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press until the close of the conflict, late in the spring of 1865. Then the proportions of that conflict were known, and its several events were so well comprehended, that it was not a difficult task to give to each act and scene its relative position and due prominence, while compressing the whole narrative into a space so small as to make the chronicle accessible to the great body of my countrymen. I have endeavored to give a popular narrative of the struggle without much criticism, and as free from technical. terms and tediousness of detail as possible, leaving the preparation of a scientific and critical history of the war to military experts, who are more competent for the task.
I gladly availed myself of the labors of others with pen and pencil, who kindly permitted me to make use of unpublished materials—such as drawings, photographs, diaries, and letters; and I am specially indebted to the courtesy of the proprietors of Harper's Weekly and Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, whose artists accompanied the great armies throughout the whole struggle, and preserved the lineaments of a thousand objects which were soon swept away by the storms of war. I was accorded free access to all official reports allowed to be made public; and chiefly from these and the drawings of engineers, the narratives of marches, battles, and sieges were compiled, with accompanying maps and plans. In the work will be found the portraits of the prominent actors, civil and military, of both parties to the conflict; also views and plans of battle-grounds; head-quarters of officers; weapons and ships of war; forts; arsenals; medals of honor, and other gifts of gratitude; costumes of soldiers; flags; banners; badges; and a great variety of other objects whereby the eye may be instructed concerning the materials used in the conflict.
The engravings, whilst they embellish the book, have been introduced for the higher purposes of instruction, and are confined to the service of illustrating facts. They have been prepared under my direct supervision; and great pains have been taken to make them correct delineations of the objects sought to be represented. In each volume will be found a table of contents, and a list of illustrations; and, at the close of the work, a copious analytical index. There will also be found biographical sketches of the prominent actors in the war, civil and military, arranged in cyclopedia form, and making an important Biographical Dictionary.
I am profoundly grateful to my personal friends, and to my
countrymen of every degree, from the most humble citizen and soldier to statesmen, army and navy officers of every rank, governors, and the President and his cabinet ministers, who kindly aided me in my labors in the collection of materials for this work. It would be a pleasant privilege to mention the name of each, but they are legion, and for obvious reasons it may not be done.
THE RIDGE, DOVER PLAINS, N. Y., September, 1873.
POLITICAL CONVENTIONS IN 1860.
Preliminary Observations, page 17.-Democratic Convention at Charleston, 18.-The "Cincinnati Platform," 21.-Conflicting Reports on a Platform of Principles-Secession of Delegates, 22.-Balloting for a Candidate, 23-Seceders' Convention, 24.-Adjourned Democratic Convention in Baltimore, 25.-Another Secession, 26-Nomination of Stephen A. Douglas for the Presidency, 27.-Nomination of John C. Breckinridge for the Presidency, 28.-National Constitutional Union Convention, 29.-Nomination of John Bell for the Presidency, 30.-Republican Convention, 31.-Nomination of Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency, 82.-The Four Parties, 33.-The Contest, and Election of Lincoln, 34.
PRELIMINARY REBELLIOUS MOVEMENTS.
The Votes at the Election, 36.-Incendiary Work of Politicians, 87.-The Press and the Pulpit, 38.-Designs of the Oligarchy, 89.-Firing "the Southern Heart"-John C. Calhoun, 41.-Virginia Politicians, 42.-Conspirators in Buchanan's Cabinet, 43.-Rebellious Movements in South Carolina, 46.-Resignation of National Officers, 48.-Rejoicings in Charleston and Columbia-Excitement in Slave-labor States, 49.-Secession in the South Carolina Legislature, 50.-Secession Movements in Georgia, 51.-Union Speech of Alexander H. Stephens, 58.-The Political Advantages enjoyed by the Southern States, 57.-Proceedings of the Georgia Legislature, 58-Secession in Mississippi, 59.-Secession in Alabama and Florida, 60.-Proceedings in Louisiana, 61.-Attitude of Texas and North Carolina, 62.-Disunion long contemplated, 63.
