The Supreme Court, Race, and Civil Rights: From Marshall to Rehnquist

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SAGE, 1995 M07 25 - 483 páginas

Providing a well-rounded presentation of the constitution and evolution of civil rights in the United States, this book will be useful for students and academics with an interest in civil rights, race and the law.

Abraham L Davis and Barbara Luck Graham's purpose is: to give an overview of the Supreme Court and its rulings with regard to issues of equality and civil rights; to bring law, political science and history into the discussion of civil rights and the Supreme Court; to incorporate the politically disadvantaged and the human component into the discussion; to stimulate discussion among students; and to provide a text that cultivates competence in reading actual Supreme Court cases.

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Contenido

The Era of White Supremacy and SecondClass Citizenship 18011910
1
The Marshall and Taney Eras 1801 1864
3
Fugitive Slave Law
6
Slavery in the Territories
7
Reconstruction and National Protection of Civil Rights
10
The Supreme Courts Assault on Equality 18641888
13
The Waite Court 18741888
17
The Equal Protection Clause and Chinese Ancestry
20
Griffin v Breckenridge 1971
204
Adickes v SH Kress Co 1970
206
Swain v Alabama 1965
210
Evans v Newton 1966
212
Loving v Virginia 1967
214
The Era of Ambivalence and Uncertainty 19691986
217
School Desegregation Remedies
218
The Furor Over Busing
219

