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ordinate commands of Bragg, Polk, Cheatham, and others, were chiefly in camp at Corinth, Miss., with detachments at several points on the railroads. This place is at the junction of the Mobile and Ohio and the Memphis and Charleston Railroads, in an uneven country, and not far from the line dividing the States of Tennessee and Mississippi.
Gen. Grant landed his forces at Savannah, Tenn., a small place on the Tennessee river, about one hundred and seventy miles above Fort Henry, and about twenty-five miles from the Mississippi State line. His original force was increased by a considerable body of infantry from Ohio. As many as eightytwo steamers, laden with troops, had arrived at Savannah by the 13th of March. These “invaders were received with enthusiastic demonstrations of joy by the inhabitants of that part of Tennessee through which they passed.
Soon after the arrival of Gen. Grant in person, the army was advanced seven miles up the river to Pittsburg Landing. Gen. Buell was ordered by Halleck to effect a junction with Grant. Little alacrity, however, was shown by Buell in complying with this order, so manifestly requiring prompt execution in view of the greatly superior Rebel force known to be in front of Grant. It was not until the 28th of March that Buell left Nashville. On the 30th, the rear of his army was at Columbia, but eighty-two miles distant from Savannah. This distance was passed over by leisurely marches, averaging less than twelve miles a day, while Beauregard was putting in execution his well-devised plan for attacking Grant in overwhelming force before Buell should come to his support.
On the 3d of April, Gen. Johnston issued a brief address to the Army of the Mississippi, to inspirit them in executing the purpose formed, “to offer battle to the invaders," and the Rebel forces were put in motion toward Pittsburg Landing. Orders were at the same time issued, dividing the army into three
corps, the first to be commanded by Polk, the second by Bragg, and the third by Hardee. John C. Breckinridge was given the command of a reserve division. The chief command seems to have been jointly held by Johnston and Beauregard, until the former fell, early during the first day's engagement,
Before six o'clock on the morning of Sunday, the 6th day of April, a party of the Rebels attacked Grant's left—that offi. cer being then absent at Savannah, superintending preparations for receiving and crossing over the anxiously-expected forces of Buell. At eight o'clock the enemy advanced in strong force, and captured Gen. Prentiss, with two thousand prisoners. Hurlbut came to the support of the retreating division of Prentiss, and temporarily checked the enemy's ad
Part of Sherman's force, on the right of Prentiss, was routed, and a heavy column was thrown against McClernand's division in the center, which, before noon, was driven backward to the line of Hurlbut. The fight was bravely maintained, and the force attacking McClernand was once temporarily driven back for some distance; but the whole of our army was compelled gradually to give way. Only the most invincible courage of the men, with cool and determined leail. ership, could save the army now from utter defeat. The dirision commanded by Gen. W. H. L. Wallace, (in the absence of Gen. C. F. Smith,) on the right, had, with that of Hurlbut on the left, occupied positions next the river, and on these, with one of Sherman's brigades on the extreme left, now fell the weight of the Rebel advance. Four times attempts were made by the Rebels to charge on the gallant forces of Wallace, but each time volleys of musketry and the fire of well. directed artillery, drove back the assailants with terrible slaughter. Hurlbut's division was driven back, at length, from its camp to the shelter of woods beyond. Here, with their raking fire across the open fields, they three times repulsed the advancing enemy. The right of this division was further supported by forces rallied from the broken divisions. Mean. while Gen. L. Wallace, who was at Crump's Landing, five miles below, was anxiously looked for, in the overwhelming odds against the remaining divisions, but unfortunately, though ordered up, he failed to reach the scene of action until nightfall.
Finally, Hurlbut's division was compelled to retire, and at length that of Wallace, who fell, mortally wounded. The whole army was now compressed into a comparatively small srea, near the Landing; many guns had been lost; thousands
of prisoners taken; and one more determined attack seemed sufficient to drive the men pell-mell into the river, adequate means for transporting them across the river being wanting. Now it was that the field batteries were collected and skillfully put in position, by Col. Webster, Grant's Chief of Artillery, preparatory to the expected onset. The Rebel advance drew the destructive fire of twenty-two guns, with that of the two gunboats at the mouth of Lick Creek. Staggered by this terrible hail, the enemy were kept in check until night closed upon the bloody field.
Beauregard joyously announced to his superiors at Richmond “a complete victory," with “ the loss on both sides heavy, including our commander-in-chief, Albert Sidney Johnston, who fell gallantly leading his troops into the thickest of the fight." As the vaunting author of this dispatch soon learned, however, to his cost, the announcement of victory was premature. Another day entirely changed the face of events.
Before the conflict of Sunday had fairly closed, Gen. Nelson's division of Buell's army appeared on the opposite side of the river, and both those officers in person. During the night, the divisions of Crittenden and McCook also arrived; while Gen. L. Wallace, of Grant's army, took position, about one o'clock in the morning, on the extreme right.