ASSEMBLING OF CONGRESS.-THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.
Meeting of the Thirty-sixth Congress, 64.-President Buchanan's Message, 65.-The Fugitive Slave Law, 67.— Personal Liberty Acts, 68.-Opinion of Attorney-General Black, 70.-Secession impossible, 71.-The President's Indecision and Recommendations-Denunciations of the Message, 78.-Disappointment of the People, 14-Movements of the Clergy-Warnings of General Scott, 75.-General Wool's Letter to General Cass, 76. -Resignation of Cass-Fast-Day proclaimed, 77.-Clingman's Treasonable Speech in the Senate, 78.-Crittenden's Rebuke-Hale's Defiance, and the Anger of the Conspirators, 79.-Iverson's Treasonable Speech in the Senate, 80.-Speeches of Senators Davis and Wigfall, 81.-Cotton proclaimed King, 82.-The Cotton "Kingdom," 83.-Wigfall's insolent Harangue, 84.
SEDITIOUS MOVEMENTS IN CONGRESS.-SECESSION IN SOUTH CAROLINA, AND ITS EFFECTS. Conduct of Southern Representatives in Congress-Committee of Thirty-three, 86.-Amendments to the Constitution proposed, 87.-The "Crittenden Compromise," 89.-Temper and Wishes of the South Carolina Politicians, 91.-Earlier Secession Movements, 92.-Memminger on a Revolutionary Mission to Virginia-Why Virginians hesitated, 94.- Power of the Politicians in South Carolina, 95.-R. Barnwell Rhett and his Incendiary Speech, 96.-Appeals to the Passions of the People-Officers of the Army and Navy invited to resign, 97.-A Gala Day in Charleston-Secession foreordained, 98.-Assembling of the South Carolina
Secession Convention, 100.-Reassembling in Charleston, 101.-Proceedings of the Convention, 102.-Re-
joicings in Charleston, 104.-Signing of the Ordinance, 106.-Commissioners to Washington appointed. 109.
-Addresses and Declaration, 109-110.-The Nationality of South Carolina proclaimed, 111.-Rejoicings
because of the Revolutionary Act at Charleston, 113.-Impressions in the Free-labor States, 114.-Financial
Condition of the Country, 115.
Fortifications in Charleston Harbor, 117.-Major Anderson takes Command and warns the Government, 118.-
Treason in the War Department-Alarm of the Conspirators in Congress, 120.-The Conspirators supplied
with Arms, 121.-Military Preparations in Charleston, 124.--The Government deaf to Warnings and Sugges
tions of Anderson and Scott, 125.-Seizure of Fort Monroe contemplated, 126.-Disruption of Buchanan's
Cabinet, 127.-Anderson and his Garrison leave Fort Moultrie and occupy Fort Sumter, 129.-Raising of the
Flag over Sumter, 180.-Rage of the Conspirators-Joy of the Loyalists, 181.-Mrs. Anderson's Journey to
Fort Sumter and back, 183.-Preparations to attack Fort Sumter, 136.-Seizure of Forts in Charleston
Harbor, 187.--Seizure of the Custom House and Post-Office, 189.
AFFAIRS AT THE NATIONAL CAPITAL.-WAR COMMENCED IN CHARLESTON HARBOR.
Excitement throughout the Country-Withdrawal of South Carolina Representatives from Congress, 140.-
Action of New York Representatives, 141.-State of Feeling in Washington City, 142.-Intentions of the
Conspirators. 148.-Robbery of the Indian Trust-Fut 144.-Resignation of Secretary Floyd-Cabinet
Changes, 146.-South Carolina Commissioners in Washington, 147.-Their Correspondence with the Presi-
dent, 148.-The President on New Year's Day, 151.-Departure of the Commissioners-Preparations to re-
enforce Fort Sumter, 152.-Expedition of the Star of the West, 153.-Preparations to attack Fort Sumter-
The Seizure of National Forts recommended, 154.-Approach of the Star of the West, 155.-She is driven
from Charleston Harbor, 156.-Boastings and Sufferings of the Conspirators, 158.-Correspondence between
Major Anderson and Governor Pickens, 159.-The Surrender of Fort Sumter demanded and refused, 160.
