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Table XX.–CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS, BY YEARS.

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NO

Against demand for change of pay day...
Against demand for increase of wages....
Against demand for reduction of bours ..
Against members of Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel

Workers................
Against union men .....
To enforce change in method of doing work.
To enforce discharge of union employee.....
To enforce increase of hours .....
To enforce increase of hours and reduction of wages......
To enforce reduction of wages .......
To enforce reduction of wages and against union men..
To prevent employees from joining labor organization....

O

Total...

15

1883.

vi

Against demand for discharge of members of Cigar Makers' Interna

tional Union....
Against demand for increase of wages..
Against members of Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel

W orkers..........................................
Against union men .....
Against violation of agreement..
To enforce employment of molders' helpers and abolish union rules.
To enforce reduction of wages......
To enforce rules .....
To compel employees to withdraw from union....

Total ............

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117

1884.

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Against demand for discharge of foreman...
Against demand for discharge of manager...
Against demand for increase of wages.....
Against demand for restoration of wages....
against demand of Chinese cigar makers against employment of

white labor ......
Against employees leaving work before close of working hours on

pay day.......
Against refusal of employees to work during July and August...
Against union men.....
Against union rules and union scale ....
To compel Cigar Makers' International Union to furnish labels
To enforce increase of hours.....
To enforce piecework system......
To eniorce reduction of wages...
To establish board of arbitration to settle all matters in dispute

113
19

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Against demand for adoption of union scale ..
Against demand for discharge of overseer and increase of wages....
Against demand for increase of wages.....
Against demand for payment of wages overdue ...
Against demand for reduction of hours...

TABLE XX.–CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS, BY YEARS—Continued.

1883–Concluded.

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Against demand for reinstatement of discharged employees.........
Against members of Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel |

Workers.....................................
Against members of the Knights of Labor....
Against rule of inolders' union limiting production
Against rule of stonecutters' association...
Against shop rules of employees...
Against union apprenticeship rules.........
Against union men ........
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands
To enforce contract system .....
To enforce increase of hours.....
To enforce reduction of wages.....
To enforce withdrawal of boycott.
To enforce work for another shop in which strike was pending...
To reduce force.......
To resist strike against subcontractor in another establishment....
To resist strike for increase of wages in another establisliinent....

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Total...

107

1886.

(a)

Against demand for adoption of new rules and new scale..
Against demand for adoption of union scale...
Against demand for discharge of nonunion empl
Against demand for discharge of superintendent.....
Against demand for extra pay for extra houry ......
Against demand for increase of wages..
Against demand for increase of wages and change of pay day.
Against demand for increase of wages or reduction of hours.
Against demand for reduction of hours...
Against demand for reinstatement of discharged employees.
Against demand for reinoval of machines.....
Against demand for removal of sign.............
Against demand for union apprenticeship rules......
Against demand of spinners' union for discharge of apprentice
Against employees joining labor organization..
Against members of the Knights of Labor..
Against refusal of employees to use material furnished by establish-

ment whose employees were on strike.....
Against union men .....
To compel buttonhole makers to join Boss Tailors' Union.
To compel Cigar Makers' International Union to furnish labels ..
To compel ernployees to join the Knights of Labor.
To compel men to make up Saturday half holiday ...
To compel union to declare strike oil....
To enforce abolition of Saturday half holiday..
To enforce discharge of employees........
To enforce increase of hours.......
To enforce reduction of wages............
To enforce rules ...........
To enforce task system.....
To enforce withdrawal of boycott....
To prevent employees from joining labor organization...
To prevent reduction of hours......
To resist strike against obnoxious foreman in another establishment.
To resist strike for increase of wages in another establishment..

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Against demand for adoption of union rules and union scale.
Against demand for adoption of union scale...........
Against demand for a year's contract ...............
Against demand for discharge of foreman..
Against demand for discharge of nonunion employees...
Against demand for increase of wages....
Against employees receiving visitors during working hours..
Aguinst members of certain union....

a Not including 121 establishments in which lockout was still pending December 31, 1886.

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TABLE XX.-CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS, BY YEARS—Continued.

1887-Concluded.

Cause or object.

Estab

Suclish

ceeded ments.

ceeded Failed, partly.

197

13

Against threatened strike...
Against threatened strike against truck system and to enforce re-

duction of wages ......
Against threatened strike for discharge of foreman...
Against threatened strike for increase of wages..
Against threatened strike in sympathy with strike elsewhere
Against union men .....
Against union men and union rules.....
To compel adoption of proposed scale..
To compel employees to furnish union labels......
To compel employees to work on boycotted patterns..
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands.
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands

and to break up labor unions......
To compel union men to work with nonunion men...
To compel union to raise boycott against certain firms....
To compel weavers to pay for broken bobbing..
To discipline employees for being absent without leave...
To enforce abolition of Saturday half holiday......
To enforce change in apprenticeship rules...
To enforce increase of hours....
To enforce new rules ....

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To enforce reduction of wages..

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Against demand for adoption of union rules and union scale ........
Agiinst demand for increase of wages...
Against demand for increase of wages and reduction of hours...
Against demand fo: time and a half for overtime
Against nonunion men ...
Against obnoxious union rules ......
Against threatened strike.
Against threatened strike for adoption of union scale..
Against threatened strike for increase of wages and reinstatement

of discharged employees......
Against union apprenticeship rules ....
Against union men .....
Against union men and union rules.......
To compel employees to work on boycotted material .
To compel union to raise boycott against certain firms...
To enforce increase of hours.......
To enforce new scale and iree-shop system..
To enforce reduction of wages......
To enforce reduction of wages and free-shop system ..

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Total............

