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TABLE XXI.-CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS, BY INDUSTRIES—Continued.

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Against demand for adoption of new scale and discharge of non

union employees.
Against demand for adoption of union scale.....
Against demand for discharge of nonunion employees ...
Against demand for holiday..
Against demand for increase of wages.....
Against demand for increase of wages and reduction of hours
Against rule of stonecutters' association......
Against threatened strike ...
Against threatened strike for reduction of hours ...
Against union men.....
Against union men and union rules...
Against union rules ......
To compel employees to stop paying assistance to strikers in another

establishment ...............
To compel employees to work on boycotted material...
To compel granite cutters to do quarrying ......
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands ..
To enforce change of date for ending of yearly scale.....
To enforce increase of hours .....
To enforce Master Stonecutters' Association rules ....
To enforce new scale.....
To enforce reduction of wages ......
To enforce reduction of wages and free-shop system..
To enforce reduction of wages and right to employ a larger number

of apprentices ............
To eniorce rule...
To enforce withdrawal of boycott.
To resist strike against subcontractor in another establishment

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Against demand for adoption of union scale ............
Against demand for cash payment .....
Against demand for discharge of foreman.....
Against demand for discharge of members of Cigar Makers' Interna-

tional Union..................
Against demand for increase of wages....
Aguinst demand for removal of machines......
Against demand for removal of sign...
Against demand of Chinese cigar makers against employment of

white labor......
Against employees acting on committee for increase of wages..
Against employees found to be strikers from another shop.
Against members of Cigar Makers' International Union..
Against nonunion men..........
Against objectionable union min...
Against shop rules of employees..................
Against threatened strike......
Against threatened strike against truck system and to enforce reduc-

tion of wages ........
Against threatened strike for adoption of union scale..
Against threatened strike for increase of wages..
Against union men ....
Against union men and union rules..

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TABLE XXI.-CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS, BY INDUSTRIES-Continued.

TOBACCO-Concluded.

Estab

Cause or object.

lish | Suc- Suc. ments. ceeded. ceeded Failed.

partly.

To compel Cigar Makers' International Union to furnish labels....
To coin pel cigar makers to change shape of cigar without change of

price.........................................................
To compel employees to board with company.
To compel employees to furnish union labels.
To compel employees to furnish union labels for cigars made else-

where in nonunion factory .......
To compel employees to join the Knights of Labor.
To compel'employees to live in tenement houses belonging to employer
To compel employees to stop paying assistance to strikers in another

establishment.....
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands...
To enforce change in method of doing work...
To enforce reduction of wages........
To eniorce reduction of Wuges and against union men...
To enforce reduction of wages and use of machinery ....
To enforce reduction of wages in other establishments in which strike

was pending........
To enforce withdrawal of boycott ....

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Against contracting with irresponsible heads of gangs of lumber
shovers .....

..........................
Against demand for increase of wages.........
Against employees joining labor organization...
Against organization of Knights of Labor assembly ..
Against threatened strike .........
Against union men.....
Against union men and union rules.
To enforce reduction of wages...
To enforce rules of masters union and against members of certain

labor organizations.....
To prevent employees from joining labor organization....

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Against demand for discharge of overseer and increase of wages ....
Against demand for increase of wages ..
Against threatened strike for increase of wages.
To compel employees to withdraw from union.
To compel employees to work overtime...
To compel weavers to work by the piece.
To discipline employees for being absent without leave
To enforce reduction of wages.....

Total.....

25

Table XXI.-CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS, BY INDUSTRIES-Concluded.

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Against demand for change from piece to day work ..............
Against demand for increase of wages..
Against demand for increase of wages and reinstatement of dis-

charged employees ............
Against demand for reduction of hours.
Against demand of spinners' union for discharge of apprentice..
Against nonunion men .......................
Against organization of Knights of Labor assembly .........
Against threatened strike
Against threatened strike for increase of wages..
Against threatened strike to enforce agreement as to wages
Against union men ..
Against union men and union rules ....
To compel adoption of proposed scale..
To compel employees to board with company ...
To compel employees to wear uniform
To compel employees to withdraw from union..
To compel strikers in other establishments to reli
To enforce reduction of wages .....
To enforce rule requiring employees to remove all clothing for in-
spection before and after work.

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Total.........

157

TABLE XXII.-SUMMARY OF CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS FOR THE

UNITED STATES.

Cause or object.

Estab

lishments.

Succeeded Failed, partly.

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Agninst contracting with irresponsible heads of gangs of lumber

shovers....
Against demand for adoption of new rules and new scale.
Against demand for adoption of new scale and discharge of non-

union employees.......
Against demand for adoption of union rules...
Against demand for adoption of union rules and union scale..
Against demand for adoption of union scale
Against demand for a year's contract...
Against demand for better material........
Against demand for cash payment.....
Against demand for change from piece to day work ....
Against demand for change of pay day.
Against demand for discharge of foreman...
Against demand for discharge of manager
Against deinand for discharge of members of another labor organi-

zation.........
Against demand for discharge of members of Cigar Makers' Interna-

tional Union ....
Against demand for discharge of nonunion employees...
Against demand for discharge of nonunion employees and increase

