and specifying the points to be covered was sent to each of the prefects, but the returns received were very incomplete and were not published, except that the statistics contained in report of the French bureau of labor for the years 1890 and 1891, published in 1892, (%) were compiled largely from the data thus obtained. On November 20, 1892, a new circular was addressed to the prefects of the departments by the minister of commerce and industry, calling upon them to report by letter or telegram whenever a strike was declared, and at its close to complete a schedule of inquiry furnished by the labor bureau of the ministry of commerce and industry. The first report prepared from data thus obtained was for the year 1892. This method of collecting information has been followed up to the present time. The scope of the reports as far as they relate to strikes has been practically the same since they first began to be published. They cover strikes in all industries, including agriculture, forestry, and mining. Beginning with 1893 (c) they also contain information relat

a Strejker og Lock'outs i Danmark 1897–1899. Statistiske Meddelelser, fjerde Række, ottende Bind, fjerde Hæfte. 6 Statistique des Grèves survenues en France pendant les années 1890 et 1891.

Statistique des Grèves et des Recours à la Conciliation et à l'Arbitrage survenues pendant l'année 1893.

ing to the results obtained with regard to the application of the law of December 27, 1892, concerning conciliation and arbitration. (11)

The French reports on strikes, conciliation, and arbitration as now published contain, in addition to an introduction and analysis, detailed tables showing for each year the facts collected for each strike and lockout arranged by industries; a detailed table showing for each occupation the causes and results of strikes; summary tables showing the results of strikes by industries, by causes, by causes and industries, and by months; the number, duration, and results of strikes according to the number of persons taking part; the number and result of strikes according to their duration; tables, maps, and charts showing the distribution of strikes hy departments; the proportion of strikes to the total working population, and detailed accounts of all cases where the law of December 27, 1892, regarding conciliation and arbitration in trade disputes was applied. The report for 1899 contains a series of eight tables giving a recapitulation of strikes and lockouts during the ten years from 1890 to 1899. The reports thus far published cover labor disputes occurring during the years 1890 to 1900, inclusive.

The German Government did not begin the collection of statistics of strikes and lockouts until 1899. The reports cover disputes in all the States comprising the German Empire. They relate to disputes in industrial occupations—that is, in all industries exclusive of agriculture and forestry, scientific, literary, and fine-art pursuits, and the military, State, communal, and ecclesiastical service. The returns are published quarterly in summary form in the quarterly journal of the imperial statistical bureau (6) and the detailed statistics, summary, and analysis are published for the year in the form of an annual report. (c) The information is obtained from the local police authorities, who are required to make a report after each strike or lockouton blank schedules furnished by the imperial statistical bureau. In this bureau the files of newspapers and trade journals are also consulted in order to catch any disputes that might escape the notice of the local police authorities. The reports contain (1) an analysis and summary tables of the strikes and lockouts, (2) copies of the schedules of inquiry, and (3) tables showing in detail, by locality and industry for each dispute, the duration, number of establishments affected and their employees, number of strikers and others thrown out of employment, causes, results, manner of settlement, etc. The reports thus far published cover the years 1899 and 1900.

u For a copy of this law see Bulletin of the U. S. Department of Labor No. 25, pp. 854–856.

Vierteljahrshefte zur Statistik des Deutschen Reichs. c Streiks und Aussperrungen im Jahre 1899. Bearbeitet im Kaiserlichen Statistischen Amt.

In Great Britain statistics covering labor disputes for the United Kingdom have been published since 1888 in the form of annual reports by the labor department of the British board of trade. (1) The report for 1888 is not as comprehensive as those for subsequent years, and the data for that year have not, therefore, been used in the present report. A number of important changes have been made from time to time in the method of presentation of these statistics, which make an accurate comparison of the data for the entire period impossible. Thus, in the earlier reports, from 1888 to 1893, strikes and lockouts were considered separately in many of the important statistical tables, while in later years they are shown together under the general term of disputes. From 1888 to 1896 all strikes and lockouts that were reported to the department were included in the compilations, but beginning with 1897 disputes involving less than ten persons, or resulting in less than one day's stoppage of work are not considered, except where the aggregate duration of a dispute exceeds one hundred working days. Other changes will be mentioned in the form of notes to the tables and in the text of the analysis. The work of collecting and arranging the statistics of strikes and lockouts is in charge of the chief labor correspondent of the labor department of the British board of trade. The information is obtained largely by correspondence. When the existence of a dispute is brought to the knowledge of the department from any source, schedules of inquiry are sent out to the parties concerned. Preliminary information is published monthly in the Labor Gazette. The annual reports as now published contain (1) a detailed statement, showing for each dispute beginning during the year, the locality, number of establishments involved, number and occupations of employees thrown out of work, cause or object of dispute, date of beginning and ending, and result; (2) summary tables for the year; (3) comparative data for a series of years; (1) an analysis of the statistics of strikes and lockouts; (5) statistics of conciliation and arbitration; (6) the text of certain agreements terminating trade disputes. The annual reports thus far published cover the years 1888 to 1900, inclusive.

In Italy strike and lockout statisties have been published annually since 1892 by the bureau of statistics of the Italian ministry of agriculture, industry, and commerce. The first report (6) covers data for the years 1879 to 1891, and for a few months in 1878. No changes of any importance have been made in the subject-matter considered or

a Report by the Chief Labor Correspondent on Strikes and Lockouts.

6 Statistica degli Scioperi avvenuti nell' Industria e nell' Agricoltura durante gli anni dal 1884 al 1891. Ministero di Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio. Direzione generale della Statistica.

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