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TABLE XXII.-SUMMARY OF CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS FOR THE

UNITED STATES-Continued.

Cause or object.

Estab

lishments.

Suc.

Succeeded.

ceeded Failed. partly.

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To compel employees to sign agreement to work only for members of Iron League and change union rules .......

13 To compel employees to sign agreement to wor

members of masters' association..... To compel employees to sign individual contracts .... To compel employees to sign temperance pledge.. To compel employees to stop paying assistance to strikers in another

establishment ... To compel employees to teach apprentices and to withdraw from To compel employees to use material from nonunion establishment. To compel employees to wear uniform .. To compel employees to withdraw from Building Trades Council and to enforce rules of Building Contractors' Council

1,980 1,950 To compel employees to withdraw from one labor organization and join another ...............................

70
To compel employees to withdraw from union....
To compel employees to work on boycotted material ..

30
To compel employees to work on boycotted patterns.
To compel employees to work overtime.......
To compel granite cutters to do quarrying...
To compel men to make up Saturday half holiday...
To compel miners to accept company's weight ........
To compel miners to open abandoned veins.......
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands

243 To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands

and to break up labor unions..........
To compel strikers to relinquish demand.....
To compel union men to allow nonunion men to operate machines.
To compel union men to work with nonunion men.
To compel union men to work with nonunion men and to enforce

increase of hours...
To compel union to declare strike off.....
To compel union to raise boycott..........
To compel union to raise boycott against certain firms
To compel weavers to pay for broken bobbins.......
To compel weavers to work by the piece...........
To compel women to do men's work ........
To discipline employees for being absent without ve........
To enforce abolition of Saturday half holiday......
To enforce abolition of Saturday half holiday and force employees

to work Sundays and overtime...........
To enforce agreement with cornice workers' union as to sympa-

thetic strike.....
To enforce change from day to piece work...
To enforce change from weekly to monthly payment...
To enforce change in apprenticeship rules...
To enforce change in method of doing work.......
To enforce change in method of doing work and open-shop system..
To enforce change in method of doing work or reduction of wages..
To enforce change of date for ending of yearly scale....

247
To enforce contract system...................
To enforce discharge of employees...
To enforce discharge of union employee....
To enforce employment of molders' helpers and abolish union rules.
To enforce increase of hours....

244
To enforce increase of hours and abolition of limit to output per day.
To enforce increase of hours and change from piece to day work.... 10
To enforce increase of hours and reduction of wages...
To enforce Master Stonecutters' Association rules..
To enforce modification of union rules as to right of employees to

work with tools
To enforce new rules.
To enforce new rules and scale...
To enforce new scale.....
To enforce new scale and free-shop system...
To enforce payment of fine for alleged neglect of work.
To enforce payment of fines levied by Building Trades Council..
To enforce piecework system ..............................
To enforce privilege of having sheet metal workers do metallic-

lathers' work......
To enforce reduction of hours to comply with State 8-hour law and
consequent reduction of wages......

1 / To enforce reduction of piece price on introduction of machinery ... To enforce reduction of wages...

503 a 247 **a 86 To enforce reduction of wages and against demand for reduction of hours .......

........ To enforce reduction of wages and against union men...

15
a Not including 1 establishment in which lockout was still pending July 1, 1894.

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TABLE XXII.-SUMMARY OF CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS FOR THE

UNITED STATES—Concluded.

Estab-
lish-

Suc.

Cause or object.

Succeeded Failed. partly.

ments. Ceeded.

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To enforce reduction of wages and free-shop svstem....
To enforce reduction of wages and right to employ a larger number

of apprentices.....
To enforce reduction of wages and use of machinery.
To enforce reduction of wages in other establishments in which strike

was pending ...... To enforce rule requiring employees to remove all clothing for in

spection before and after work.. To enforce rule requiring plasterers to work for members of masters'

association only... To enforce rules ..... To enforce rules of masters' union and against members of certain

labor organizations .......
To enforce rule to reduce force during slack season instead of alter-

nating work among all employees......
To eniorce task system.....
To enforce termination of contract and reduction of wages...
To enforce truck system ....
To enforce use of greater an ount of plate matter...
To enforce withdrawal of boycott .....
To enforce work for another shop in which strike was pending.
To establish board of arbitration to settle all matters in dispute...
To prevent employees from joining labor organization ....
To prevent reduction of hours ...........
To reduce force .........
To resist strike against obnoxious foreman in another establishment.
To resist strike against subcontractor in another establishment....
To resist strike for increase of wages in another establishment.....

Total...

........... 9, 933 a 4, 972 a 615, a 4, 213 a Not including 143 establishments in which lockouts were still pending at the close of 1 of the 3 investigations included in this report.

CHAPTER III.

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS OCCURRING IN THE UNITED

STATES PRIOR TO 1881.

CHAPTER III.

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS OCCURRING PRIOR TO 1881.

The foregoing chapters having presented an account of the strikes and lockouts which have occurred during the years 1881 to 1900, inclusive, it can not fail to be of interest to consider in some detail the disturbances of this character which occurred prior to 1881, in order to discover, if possible, whether strikes and lockouts are novel in our industrial history or have had their beginnings in times and under conditions which have passed away; whether they are the result of the comparatively recent powerful organizations of workingmen, the outgrowth of discontent and dissatisfaction with existing industrial conditions, or the natural result of industrial development. While it may be truly said that the strike, as a method pursued by workingmen to obtain the redress of real or fancied grievances, did not assume such importance as to call for an investigation by the Government of the United States until the year 1880, yet it is equally true that the strike was not a new weapon in the hand of the laborer, for isolated cases of strikes existed before the beginning of the present century. Though it is the very generally accepted opinion that the disturbance in New York City, in 1803, popularly known as the “ Sailors' strike,” was the earliest example of the strike known in this country, this opinion may be authoritatively controverted by facts developed in the present investigation, which afford proof of a series of strikes among the boot and shoe makers of Philadelphia, beginning in 1796, and make it reasonably certain that a strike occurred among the bakers of New York City as early as 1741.

From these beginnings the practice of striking by employees who desired some concession regarding their wages, or were otherwise dissatisfied with the conditions under which they worked, grew until in 1835 strikes bad become so numerous as to call forth remonstrant comments from the public press, the New York Daily Advertiser, on June 6, observing that “ strikes are all the fashion,” and that “it is an excellent time for the journeymen to come from the country to this city.” From this period up to the present time strikes have been common, their frequency depending upon the industrial conditions which prevailed.

The information presented in this chapter concerning strikes and lockouts in the United States prior to the year 1881 has been compiled from published works, and presents, in chronological order and in

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