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PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS IN WHICH STRIKES SUCCEEDED, SUCCEEDED PARTLY, AND FAILED IN STRIKES ORDERED AND NOT ORDERED BY ORGANIZATIONS, BY INDUS. TRIES, JANUARY 1, 1881, TO DECEMBER 31, 1900-Concluded.

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goods...

87.50

12.50

11. 43

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Pottery, carthen

ware, etc.......... Printing and pub

lishing .... Public ways con

struction.. Public works con

struction ..... Railroad car build

ing................
Rope and bagging ..
Rubber goods.......
Shipbuilding, etc...
Silk goods ..........
Stone quarrying and
Telegraph and tele-

phone.
Tobacco......
Transportation
Trunks and valises.
Watches ...........
Wooden goods.
Woolen and worsted

goods ......... Miscellaneous....

Total...

21. 43 33.33 25.58 30.00 80.00

20.00
13. 33
11.63
11.51
13. 12

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20. 27

15. 39
16.05
10.93
19.23
28.33

6.11
10.86

8.33 22. 22

2.85 26.53 13.71

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6.76 11.04

9. 70 30.00

32. 66 30.00 27. 27 14.95

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Taking up first the tables which show the number and per cent of establishments in which strikes succeeded, succeeded partly, and failed in strikes ordered and not ordered by organizations, for each year of the period, it is seen that of the 103,455 establishments in which strikes were reported as ordered by organizations during the twenty-year period, the strikers gained their demands in 54,690, or 52.86 per cent of the establishments; they succeeded in partly gaining them in 14,066, or 13.60 per cent of the establishments; while they entirely failed in only 34,699, or 33.54 per cent of the establishments. On the other hand it is seen that in the 13,913 establishments in which strikes were reported as not having been ordered by organizations, the strikers succeeded in gaining their demands in but 4,947, or 35.56 per cent of the establishments; they partly succeeded in 1,259, or 9.05 per cent of the establishments; while in 7,707, or 55.39 per cent of the establishments, they entirely failed in gaining any part of their demands. An examination of the figures for each of the twenty years of the period shows without exception similar conditions as to the success and failure of strikes ordered and not ordered by organizations; and, while the percentages vary in the different years, the tables show that strikes ordered by and carried on under the auspices of labor organizations were more generally successful than those not so ordered and assisted. The per cent of establishments in which strikes ordered by organizations succeeded varied from 33.49 per cent in 1886 to 76.33 per cent in 1899, while the per cent in which strikes not so ordered succeeded varied from 25 per cent in 1888 to 49.93 per cent in 1889. The conditions as regards the success and nonsuccess of strikes ordered and not ordered by organizations, especially as regards the different industries in which strikes occurred during the period, may be seen by reference to the table immediately preceding.

The following table shows the results of strikes, so far as the employees are concerned, for the twenty years ending December 31, 1900:

RESULTS, FOR EMPLOYEES, OF STRIKES, JANUARY 1, 1881, TO DECEMBER 31, 1900.

[This table does not include the results for 37 establishments for which the data were not obtainable by reason of the fact that strikes were still pending, etc.)

Number thrown out of employment. Per cent thrown out of employment.

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The totals, as given in this table, show that the number of persons thrown out of employment in the 59,637 establishments in which strikes succeeded was 2,137,136. In the establishments in which partial success was gained 1,020,43 employees were involved, while in the 42,510 establishments in which strikes failed 2,945,381 persons were thrown out of employment. The last three columns of the table show for each year, and for the twenty years, the per cent of employees thrown out of employment in establishments in which strikes succeeded, partly succeeded, and failed. In compiling these percentages the employees involved in the comparatively small number of estab

lishments in which strikes were still pending or in which the results were not reported for other reasons (about four and one-half hundredths of 1 per cent) were not considered. Taking the total for the period of twenty years, it is seen that 35.02 per cent of the whole number of persons thrown out of employment, in strikes whose results were obtainable, succeeded in gaining the object for which they struck; 16.72 per cent succeeded partly; while 48.26 per cent failed entirely in gaining their demands.