SECESSION CONVENTIONS IN SIX STATES.
Minute-Men-Seizure of Forts in North Carolina, 161.-Secession Movements in Mississippi, 162.-Secession
Convention, 163.-Blockade of the Mississippi at Vicksburg-Preparations for War, 164.-Secession Con-
vention in Florida, 165.-Preparations to seize Fort Pickens, 166.-Occupation of Fort Pickens by Lieu-
tenant Slemmer 167.-Pensacola Navy Yard surrendered, 169.--Seizure of Chattahoochie Arsenal, 170.--.
Demand for the Surrender of Fort Pickens, 171.-Secession Convention in Alabama, 172.-Opposition to
Secession, 178.-Rejoicings in Mobile-Seizure of Forts Morgan and Gaines, 175.-Work of Conspirators in
Georgia-Treasonable Movements in Washington City, 176.-Toombs urges the Georgians to rebel-Anxiety
of Professed Unionists, 177.-Secession Convention in Georgia, 178.-Seizure of Fort Pulaski, 179.-Position
of Louisiana-Doings of her Disloyal Politicians, 180.-Seizure of Forts, and Baton Rouge Arsenal, 181.-
The Marine Hospital seized-Secession Convention, 182.-Slidell's Seditious Letter, 183.-Pelican Flag
blessed, 184.-Secretary Dix's Order to shoot any one who should attempt to haul down the American
Flag-Seizure of the Mint, 185.-State of Public Feeling in Texas, 186.-Knights of the Golden Circle-
Loyal Action of Governor Houston, 187.--Secession Convention in Texas-Committee of Safety, 188.-The
Governor and the Secessionists at War, 189.-Houston's Patriotism overcome, 190.-The Powers of the
People usurped, 191.
ATTITUDE OF THE BORDER SLAVE-LABOR STATES, AND OF THE FREE-LABOR STATES.
Emissaries of the Conspirators at Work, 192.-The Virginia Legislature, 198.-A Peace Convention proposed—
Attitude of Virginia-Virginia Conspirators in Congress-Position of Maryland, 195.—Action of Governor
Hicks, 196-He is denounced as a Traitor to the South," 197.-Loyal Action of Delaware and North Caro-
lina-The Latter sympathizes with the Slave-labor States, 198.-Disloyal Action of the Governor of Ten-
nessee-The People overwhelmingly for the Union-Position of Kentucky. 199.-Convention of Union
and Douglas Men--Action of the Legislature-Attitude of Missouri. 200.-Treason of Governor Jackson-
Arkansas resists Secession, 201.--Loyal Attitude of Maine and Massachusetts, 202.-Action of Rhode
Island-Patriotic Resolutions in the New York Legislature, 204.-The Secession of the City of New York
proposed by its Mayor, 205.-Alarm in Commercial Circles-Meetings in New York, 206.-Democratic
Convention at Albany-" American Society for Promoting National Union," 207.-Action in New Jersey,
208-Great Meeting in Philadelphia, 209.-Action of the Pennsylvania Legislature, 210.—Patriotic Attitude
of Ohio and Indiana, 211.-Patriotic Proceedings in Michigan and Illinois, 212.-Wisconsin and Iowa pledge
their Aid to the Government, 218.-Minnesota true to the Union, 214.-Encouragement for the Conspira-
PROCEEDINGS IN CONGRESS.-DEPARTURE OF CONSPIRATORS.
