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Table IX.-CAUSES, ETC., OF STRIKES, BY YEARS-Continued.

1886–Coutinued.

Cause or object.

Estab

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Against employment of learners ..........
Against employment of men belonging to different labor organi

zation ..................................
Against employment of nonunion men ..
Against employment of nonunion men, foremen, etc.
Against employment of women at less than union rates.
Against extra work without extra pay.....
Against feeding their own machines (nailery) ........
Against fines for imperfect work .....
Against fines for imperfect work and for better treatment..
Against increase of amount of work required to be done ...
Against increase of apprentices
Against increase of hours...
Against increase of hours and amount of work per hour.
Against increase of hours and for discharge of employees.
Against increase of hours and reluction of wages...
Against increase of work without increase of wages.
Against introduction of automatic register......
Against introduction of machinery .........
Against introduction of two-loom system..
Against joining Cigar Makers' International l'nion..
Against learners doing weavers' work...
Against loading Lake Shore (ars.........
Against obnoxious rules.....
Against overcharge for supplies--powder, tools, etc. .......
Against patent matter......
Against performing work for another establishment in which lock-

out was pending....
Against performing work ior another establishment in which strike

was pending....
Against poor quality of inaterial......
Against readjustment of wages........
Against reduction of hours and wages
Against reduction of wages...... ...................................
Against reduction of wages and discharge of employees, foremen, etc.
Against reduction of wages and employment of apprentices...
Against reduction of wages and employment of nonunion men.
Against reduction of wages and increase of apprentices....
Against reduction of wages and truck system....
Against reduction of wages caused by reduction of hours....
Against return to ten-hour system.............
Against task system......
Against transfer of employee from one position to another without

increase of wages..
Against truck system ...
Against using carts from yard in which strike was pending
Against using nonunion-made material ....
Against violation of agreement..............
Against violation of contract.........
Disagreement among employees regarding new scale.
Disagreement as to payment oi board of einployee.
For abolition of tenement-house work....
For adoption of new scale.............................
For adoption of uniform seale....
For adoption of uniform scale and against fines for imperfect work
For adoption of uniform scale and reduction of hours.
For adoption of union apprenticeship rules ....
For adoption of union, etc., rules..........
For adoption of union, etc., rules and scale.
For adoption of union, etc., scale............
For adoption of union rules.
For adoption of union rules and reinstatement of discharged em-

ployees ..................
For adoption of union rules and union scale....
For appointment of arbitrator.....
For better light and discharge of nonunion employees..
For better lodging .....
For better ventilation ..
For change from day to piece work ...
For change from piece to day work ..
For change from piece to day work and increase of wages
For change in method of doing work ..
For change in method of piece payment
For change of coal screen ....
For change of hour for beginning work..
For change of mine scales...
For change of pay day.........

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a Not including 15 establishments in which strike was still pending December 31, 1886.

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TABLE IX.—CAUSES, ETC., OF STRIKES, BY YEARS—Continued.

1886–Continued.

Suc

Cause or object.

Estab

lishments.

Succeeded Failed. partly

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For change of rules.....
For change of rules and semimonthly payment..
For change of working hours, discharge of engineer, and reinstate-

ment of discharged employee.......
For conference with operators by committee of miners ...,
For discharge of apprentices................
For discharge of employees, foremen, etc..
For discharge of foreman and reduction of hours..
For discharge of foreman and reinstatement of discharged em-

ployees.......
For discharge of nonunion employees...
For 8 hours' work with 10 hours' pay.
For 8 months' pay for 7 months' work..
For employment of a certain check weighman..
For employment of additional helpers..
For employment of check weighmen...
For employment of helpers.....
For employment of union men only.
For enforcement of union rules...
For equal distribution of work
For extra rate for overtime.......
For fixed rate of wages ...........
For increase and readjustment of wages
For increase of force............
For increase of force and better treatment
For increase of hours and wages...........
For increase of wages......
For increase of wages and adoption of union, etc., rules..
For increase of wures and against new method of manufacturing...
For increase of wages and against being compelled to board with

emplover ...........................................................
For increase of wages and against contract system......
For increase of wages and against employment of nonunion men ..
For increase of wages and against obnoxious rules...
For increase of wages and against truck system...,
For increase of wages and change from day to piece work.
For increase of wages and change of pay day....
For increase of wages and change of rules............
For increase of wages and discharge of employees, foremen, etc.
For increase of wages and discharge of nonunion employees..
For increase of wages and in sympathy with strike elsewhere ...
For increase of wages and in sympathy with strike in same estab-

lishment....................................................
For increase of wages and pay for overtime.....
For increase of wages and recognition of union..
For increase of wages and reduction of hours.
For increase of wages and reinstatement of discharged employees.
For increase of wages and weekly payment...
For increase of wages, discharge of superintendent, abolition of truck