Thus reënforced, Grant assumed the offensive, ordering an advance at dawn. The enemy was now forced back, from point to point, all along his line, the fight continuing without intermission from nine o'clock in the morning until five in the evening. At the latter hour the whole field had been regained, and the defeated Rebels put to flight. Our troops were too weary with the two days' hard conflict to make an effective pursuit. On the next day, Gen. Beauregard sent a flag of truce from his headquarters at Monterey, asking "permission to send a mounted party to the battle-field of Shiloh, for the purpose of giving decent interment" to his dead. To this Gen. Grant replied, on the 9th, saying that, owing to the warmth of the weather, he had deemed it advisable to have all the dead of both parties buried immediately, and that this was "dow accomplished."
Gen. Grant estimated his loss in killed and wounded at 5,000. There was the further loss of about 3,000 prisoners taken on Sunday, making a total of 8,000. Gen. Beauregard, in his official report, conceded a Rebel loss of 1,728 killed, 8,012 wounded, and 959 missing-an aggregate of 10,699.
The numbers engaged under Gen. Grant, on the first day, were about 40,000, many of whom were raw troops but recently arrived. Nearly 30,000 fresh troops participated in the battle on the 7th. The Rebel force, consisting of three entire army corps, and a reserve division, may be estimated at not far from 70,000.
Gen. Halleck soon after took the field in person, and prepared for an advance on the enemy's stronghold at Corinth, to which place Beauregard retired with his army, directly after the defeat at Shiloh.
On the 22d of March, the President constituted two new military departments--the first called the Department of the Gulf, comprising all the coast of the Gulf of Mexico west of Pensacola harbor, and so much of the Gulf States as should be occupied by the commander, Maj. Gen. B. F. Butler; and the second, including the States of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, with the forces heretofore under Gen. T. W. Sherman, to be under the command of Maj. Gen. David Hunter.
A joint expedition under Com. Farragut and Gen. Butler, to capture and occupy New Orleans, and to coöperate thence with the movements from Cairo downward to reopen the Mississippi river, had been organized in the autumn of 1861. Gen. Butler's forces were to rendezvous at Ship Island, for which place the command of Gen. Phelps sailed from Fortress Monroe on the 27th of November, arriving on the 3d of December. During this latter month, two gunboats of Farragut had some skirmishing with Rebel gunboats in Mississippi Sound; and in January another considerable installment of Butler's force arrived at Ship Island. A mortar fleet, under Com. D. D. Porter, was also added to the naval portion of the expedition. Com. Farragut left Hampton Roads in the steamer Hartford, on the 3d of February, to assume command of the squadron which was to operate against New Orleans, and arrived at Ship Island on the 20th. The chief obstacles to his intended advance, after crossing the bar, were Forts St. Philip and Jackson, on the Mississippi river, seventy-five miles below New Orleans. These works were so formidable, and the preparations to receive the “Northern armada" so thorough, that the Rebels were entirely confident of success in repelling all attacks. That part of Farragut's fleet which crossed the bar consisted of the steam sloops Hartford, 24 guns, (flag ship); Richmond, 26; Pensacola, 24; Brooklyn, 24; Mississippi, 12; Iroquois, 9; Oneida, 9; the sailing sloop-of-war Portsmouth, 17; the gunboats Varuna, 12; Cayuga, 9; and eight others of 4 guns each. Com. Porter's mortar fleet consisted of twenty schooners, mounting one large mortar, with two small guns, and was accompanied by the Harriet Lane, (flag ship,) the Miami, and three other steamers carrying five or six guns each. No part of either fleet was iron-clad.
Much time was consumed in getting these vessels over the bar at the mouths of the Mississippi. The bombardment commenced on the 18th of April, the mortar boats leading, supported by the gunboats, which made occasional approaches to the forts, drawing their fire. The bombardment continued for six days with no material result apparent, except the breaking of a heavy rifled gun on Fort St. Philip. By a bold movement, begun at two o'clock on the morning of the 24th, a portion of Farragut's fleet, after a gallant fight, succeeded in overcoming all obstructions and passing the forts. With nine of his vessels, Com. Farragut appeared before New Orleans on the 25th. Forts St. Philip and Jackson capitulated on the 28th. Gen. Butler was at hand with his forces, the Rebel Gen. Lovell made a precipitate retreat into the interior of the State, and the city was surrendered, Gen. Butler taking possession on the 1st day of May.
For a time, the cheering and substantial results recited in this chapter were claimed, by many, as triumphs due to a "grand plan" of the young General-in-chief; while others as confidently pointed out their inconsistency with an alleged scheme which involved “thunder around the whole horizon,"