Separate but Equal in Law Separate but Unequal in Fact
21
The Thirteenth Amendment and the Peonage Cases
26
Conclusion
27
CASES
28
Dred Scott v Sandford 1857
31
SlaughterHouse Cases 1873
35
United States v Reese 1876
38
Hall v DeCuir 1878
40
Strauder v West Virginia 1880
42
Pace v Alabama 1883
43
United States v Harris 1883
44
Civil Rights Cases 1883
46
Yick Wo v Hopkins 1886
48
Plessy v Ferguson 1896
50
Berea College v Commonwealth of Kentucky 1908
53
Bailey v Alabama 1911
54
The Campaign for Racial Equality 19101953
57
Blacks Abiding Faith in Democracy
60
Jim Crow Housing and the Emergence of Restrictive Covenants
66
The Dawning of Hope
69
Discrimination in the Selection of Juries
70
Coerced Confessions and the Use of Excessive Force
72
Blacks and the Death Penalty
73
The Birth of Discrete and Insular Minorities
75
The Japanese Internment Cases
77
The Beginning of the Demise of the SeparatebutEqual Doctrine
79
A First for an Education Case
80
The Thrill of Victory Over Jim Crow in Interstate Travel and Public Accommodations
81
Protecting Racial and Religious Groups from Defamation
84
Conclusion
85
CASES
86
Grovey v Townsend 1935
87
Smith v Allwright 1944
89
Buchanan v Warley 1917
91
Shelley v Kraemer 1948
92
Powell v Alabama 1932
94
Screws v United States 1945
96
Louisiana ex rel Francis v Resweber 1947
98
Korematsu v United States 1944
100
Missouri ex rel Gaines v Canada 1938
103
McLaurin v Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education 1950
105
Sweatt v Painter 1950
106
Mitchell v United States 1941
107
Morgan v Virginia 1946
108
Beauharnais v Illinois 1952
110
The Era of Rising Expectations and Massive Resistance 19531969
115
School Desegregation
117
Brown I and the Use of Social Science Data
121
Brown II Resistance and More Litigation
125
The Attack on the NAACP
128
From Litigation to Congressional Action
131
Sitins Peaceful Demonstrations and the Judicial Response
137
The Application of Brown in Other Contexts
138
The SitIn Cases
139
Lawful and Unlawful Conduct
146
Eradicating Racial Discrimination in Public Accommodations
149
Equal Housing Opportunities
152
Equal or Unequal?
153
Criminal and Civil Remedies
155
A Persistent Problem
158
Wills Segregation and the Fourteenth Amendment
159
Constitutional Issues
160
Conclusion
161
CASES
164
Boiling v Sharpe 1954
166
Brown v Board of Education Brown II 1955
167
Green v County School Board of New Kent County 1968
168
NAACP v Alabama ex rel Patterson 1958
169
Gomillion v Lightfoot 1960
172
South Carolina v Katzenbach 1966
173
Boynton v Virginia 1960
176
Burton v Wilmington Parking Authority 1961
179
Garner v Louisiana 1961
181
Hamm v City of Rock Hill 1964
184
Edwards v South Carolina 1963
186
Cox v Louisiana Cox I 1965
188
Cox v Louisiana Cox II 1965
190
Walker v City of Birmingham 1967
192
Heart of Atlanta Motel Inc v United States 1964
195
Jones v Alfred H Mayer Co 1968
197
Hunter v Erickson 1969
200
United States v Guest 1966
201
The Intractable Desegregation Problem Moves North and West
221
The Struggle of Mexican Americans in the Educational Arena
223
Discriminatory Practices in Private Institutions
226
The Problem of Minority Vote Dilution
228
Amending 2 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965
233
The Significance of 5 of the Voting Rights Act
234
Fair Employment and the Emergence of Affirmative Action
238
Title VII and the Elimination of Racial Bias in the Labor Market
240
The Emergence of Affirmative Action
245
The Legality of Preferential Admissions in Higher Education
246
RaceConscious Remedies in the Labor Market
248
The Increasing Significance of Race and Class
250
Public Housing Referendums as a Barrier to Fair Housing
252
Site Selection and Rezoning
254
Fair Housing Issues in the Contexts of Exclusionary Zoning and Street Closings
255
The Death Penalty and the Pervasive Influence of Race
257
New Era Old Practices
262
Swain Revisited
267
Private Discrimination Versus Right of Association
269
Protest Rights and Activity
270
Police Harassment or Protecting Society?
271
Conclusion
272
CASES
274
Milliken v Bradley Milliken I 1974
277
Keyes v School District No 1 Denver Colorado 1973
281
Runyon v McCrary 1976
284
Bob Jones University v United States 1983
287
City of Mobile v Bolden 1980
291
Thornburg v Gingles 1986
295
United Jewish Organizations Inc v Carey 1977
301
Griggs v Duke Power Co 1971
304
Washington v Davis 1976
306
Regents of the University of California v Bakke 1978
309
United Steelworkers of America v Weber 1979
317
Fullilove v Klutznick 1980
320
Wygant v Jackson Board of Education 1986
324
Warthv Seldin 1975
328
Havens Realty Corp v Coleman 1982
330
Moore v City of East Cleveland 1977
333
Memphis v Greene 1981
335
Furman v Georgia 1972
338
Batson v Kentucky 1986
346
NAACP v Claiborne Hardware Co 1982
350
The Era of Retrenchment and Unpredictability 19861995
355
A Relaxation of Federal Court Supervision
359
Dismantling De Jure Segregation in Higher Education
361
Voting Rights and Race in the 1990s
362
The Continuing Significance of 2 and 5 of the Voting Rights Act
363
RaceConscious Remedies and Legislative Redistricting
366
The Rehnquist Courts Assault on Affirmative Action and Employment Discrimination Jurisprudence
369
A Cramped View of Title VII
373
Narrowing the Scope of 1981 of the Civil Rights Act of 1866
376
The Definition of Race and 1981 and 1982
379
Removing Barriers to Expeditious Executions
382
Removing the Remaining Vestiges of the Discriminatory Use of Peremptory Challenges
385
The Clash Between Free Speech and Equality
386
Hate Speech in the University Setting
389
The Politics of Race and the Role of Ideology
392
Race and the Criminal Justice System
397
A Nationwide Problem
403
Conclusion
406
CASES
412
Freeman v Pitts 1992
414
United States v Fordice 1992
418
Presley v Etowah County Commission 1992
422
Shaw v Reno 1993
425
City of Richmond v J A Croson Co 1989
430
Metro Broadcasting Inc v FCC 1990
434
Wards Cove Packing Co Inc v Atonio 1989
437
Patterson v McLean Credit Union 1989
440
Spallone v United States 1990
443
McCleskey v Kemp 1987
445
Powers v Ohio 1991
449
RAV v City of St Paul Minnesota 1992
451
Wisconsin v Mitchell 1993
454
UWM Post Inc v Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System 1991
456
Suggested Readings
461
Index
465
Table of Cases
471
About the Authors
483
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