System, and discontinuance of Sunday work.....
For increase of wages or reduction of hours ......
For increase of wages, reduction of hours, and discharge of nonunion

employees ....
For increase of wages, reduction of hours, and recognition of union.
For increase of wages, reduction of hours, and weekly payment..
For increase of wages, reinstatement of discharged employee, and

nyainst poor quality of material................................. For increase of wages, reinstatement of discharged employees, dis

charge of foreman, correct record of time, and pay for overtime..
For limitation of number of apprentices ...
For 9 hours' work with 10 hours' pay ....
For par by the hour........
For pay by the ton....
For pay for dead work .....
For pay for dead work and semimontly instead of monthly paymen
For pay for overtime........
For payment for tools......
For payment of wages overdue...
For payment of wagen overdue and recognition of union
For privilege to join union and for pay for waiting time..
For readjustment of wages ..... ....................
For recognition of committee of employees.....
For recognition of union.....
For recognition of union and against discharge of employees...
For reduction of daily task....
For reduction of hours..
For reduction of hours, accepting corresponding reduction of wages.
For reduction of hours and against being compelled to board with

employer .......

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Table IX.-CAUSES, ETC., OF STRIKES, BY YEARS—Continued.

1886–Concluded.

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For reduction of hours and against piecework ....
For reduction of hours and discharge of nonunion employees ...
For reduction of hours and double pay for night work and holidaye.
For reduction of hours and increase of force .....
For reduction of hours and recognition of union......
For reduction of hours and semimonthly payment......
For reduction of hours and weekly payment .....
For reduction of hours, employment of union men only, and against

being compelled to board with employer............
For regular employment...
For regular payment..........
For regular wages and recognition of union..
For reinstatement of discharged employees, foremen, etc.
For remeasurement of work ....
For Saturday half holiday ...
For semimonthly payment.....
For semimonthly payment and change of coal screen..
For stools while car driving ......
For use of winches (stevedores)..
For weekly payment ...
For weekly payment and discharge of overseer..
In sympathy with locked-out employees elsewhere...
In sympathy with locked-out employees in same establishment
In sympathy with strike elsewhere.......
In sympathy with strike in same establishment.....
In vindication of right to belong to labor organizations...
Misunderstanding in regard to price for weaving faulty yarn..
To compel emplover to withdraw from tailors' union.
To compel others to strike for reduction of hours......

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Against abolition of Saturday half holiday.....
Against abolition of Saturday half holiday and employment of non-

union men...........
Against accepting firm's terms on new article of manufacture..
Against adoption of proposed scale.........
Against alleged discrimination in favor of certain employees....
Against alleged discrimination in favor of foreign labor.
Against alleged excessive docking for slate and dirt sent out with

coal...... .....................................
Against alleged excessive fines.
Against alleged unfair deduction from pay for lost time...
Against alleged unsuitable place of work.
Against apprentices doing journeymen's work and for adoption of

uniiorm scale..................................
Against being compelled to board at place designated by employer.
Against being compelled to board with emplover...
Against being compelled to work on holidays....
Against change from day to piece work........
Against change from piece to day work...
Against change from wooden to iron molds and poor quality of ma-

terial.......... .......................................................
Against change in method of doing work ....
Against change in inethod of doing work and for adoption of union

Ecale ........................
Against change in method of doing work and reduction of wages...
Against change of pay day...
Against contract system and for recognition of union.......
Against deduction from wages for machinery broken...
Against demand to leave one labor organization and join another.
Against demand to withdraw from union......
Against discharge of employees ...............
Against discharge of union employees ....
Against discharge of union employees and for increase of wages.
Against employment of additional apprentices...
Against employment of additional apprentices and retention of part

of wages .........
Against employment of apprentices...
Against employment of new overseer to take part of work from old

overseer ...
Against employment of nonunion men ...................

367 240 36
a Not including 15 establishments in which strike was still pending December 31, 1886.

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Table IX.-CAUSES, ETC., OF STRIKES, BY YEARS—Continued.

1887-Continued.

Cause or object.

Estab

lishments.

Suc

Suc. , ceeded Failed.

partly.

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Against employment of nonunion men and for increase of wages

and reduction of hours....
Against employment of nonunion men and for payment of wages

overdue......................:
Against employment of nonunion men and for recognition of union.
Against employment of nonunion men and increase of hours....
Against employment of women ..........
Against employment of women and nonunion men.....
Against fines for imperfect work......
Against firm supplying goods to boycotted establishment.....
Against firm supplying material to establishment which was ob-

taining other material from establishment in which strike was

pending..............
Against foreman being allowed commission on work done....
Against increase of amount of work required to be done..
Against increase of amount of work required to be done and reduc-

tion of price per piece.........
Against increase of hours........
Against increase of hours and reduction of wages..
Against increase of number of heats per day in steel mill.
Against introduction of machinery...
Against introduction of machinery and employment of nonunion

m en......................................
Against lasters furnishing their own tacks and pegs....
Against obnoxious rules.
Against performing work for another establishment in which strike

