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Table XX.-CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS, BY YEARS— Continued.

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Against demand for discharge of foreman....
Against demand for discharge of nonunion employees and increase

of wages.....................
Against demand for reduction of hours....
Against demand for renewal of agreement.
Against demand for restoration of wages..
Against objectionable union men.....
Against threatened strike.....
Against threatened strike against use of electrotype plates.
Against threatened strike against violation of agreement as to clos-

ing factory two months in summer......
Against threatened strike for adoption of union scale....
Against threatened strike for reduction of hours and uniform scale..
Against threatened strike for reduction of wages.......
Against union men...
To compel employees to leave one labor organization and join

another .....
To compel employees to operate machinery.....
To compel employees to pay shop rent........
To compel employees to sign individual contracts....
To compel employees to withdraw from union.....
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands.
To compel union men to work with nonunion men
To enforce agreement with cornice workers' union as to sympa-

thetic strike ...
To enforce change from day to piece work...
To enforce increase of hours...
To enforce reduction of wages..
To enforce reduction of wages and against union men.
To enforce rules....

O

AND

102

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Against demand for adoption of union rules ..........
Against demand for discharge of foreman....
Against demand for holiday....
Against demand for increase of wages..
Against demand for payment of wages retained to pay for damages

done to property through carelessness...
Against employees forming union..........
Against objectionable union man..
Against organization of Knights of Labor assembly
Against threatened strike for adoption of union scale.
Against threatened strike for increase of wages...
Against union men....
Against union men and union rules....
Against union rules ......
To compel employees to board with company..
To compel employees to do a larger amount of work......
To discipline employees for being absent without leave..
To enforce reduction of wages...
To enforce reduction of wages and against union men.

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Total...

370

1896.

Against demand for increase of wages and reinstatement of dis

charged employees ............
Against demand to enforce union scale ......
Against employees forming union.......
Against objectionable union man
Against recognition of check weighman selected by miners...
Against threatened strike ......
Against threatened strike against employment of aged union com-

positor at less than union rates.....
Against threatened strike against new foreman....
Against threatened strike for adoption of union scale...
Against threatened strike for increase of wages.....,
Against threatened strike for increase of wages and reduction of

hours..
Against threatened strike for recognition of union.......

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TABLE XX.-CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS, BY YEARS–Continued.

1896–Concluded.

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Against threatened strike to enforce union scale.........
Against union men.....
Against union men and union rules.....
To compel employees to furnish union labels.
To compel employees to live in tenement houses belonging to em-

ployer....
To compel employees to make certain article for price offered ..
To compel employees to raise boycott ........
To enforce change in method of doing work and open-shop system..
To enforce increase of hours and change from piece to day work...
To enforce reduction of wages........

P

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Total....

A

1897.

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Agninst demand for adoption of union scale .......
Against demand for discharge of members of another labor organi.

zation......
Against demand for payment of wages overdue.........
Against employees forming union...
Against fines assessed by union for alleged violation of agreement.
Against organization of Knights of Labor assembly......
Against threatened strike ...........
Against threatened strike against new foreman.
Against threatened strike for adoption of union scale
Against threatened strike for increase of wages ..........
Against union men ......
Against union men and union rules
Against union rules as to number of apprentices allowed ....
To compel employees to furnish union labels for cigars made else-

where in nonunion factory......
To compel employees to sign agreement to work only for members

of Iron Leagle and change union rules ...
To compel employees to withdraw from union...
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands..
To enforce increase of hours.....
To enforce new rules ......
To enforce reduction of wages......
To enforce reduction of wages and against union men...
To enforce termination of contract and reduction of wages...

Total............

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Against demand for increase of wages..
Against demand for reduction of hours.
Against employees forming union......
Against nonunion men ......
Against threatened strike..
Against threatened strike for adoption of union scale...
Against threatened strike for discharge of nonunion employees ..
Against threatened strike for increase of wages....
Against threatened strike for reduction of hours..
Against union men....

.............................
Against union men and union rules....
To com pel blowers to work on machines with smaller crews..
To compel employees to furnish union labels.
To compel employees to leave union and join stock company.....
To compel employees to perform work for another establishment in

which strike was pending ...................
To compel employees to withdraw from union...
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands...
To compel union to raise boycott.....
To compel union to raise boycott against certain firms..
To enforce change in method of doing work.
To enforce modification of union rules as to right of employees to

work with tools....
To enforce reduction of wages......
To enforce reduction of wages and against union men....

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Table XX.–CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS, BY YEARS—Concluded.

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Against employeessed by union anders of musters' as

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Against fines assessed by union and to compel employees to sign

agreement to work only for members of musters' association ..
Against members of certain unions....
Against threatened strike for increase of wages .......
Against threatened strike for increase of wages and to compel em-

ployees to sign yearly contract as to wages, not to strike, etc ...... Against threatened strike to compel employers to sign annual agreement...

.......................................... Against union men...

...........................
Against union men and union rules....
To compel adoption of agreement to work 12 hours per day..
To compel employees to use material from nonunion establishment.
To compel employees to withdraw from one labor organization and

join another ................. .....................
To compel employees to withdraw from union...
To compel miners to accept company's weight..
To compel miners to reopen abaudoned veins...
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands.
To compel strikers to relinquish demands.
To enforce reduction of hours to comply with State 8-hour law and

consequent reduction of wages........
To enforce reduction of wages.........
To enforce rule to reduce force during slack season instead of alter-
nating work among all employees.....

Total.......

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1900.

