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Gift of The Peaple et acc b... lates
ei paian (A. L. A, CA: R: @::-S. To the Armed Foroesárid Mercat Marine
THOMAS E. FINEGAN, M.A., PD.D., Litt.D., LL.D.
Superintendent of Public Instruction
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
in Ten volumes
ILLUSTRATED WITH PHOTOGRAPHS, MAPS, DRAWINGS AND
THE JOHN C. WINSTON COMPANY
HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY
COPYRIGHT 1922, BY
THE JOHN C. WINSTON Co. Copyright 1912-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20-21
Binder protected under
AUGUST 27, 1918
June 4, 1907 DOMINION OF CANADA PATENT RIGHTS OF
JUNE 24, 1919
KEY TO PRONUNCIATION
Three methods are used to indicate the pronunciation of the words forming the headings of the separate articles:
(1) By dividing the word into syllables, and indicating the syllable or syllables to be accented. This method is followed where the pronunciation is entirely obvious. Where accent marks are omitted, the omission indicates that all syllables are given substantially the same value.
(2) Where the pronunciation differs from the spelling, the word is re-spelled phonetically, in addition to the accentuation.
(3) Where the sound values of the vowels are not sufficiently indicated merely by an attempt at phonetic spelling, the following system of diacritical marks is additionally employed to approximate the proper sounds as closely as may be done:
ā, as in fate, or in bare.
of Indian names.
in Fr. bal, Ger. Mann. a, as in fat. a, as in fall. a, obscure, as in rural, similar to u in
but, é in her: common in Indian
sound - corresponding to ē, as in
eu, a long sound as in Fr. jeûne,
Ger. long ö, as in Söhne, Göthe
(Goethe). eu, corresponding sound short or medi
um, as in Fr. peu=Ger. ö short. o, as in note, moan.
as in not, frog—that is, short or
medium. ö, as in move, two. û, as in tube. u, as in tub: similar to é and also to a. y, as in bull. ü, as in Sc abune=Fr. ll as in da,
Ger. ü long as in grün, Bühne. ů, the corresponding short or medium
sound, as in Fr. but, Ger. Müller. oi, as in oil. ou, as in pound; or as au in Ger. Haus.
The consonants, b, d, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, ng, p, sh, t, v, and z, when printed in Roman type, are always given their common English values in the transliteration of foreign words. The letter c is indicated by s or k, as the case may be. For the remaining consonant sounds the following symbols are employed :
ch is always as in rich.
loch, Ger. nach, also other similar
gutturals. n, Fr. nasal n as in bon. ar represents both English r, and r in
foreign words, in which it is gen
erally much more strongly trilled. s, always as in 80. th, as th in thin. th, as th in this. w always consonantal, as in we. x= ks, which are used instead. y always consonantal, as in yea (Fr.
ligne would be re-written lēny). zh. as s in pleasure = Fr. j.