Wils pending ..........
Against performing work out of regular occupation ....
Against poor quality of material ....
Against reduction and for increase of wages .....
Against reduction of force, causing increase of work.........
Against reduction of wages.........
Against reduction of wages and employment of nonunion men
Against reduction of wages and for recognition of union .......
Against reduction of wages and for regular payment.
Against reduction of wages and for reinstatement of discharged
employees .......
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Against reduction of wages caused by reduction of hours......
Against reduction of wages of some and for increase of wages of

others.....
Against Sunday work and for pay for overtime.
Against Sunday work and for weekly payment..
Against sweating system .......
Against system of measuring work .....
Against use of boycotted material.....
Against use of boycotted putterns..
Against use of material from establishment in which strike was

pending........
Against use of material from nonunion establishment.....
Against use of material from nonunion establishment and employ.

ment of nonunion men.............
Against use of plate matter..
Against violation of union rules..
Against work being sent out of city to be done..
Against working on job with nonunion employees under another

contractor...
Against working overtime ....
Against working with colored men ..
For admission of walking delegates.....
For admission of walking delegates and free beer during working
hours.................

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For adoption of new scale........
For adoption of new scale and reduction of hours ......
For adoption of scale presented by State board oi arbitration..
For adoption of sliding scale ......
For adoption of uniform scale..
For adoption of uniform scale and a vear's contract....
For adoption of uniform scale for docking miners for slate and dirt

sent out with coal..........
For adoption of union apprenticeship rules ..........
For adoption of union rules ....
For adoption of union rules and union scale..
For adoption of union rules and union scale and for discharge of

foreman ........
For adoption of union scale.
For adoption of union scale and reinstatement of discharged em-

ployees .......... For apology from firm for charges made against employees... For better board ....

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Table LX.-CAUSES, ETC., OF STRIKES, BY YEARS—Continued.

1887-Continued.

Estab

Cause or object.

lish | Sucments,

Succeeded Failed. partly.

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For change from day to piece work ....
For change from day to piece work and reinstatement of discharged

employees .......
For change from monthly to mileage rates........
For change from night to day work ....
For change from piece to day work .....
For change in method of keeping time ....
For change in method of piece payment.
For change of pay day....
For change of pay day and retention of less wages as guaranty
For discharge of check weighman.....
For discharge of colored employees ......
For discharge of employees.....
For discharge of employees belonging to another labor organization.
For discharge of foreign employees
For discharge of foreman.....
For discharge of foreman and employment of assistant stokers..
For discharge of foreman and nonunion employees..
For discharge of foreman and reinstatement of discharged em-

ployees ...........
For discharge of head waiter.....
For discharge of inspector....
For discharge of nonunion foreman..
For discharge of ship owners' association agent
For discharge of superintendent...
For discharge of weighman..
For employment of additional helpers.
For enforcement of union rules .........
For extra rate for overtime....
For fortnightly payment.......
For increase of wages..........
For increase of wages and adoption of union rules..
For increase of wages and against employment of nonunion men
For increase of wages and against truck system..
For increase of wages and better board .....
For increase of wages and discharge of foreman.
For increase of wages and recognition of union...
For increase of wages and reduction of hours......
For increase of wages and Saturday half holiday .....
For increase of wages and semimonthly payment...
For increase of wages and time and a half for overtime...
For increase of wages and weekly payment.......
For increase of wages of some and reduction of hours of others..
For increase of wages, reduction of hours, and recognition of union..
For increase of wages, reduction of hours, and reinstatement of dis-

charged employees ...
For increase of wages, reduction of hours, and weekly payment in

cash ..
For pay for extra work .
For ‘pay for extra work and reinstatement of discharged em-

ployees ................
For pay for gross weight of coal ....
For pay for lost time....
For pay for overtime ..
For pay for time spent in preparing looms.
For pay for work damaged by rain before being measured and ac-

cepted ........
For payment in cash instead of by check ..
For payment of alleged shortage in wages ......
For payment of wages overdue..
For payment of wages overdue and reinstatement of discharged em-

ployees ...
For payment weekly in advance.......
For privilege of going out for beer during working hours..
For privilege of working full time .....
For recognition of union. .....
For reduction of hours........
For reduction of hours and against employment of nonunion men.
For reduction of hours and pay for overtime....
For reduction of hours and recognition of union..
For reduction of hours on Saturday .....
For regular payment :..........................
For regular payment in cash and company to furnish tools ..
For reinstatement and increase of wages of employees involved in

strike elsewhere....
For reinstatement of discharged employees..
For reinstatement of disebarged employees and red
For reinstatement of discharged foreman ...,
For renewal of scale..........................

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