Against demand for adoption of union scale ...........
Against demand for increase of wages ..
Against demand for reduction of hours .....
Against employees forming union.........
Against employees working for contractors not members of masters'

association.........
Against threatened strike ...
Against threatened strike for adoption of union scale...
Against threatened strike for increase of wages.
Against threatened strike for increase of wages and reduction of

hours..
Against threatened strike for minimum rate of $2.20 per day.
Against threatened strike for reduction of hours...
Against union men.....
Against union men and union rules....
Against union rules ...
To compel employees to do night work at same rate as day work..
To compel employees to relinquish demand for back shops and to

sign agreement not to strike during the year....
To compel employees to sign agreement not to join union.....
To compel employees to stop paying assistance to strikers in another
establishment......

.....................................
To compel employees to wear uniform ........
To compel employees to withdraw from Building Trades Council

and to enforce rules of Building Contractors' Council...
To compel employees to withdraw from union..
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands..
To enforce change in apprenticeship rules.......
To enforce payment of fines levied by Building Trades Council
To enforce privilege of having sheet-metal workers do metallic-

lathers' work ......
To enforce reduction of wages...
To enforce rule requiring employees to remove all clothing for in-

spection before and after work To enforce rule requiring plasterers to work for members of masters'

association only ..... To enforce rules of masters' union and against members of certain

labor organizations.

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a Not including 1 establishment in which lockout was still pending March 1, 1901.

TABLE XXI.-CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS, BY INDUSTRIES.

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS.

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Against demand for adoption of union scale...
Against demand for discharge of nonunion employees...
Against demand for increase of wages.........
Against demand for weekly payment ..
Against members of the Knights of Labor..
Against threatened strike for increase of wages..
Against union men ...........
Against union men and union rules.....
Against violation of agreement....
To compel employees to operate machinery..
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands..
To com pel union men to allow nonunion men to operate machines...
To enforce change in apprenticeship rules..
To enforce change in method of doing work and open-shop system..
To enforce discharge of employees ..................
To enforce reduction of wages...
To enforce rules .....
To establish board of arbitration to settle all matters in dispute.
To resist strike for increase of wages in another establishment

Hai Mio

Total....

292

122

127

BREWING.

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Against demand for adopt

Against demand for adoption of new scale and discharge of non

union employees.........
Against demand for adoption of union rules...
Against demand for adoption of union rules and union scale..
Against demand for discharge of nonunion employees.....
Against members of certain union ........
Against threatened strike to compel employers to sign annual agree-

m ent.........................................
Against union men...
Against union men and union rules.....
To compel employees to use material from nonunion establishment
To compel employees to work on boycotted material ..
To compel union to raise boycott against certain firms...
To discipline employees for being absent without leave...

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Against demand for adoption of union scale...
Against demand for discharge of nonunion employees and increase

of wages ....
Against demand for holiday...
Against demand for increase of wages......
Against demand for payment of wages retained to pay for damages

done to property through carelessness.......
Against demand for reduction of hours........
Against demand for Saturday half holiday..
Against demand for union apprenticeship rules...

107 (a) (a) a Not including 121 establishments in which lockout was still pending December 31, 1886.

ENON

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Table XXI.-CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS, BY INDUSTRIES--Continued.

BUILDING TRADES-Concluded.

Cause or object.

Estab-
lish-

Sie. Suc. ments. ceeded. Ceeded Fail

parily.

173

200

Against employees leaving work before close of working hours on

pay day .... Against employeey working for contractors not members of masters'

association.........
Against fines assessed by union and to compel emplovees to sign

agreement to work only for members of masters' association..
Against fines assessed by union for alleged violation of agreement..
Avainst members of certain union ......
Against refusal of employees to use material furnished by establish-

ment whose employees were on strike.
Against threatened strike against employment of nonunion men..
Avainst threatened strike for increase of wages..................
Against threatened strike for reduction of hours...
Against threatened strike for reduction of hours and uniform scale..
Against union men ........
Against union men and union rules......
To compel employees to do night work at same rate as day work.
To compel employees to join certain union ..
To compel employees to sign agreement to work only for members

of Iron League and change union ruleg.
To compel employees to sign agreement to work only for members

of masters' association .....
To compel employees to sign individual contracts......
To coinpel employees to sign temperance pledge........
To compel employees to withdraw from Building Trades Council and

to enforce rules of Building Contractors' Council ...
To coinpel employees to withdraw from one labor organization and

join another .........
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands...
To coinpel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands

and to break up labor unions...
To compel strikers to relinquish demand...
To compel union men to work with nonunion men.
To compel union men to work with nonunion men and to enforce

increase of hours......
To compel union to raise boycott against certain firins..
To enforce change in apprenticeship rules ....
To enforce increase of hours....
To enforce modification of union rules as to right of employees to

work with tools .......
To enforce payment of fines levied by Building Trades Council..
To eniorce privilege of having sheet metal workers do metallic-
lathers' work....

..........................
To enforce reduction of wages.....
To enforce rules ....
To enforce rules requiring plasterers to work for members of mas-

ters' association only ...........
To enforce termination of contract and reduction of wages...
To enforce withdrawal of boycott.

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Against threatened strike for increase of wages and reinstatement of

discharged employees .....
Against union apprenticeship rules..
To compel weavers to pay for broken bobbins....
To enforce reduction of wages..
Total

................

CARRIAGES AND WAGONS.

Against demand for discharge of foreman.............
To enforce reduction of wages.....

Total......

a Not including 121 establishments in which lockout was still pending December 31, 1886.

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