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Through the vicisfy

ei paian (A. L. A, CA: R: @::-S. To the Armed Foroesárid Mercat Marine

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WINSTON'S

CUMULATIVE
LOOSE-LEAF

ENCYCLOPEDIA

A COMPREHENSIVE
REFERENCE WORK

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

THOMAS E. FINEGAN, M.A., PD.D., Litt.D., LL.D.

Superintendent of Public Instruction

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

in Ten volumes

ILLUSTRATED WITH PHOTOGRAPHS, MAPS, DRAWINGS AND
COLOR PLATES; INCLUDING SEVEN COLOR PLATES FROM
THEJ. L. G. FERRIS COLLECTION OF AMERICAN HISTORICAL
PAINTINGS, BY SPECIAL PERMISSION OF THE ARTIST

THE JOHN C. WINSTON COMPANY
CAICAGO
PHILADELPHIA

TORONTO

KF 2308

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

COPYRIGHT 1922, BY

THE JOHN C. WINSTON Co. Copyright 1912-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20-21

Binder protected under
UNITED STATES PATENT Rights or

AUGUST 27, 1918

June 4, 1907 DOMINION OF CANADA PATENT RIGHTS OF

JUNE 24, 1919

P-10-22

KEY TO PRONUNCIATION

Three methods are used to indicate the pronunciation of the words forming the headings of the separate articles:

(1) By dividing the word into syllables, and indicating the syllable or syllables to be accented. This method is followed where the pronunciation is entirely obvious. Where accent marks are omitted, the omission indicates that all syllables are given substantially the same value.

(2) Where the pronunciation differs from the spelling, the word is re-spelled phonetically, in addition to the accentuation.

(3) Where the sound values of the vowels are not sufficiently indicated merely by an attempt at phonetic spelling, the following system of diacritical marks is additionally employed to approximate the proper sounds as closely as may be done:

ā, as in fate, or in bare.
ä, as in alms, Fr. âme, Ger. Bahn=a

of Indian names.
å, the same sound short or medium, as

in Fr. bal, Ger. Mann. a, as in fat. a, as in fall. a, obscure, as in rural, similar to u in

but, é in her: common in Indian

names.
ē, as in meri in machine,
e, as in met.
ė, as in her.
I, as in pine, or as ei in Ger. Mein.
i, as in pin, also used for the short

sound - corresponding to ē, as in
French and Italian words.

eu, a long sound as in Fr. jeûne,

Ger. long ö, as in Söhne, Göthe

(Goethe). eu, corresponding sound short or medi

um, as in Fr. peu=Ger. ö short. o, as in note, moan.

as in not, frog—that is, short or

medium. ö, as in move, two. û, as in tube. u, as in tub: similar to é and also to a. y, as in bull. ü, as in Sc abune=Fr. ll as in da,

Ger. ü long as in grün, Bühne. ů, the corresponding short or medium

sound, as in Fr. but, Ger. Müller. oi, as in oil. ou, as in pound; or as au in Ger. Haus.

The consonants, b, d, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, ng, p, sh, t, v, and z, when printed in Roman type, are always given their common English values in the transliteration of foreign words. The letter c is indicated by s or k, as the case may be. For the remaining consonant sounds the following symbols are employed :

ch is always as in rich.
d, nearly as thin this = Sp. din

Madrid, etc.
g is always hard, as in go.
ń represents the guttural in Scotch

loch, Ger. nach, also other similar

gutturals. n, Fr. nasal n as in bon. ar represents both English r, and r in

foreign words, in which it is gen

erally much more strongly trilled. s, always as in 80. th, as th in thin. th, as th in this. w always consonantal, as in we. x= ks, which are used instead. y always consonantal, as in yea (Fr.

ligne would be re-written lēny). zh. as s in pleasure = Fr. j.

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