of wages .....
Against demand for discharge of overseer and increase of wages..,
Against demand for discharge of superintendent...
Against demand for extra pay for extra hours....
Against demand for holiday.....................................
Against demand for increase of wages..
Against demand for increase of wages and change of pay day..
Against demand for increase of wages and recognition of union
Against demand for increase of wages and reduction of hours...
Against demand for increase of wages and reinstatement of dis-

charged employees ...
Against demand for increase of wages or reduction of hours..
Against demand for pay for lost time ...
Against demand for payment of wages overdue.....
Against demand for payment of wages retained to pay for damages

done to property through carelessness..........
Against demand for reduction of hours.
Against demand for reinstatement of discharged employees...
Against demand for removal of machines..
Against demand for removal of sign..........
Against demand for renewal of agreement.......
Against demand for restoration of wages....
Against demand for Saturday hali holiday....
Against demand for six months' contract......
Against demand for time and a half for overtime
Against demand for union apprenticeship rules.
Against demand for weekly payment..
Against demand of Chinese cigar makers against employment of

white labor....
Against demand of spinners' union for discharge of apprentice.
Against demand to enforce union scale.....
Against employees acting on committee for increase of wages.......
Against employees forming union..........
Against employees found to be strikers from another shop..
Against employees joining labor organization....
Against employees leaving work before close of working hours on

pay day .....................
Against employees receiving visitors during working hours.
Against employees working for contractors not members of masters'

association ..........
Against fines assessed by union and to compel employees to sign
I agreemnent to work only for members of masters' association......
Against fines assessed by union for alleged violation of agreement..
Against members of Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel

Workers ..........
Against members of Cigar Makers' International Union.
Against members of certain unions.
Against members of the Knights of Labor....
Against nonunion men ..............
Against objectionable union man..
Against obnoxious union rules....
Against organization of Knights of Labor assembly..
Against recognition of check weighman selected by miners
Against refusal of employees to use material furnished by establish-
ment whose employees were on strike .......

a Not including 121 establishments in which lockout was still pending December 31, 1886. b Not including 1 establishment in which lockout was still pending March 1, 1901.

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Table XXII.-SUMMARY OF CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS FOR THE

UNITED STATES--Continued.

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291

Against refusal of employees to work during July and August.
Against rule of molders' union limiting production.....
Against rule of stonecutters' association.....
Against shop rules of employees........
Avainst threatened strike .........
Aguinst threatened strike against employment of aged union com-

positor at less than union rates......
Against threatened strike against employment of nonunion men...
Against threatened strike against new foreman.......
Against threatened strike against reduction of wages......
Against threatened strike against truck system and to en

Ce re
duction of wages...
Against threatened strike against use of electrotype plates ....
Against threatened strike against violation of agreement as to clos-

ing factory two months in summer....
Against threatened strike for adoption of union scale...
Against threatened strike for discharge of foreman...
Against threatened strike for discharge of nonunion employees.....
Against threatened strike for increase of wages.......
Against threatened strike for increase of wages and reduction of

hours....................................
Against threatened strike for increase of wages and reinstatement

of discharged employees.
Against threatened strike for increase of wages and to compel em-

plovees to sign yearly contract as to wages, not to strike, etc
Against threatened strike for minimum rate of $2.20 per day ..
Against threatened strike for recognition of union.......
Against threatened strike for reduction of hours......
Against threatened strike for reduction of hours and uniform scale
Against threatened strike for restoration of wages.
Aguinst threatened strike in sympathy with strike elsewhere.
Against threatened strike to compel employers to sign annual agree-

mient...
Against threatened strike to enforce agreement as to wages...
Against threatened strike to enforce union scale.......
Against union apprenticeship rules ...
Against union men.....
Against union men and union rules...
Agrinst union men who refused to obey an order....
Against union rules......
..............

a 28
Against union rules and union scale ......
Against union rules as to number of apprentices allowed ..
Against violation of agreement....
To compel acceptance of company's weight and signing of proposed

contract ................................
To compel adoption of agreement to work 12 hours per day.....
To compel adoption of proposed agreement .....
To compel adoption of proposed scale...
To compel blowers to work on machines with smaller crews ..
To compel buttonhole makers to join Boss Tailors' Union .....
To compel Cigar Makery International Union to furnish labels...
To compel cigar makers to change shape of cigar without change of
price.........................

. .............
To compel deposit as security against striking without notice....
To compel employees to board with company.........
To compel employees to buy machines and return finished work to

another part of city...
To compel employees to do a larger amount of work .
To compel employees to do night work at same rate as day work...
To compel employees to furnish union labels
To compel employees to furnishi union labels for cigary made else-

where in nonunion factory.............................
To compel employees to join certain union ..
To compel employees to join the Knights of Labor ...
To compel employees to leave one labor organization and join

another...
To compel employees to leave union and join stock company.......
To compel employees to live in tenement houses belonging to em-

ployer ......
To compel employees to make certain article for price offered....
To compel employees to operate machinery.....................
To compel employees to pay shop rent....
To compel employees to perform work for another establishment in

which strike was pending ............
To compel employees to raise boycott..
To compel employees to relinquish demand for back shops and to

sign agreement not to strike during the year. To compel employees to sign agreement not to join union.

a Not including 20 establishments in which lockout was still pending July 1, 1894.

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