131

1889,

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Against demand for adoption of union rules and union scale..
Against demand for change from piece to day work.......
Against demand for increase of wages......
Against demand for pay for lost time....
Against threatened strike .........
Against threatened strike against reduction of wages...
Against threatened strike for discharge of foreman...
Against union men .......
To compel employees to do a larger amount of work..
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands...
To compel weavers to work by the piece....
To compel women to do men's work ....
To discipline employees for being absent without leave..
To enforce new rules and scale ......
To enforce reduction of wages..........
To enforce reduction of wages in other establishments in which

strike was pending.......

O

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Table XX.–CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS, BY YEARS—Continued.

1890.

Estab

Cause or object.

lish

Suc

Suc. ceeded.ceeded Failed.

partly.

ments.

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Against demand for adoption of new scale and discharge of non-
; union employees................
Against demand for adoption of union rules and union scale ......
Against demand for adoption of union scale..
Against demand for discharge of nonunion employees and increase
of wages.......

....................
Against demand for holiday......
Against demand for increase of wages...
Against demand for Saturday half holiday..
Against demand for six months' contract.
Against demand for weekly payment...
Against members of certain union .......
Against nonunion men ....
Against obnoxious union rules .....
Against threatened strike for increase of wages...
Against threatened strike for reduction of hours.
Against union men ...............................
Against union men and union rules..
Against union men who refused to obey an order .......
Against union rules.....
To compel employees to furnish union labels.....
To compel employees to sign temperance pledge.....
To compel employees to work on boycotted patterns....
To compel employees to work overtime ..........
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands...
To discipline employees for being absent without leave......
To enforce change from weekly to monthly payment...
To enforce change in method of doing work or reduction of wages..
To enforce payment of fine for alleged neglect of work.
To enforce reduction of wages......

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Total...

213

1891.

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Against demand for adoption of union rules and union scale.....
Against demand for adoption of union scale.......
Against demand for discharge of nonunion employees ...
Against demand for discharge of nonunion employees and increase

of wages ...
Against demand for increase of wages......
Against demand for reduction of hours ..
Against members of certain union ......
Against threatened strike...
Against threatened strike against reduction of wages .....
Against threatened strike against use of electrotype plates
Against threatened strike for increase of wages.....
Against threatened strike for reduction of hours...
Against union men...
Against union men and union rules.....
To compel acceptance of company's weight and signing of proposed

contract...............:
To compel employees to buy machines and return finished work to

another part of city... To compel'employees to stop paying assistance to strikers in another

establishment.
To compel employees to teach apprentices and to withdraw from
union...

....................
To compel employees to work overtime..
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands..
To compel union men to allow nonunion men to operate machines..
To compel union men to work with nonunion men and to enforce

increase of hours............
To enforce change in apprenticeship rules......
To enforce increase of hours...
To enforce Master Stonecutters' Association rules...
To enforce reduction of wages....
To enforce use of greater amount of plate matter .......

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Against contracting with irresponsible heads of gangs of lumber shovers .............

.................... Against demand for adoption of union scale .......... Against demand for discharge of nonunion employees..

Table XX.-CAUSES, ETC., OF LOCKOUTS, BY YEARS—Continued.

1892–Concluded.

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Against demand for increase of wages and reinstatement of dis

charged employees ......
Against demand for reduction of hours
Against employees found to be strikers from another shop...
Against threatened strike against reduction of wages.
Against threatened strike for increase of wages....
Against threatened strike to enforce agreement as to wages
Against union men....
Against union men and union rules.....
To compel adoption of proposed scale.
To compel employees to join certain union...
To compel employees to sign agreement to work only for members

of masters' association............
To compel employees to work on boycotted material
To compel granite cutters to do quarrying ...
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands..
To compel union to raise boycott......
To enforce abolition of Saturday half holiday and force employees

to work Sundays and overtime........
To enforce change in apprenticeship rules .....
To enforce change of date for ending of yearly scale .....
To enforce increase of hours.......
To enforce new rules ...
To enforce new scale.....
To enforce reduction of piece price on introduction of machinery...
To enforce reduction of wages.
To enforce reduction of wages and aguinst demand for reduction of

hours .........:::::
To enforce reduction of wages and right to employ a larger number

of apprentices. To enforce truck system ...

Total..............................

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1893.

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Against demand for adoption of new scale and discharge of non

union employees......
Against demand for adoption of union scale...
Against demand for better material.....
Against demand for change from piece to day work ...........
Against demand for increase of wages........
Against demand for increase of wages and recognition of union
Against demand for reinstatement of discharged employees.
Against members of certain union.....
Against threatened strike for discharge of nonunion employees...
Against threatened strike for increase of wages ........
Against threatened strike for increase of wages and reduction of

h o u rs .........................................................
Against threatened strike in sympathy with strike elsewhere..
Against union men...
Against union men and union rules.....
Against union rules.......
To compel cigar makers to change shape of cigar without change of

price.................... ..... .
To compel deposit as security against striking without notice..
To compel employees to board with company.....
To compel employees to furnish union labels........
To compel employees to operate machinery......
To compel employees to work on boycotted patterns.
To compel strikers in other establishments to relinquish demands.
To compel union men to allow nonunion men to operate machines
To compel union to raise boycott against certain firm...........
To enforce adoption of proposed agreement.....
To enforce increase of hours...
To enforce increase of hours and abolition of limit to output per day.
To enforce new rules ....
To enforce reduction of wages....
To enforce reduction of wages and against union men..
To enforce reduction of wages and free-shop system.
To enforce reduction of wages and use of machinery .....

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a Not including 20 establishments in which lockout was still pending July 1, 1894.
b Not including 1 establishment in which lockout was still pending July 1, 1894.

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