Table I.-Causes, etc., of strikes, by industries. This table includes the facts for all strikes which occurred during the twenty-year period, and furnishes data similar to those given in Tables VIII and IX, classified by the industries in which establishments under strike were engaged, instead of by States as in Table VIII, or years as in Table IX. The corresponding table for lockouts is numbered XXI.

Table XI.-Summary of causes, etc., of strikes for the United States.—This table summarizes the causes, etc., of strikes for all States, all industries, and for the entire period of twenty years, a line being given for each separate cause or object of strikes, without regard to the State, year, or industry in which the strikes occurred. The corresponding lockout table is numbered XXII.

The following shows the 20 leading causes or objects of the strikes which occurred during the twenty-year period beginning January 1, 1891, and ending December 31, 1900, together with the number and per cent of establishments falling under each:

LEADING CAUSES OF STRIKES, JANUARY 1, 1881, TO DECEMBER 31, 1900.

Caure or object.

Estab

lishmente.

Per cent.

E

UCLIO

OLIOUIS.....

.

..

..

.

.

..

...

.

.

28.70 11.23 11.16 7.17

ca si

For increase of wages....
For increase of wages and reduction of hours.
For reduction of hours.......
Against reduction of wages...........
In sympathy with strike elsewhere.....
Against employment of nonunion men.
For adoption of new scale ................
For recognition of union......
For increase of wages and recognition of union.
For eniorcement of union rules.......
For adoption of union scale........
For reduction of hours and against being compelled to board with employer
Against task system...
For reduction of hours and against task system..
For adoption of union rules and union scale.....
For reinstatement of discharged employees ...
For increase of wages, Saturday halt holiday, and privilege of working for em-

plovers not members of masters' association......
Against reduction of wages and working overtime.....
For increase of wages and against use of material from nonunion establishment.
For increase of wages and Saturday half holiday...

33, 731
13, 201
13, 116
8,123
4,078
2, 751
2,712
1,649
1.111
1,068

928
927
917
901

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An examination of the causes or objects for which strikes were undertaken during the period included in this report, as given in Table XI, shows that 20 principal causes included 76.86 per cent of all the establishments, leaving the remaining 1,382 causes active in only 23.14 per cent of the establishments subjected to strikes during the period. It is seen further that practically three causes, involving increase of wages, reduction of hours, and reduction of wages, cover the first four lines of the table, and that these included not less than 58.26 per cent of all the establishments involved in strikes during the last twenty years.

The following table shows for each of these twenty leading causes of strikes the per cent of establishments in which strikes succeeded, succeeded partly, and failed. A few establishments in which strikes were still pending or in which the results were not reported have not, of course, been included.

RESULTS OF STRIKES UNDERTAKEN FOR THE TWENTY LEADING CAUSES, JANUARY 1.

1881, TO DECEMBER 31, 1900.

Per cent of establishments in

which strikes

Cause or object.

Succeeded.

Succeeded

partly.

Failed.

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For increase of wages....
For increase of wages and reduc
For reduction of hours ....
Against reduction of wages .........
In sympathy with strike elsewhere .....
Against employment of nonunion men..
For adoption of new scale......
For recognition of union...
For increase of wages and recognition of union ..
For enforcement of union rules........
For adoption of union scale......
For reduction of hours and against being compelled to board with

employer...................................
Against task system ........................
For reduction of hours and against task system.
For adoption of union rules and union scale.......
For reinstatement of discharged employees....
For increase of wages, Saturday half holiday, and privil

working for employers not members of masters' association..
Against reduction of wages and working overtime.......
For increase of wages and against use of material from nonunion

establishment..... For increase of wages and Saturday half holiday.....

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In the strikes undertaken to secure an increase of wages, which, as has been seen from the previous table, included 28.70 per cent of all establishments involved during the 20 years, success resulted in 52.77 per cent of the establishments, partial success resulted in 17.38 per cent, while in 29.85 per cent such strikes entirely failed. In the strikes undertaken for both an increase of wages and a reduction of hours, 62.49 per cent of the establishments involved succeeded, 21.08 per cent succeeded partly, while 16.43 per cent failed. The results for strikes undertaken for a reduction of hours, against a reduction of wages, and for each of the other leading causes may be seen by reference to the table.

CHAPTER II.

GENERAL TABLES OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.

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