Line between Loyalists and Disloyalists distinctly drawn-Conspirators in Congress, 216.-The Conspiracy
revealed by a "Southern Man," 217.-The People alarmed-Unsatisfactory Message from President
Buchanan, 218.-Position of the President-General Wool's Warning-Firmness of the Union Men in Con-
gress, 219.-Jefferson Davis's Proposition to amend the Constitution, 220.-Useless Labors of the two great
Committees Senator Clark's Proposition-Conspirators determined on Disunion, 221.-Action of the Senate
Committee of Thirteen-Of the House Committee of Thirty-three, 222.-Debates on Crittenden's Proposi-
tions-Toombs declares himself a Rebel, 224.-Hunter's Propositions, 225.-Seward's Position defined-
Union Speeches, 226–227.—Final Action on the Crittenden Compromise-Withdrawal of Disloyal Senators,
228.-Seizure of Arms in New York, 230.—Slidell's last Speech in the Senate. 231.-Senator Benjamin's
last Speech in Congress, 232.-Disloyal Representatives leaving Congress-Conciliatory Action of the Union
Members, 233.-C. F. Adams's Resolution, 234.
PEACE MOVEMENTS.-CONVENTION OF CONSPIRATORS AT MONTGOMERY.
Assembling of the Peace Convention at Washington City, 235.-Sincerity of the Virginia Politicians suspected
-Instructions to Massachusetts and New York Delegates, 236.-Other Delegates instructed-John Tyler
President of the Convention, 237.—Mr. Guthrie's Report, 288.-Other Propositions, 239.—Adoption of
Guthrie's Report, 240.-Reverdy Johnson's Resolution--Proposed Articles of Amendment, 241.-Action of
Congress on Compromises, 242.-The People and the Failure of the Peace Conference, 248.—Tyler's
Treachery-General Scott's Desire for Peace indicated, 244.-His Letter to Mr. Seward-Professor Morse's
Plan for Reconciliation, 245.-Meeting of Conspirators at Montgomery, 248.--Policy of South Carolinians-
A Confederacy of "Seceded" States proposed, 250.--A Provisional Constitution adopted, 251.-South
Carolinians rebellious--Jefferson Davis elected "President," and Alexander H. Stephens "Vice-President"
of the Confederacy, 252-Stephens's Speeches-Committees appointed, 258.-Action of the Convention
concerning a Flag for the "Confederacy," 254.--First Assumption of Sovereignty-South Carolinians
offended, 256.-Davis journeys to Montgomery-His Reception and Inauguration, 257.-Davis's Cabinet,
256-Sketch of Davis and Stephens, 259.- Confederate" Commissioners sent to Europe-Stephens ex-
pounds the Principles of the New "Government," 260.
Arrogance and Folly of the Conspirators illustrated, 262-Financial Schemes of the Conspirators-Reliance on
Cotton-Permanent Constitution adopted, 263.-Its Character-Assumption of Power and Sovereignty, 264.
-Treason of General Twiggs in Texas, 265.-Surrender of National Troops and Forts to the Insurgents,
267.-Twiggs degraded and honored-Bad Faith of the Insurgents, 268.-Scenes at San Antonio, 269.-Forts
surrendered, 270.-Earl Van Dorn in Texas, 271.-National Troops under Sibley made Prisoners-Capture
of the Star of the West, 272.-Troops under Reese made Prisoners-Texas a Part of the Confederacy-The
Confederate Constitution and the Secession Conventions, 273.-How the People were misled and betrayed
-The Spirit of Jefferson Davis-Abraham Lincoln, 274.-Mr. Lincoln's Departure for Washington City,
275.-His Journey and short Speeches, 276.-Conspiracy against his Life, 278.-His Narrative of his Journey
from Philadelphia to Washington, 279.-The Conspiracy in Baltimore, 281.-Lincoln at the Capital, 282.-
Commissioner from South Carolina, 288.-Secretary Holt's Letter, 284.-How the President's Resolution
was strengthened, 285.-Commissioner from Alabama, 286.