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or who are so employed as to be wholly unproductive to the State, at one hundred and twenty-five thousand. Any man who is an observer of things could hardly pass through our country, without being struck with the fact that all the capital, enterprise, and intelligence, is employed in directing slave labor; and the consequence is, that a large portion of our poor white people are wholly neglected, and are suffered to while away an existence in a state but one step in advance of the Indian of the forest. It is an evil of vast magnitude, and nothing but a change in public sentiment will effect its cure. These people must be brought into daily contact with the rich and intelligent—they must be stimulated to mental action, and taught to appreciate education and the comforts of civilized life; and this, we believe, may be effected only by the introduction of manufactures. My experience at Graniteville has satisfied me that unless our poor people can be brought together in villages, and some means of employment afforded them, it will be an utterly hopeless effort to undertake to educate them. We have collected at that place about eight hundred people, and as likely looking a set of country girls as may be found-industrious and orderly people, but deplorably ignorant, three-fourths of the adults not being able to read or to write their own names.

* It is only necessary to build a manufacturing village of shanties, in a healthy location, in any part of the State, to have crowds of their people around you, seeking employment at half the compensation given to operatives at the North. It is indeed painful to be brought in contact with such ignorance and degradation."

Again he asks :

"Shall we pass unnoticed the thousands of poor, ignorant, degraded white people among us, who, in this land of plenty, live in comparative nakedness and starvation ? Many a one is reared in proud South Carolina, from birth to manhood, who has never passed a month in which he has not, some part of the time, been stinted for meat. Many a mother is there who will tell you that her children are but scantily provided with bread,

and much more scantily with meat; and, if they be clad with comi ruzie raneat it is at the expense of these scanty allowances offraiTsese may be startling statements, but they are never

be eis true; and is not believed in Charleston, the members of criosaicre sho have traversed the State in electioneering caris can attest the truth."

Is as article on Manufadures in South Carolina," pubWsce time ago in De Bor's Rerier, J. H. Taylor, of LES.C.) says:

-There is in some quarters, a natural jealousy of the slightest eta::a ca este sted habits, and because an effort has bezalewe wtet ide poor and unemployed white population

Ces faresSears bare arisen that some evil would Tick the introduction of such establishments among

Tbe por man has a rote as well as the rich man, ci-saie bezber of the former will larg ls overbalance the set. Sasikese poor bat in lustrious people can see no ende en by a degrading operation of work with the Deprecepata a. they will be content to endore life in 1 sides, satissei that they are above the se narodien worse than be."

Seit in fart of mazufactures, the Hon. J. H. LEG2, sal in 1932:

-I: 23 these anafacturing estabishments will

ce the bordes de Br I am by no means ready to code si care dezaled. Lailed, hail-clothed, and

2: Pos-:bcet Sabbath Sobols, or any other

- Dial or moral or without any just appre34:23:21-T be in red bs giving them employment,

ha cder the crersight of employers, who :w.cbsrespec: bs takiaz sa interest in their

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In a paper on the "Extension of Cotton and Wool Factories at the South,” Mr. Steadman, of Tennessee, says :

“In Lowell, labor is paid the fair compensation of 80 cents a day for men, and $2 a week for women, beside board, while in Tennessee the average compensation for labor does not exceed 50 cents per day for men, and $1,25 per week for women."

In the course of a speech which he delivered in Congress several years ago, Mr. T. L. Clingman, of North Carolina, said

"Our manufacturing establishments can obtain the raw material (cotton) at nearly two cents on the pound cheaper than the New-England establishments. Labor is likewise one hundred per cent, cheaper. In the upper parts of the State, the labor of either a free man or a slave, including board, clothing, &c., can be obtained for from $110 to $120 per annum. It will cost at least twice that sum in New-England. The difference in the cost of female labor, whether free or slave, is even greater."

The Richmond (Va.) Dispatch says :

“We will only suppose that the ready-made shoes imported into this city from the North, and sold here, were manufactured in Richmond. What a great addition it would be to the means of employment! How many boys and females would find the means of earning their bread, who are now suffering for a regular supply of the necessaries of life.”

A citizen of New Orleans, writing in De Bow's Review, says :

" At present the sources of employment open to females (save in menial offices) are very limited; and an inability to procure suitable occupation is an evil much to be deplored, as tending in its consequences to produce demoralization. The superior grades of female labor may be considered such as imply a necessity for

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white girls, from sixteen to twenty years of age, had much difficulty in hiring themselves out as domestics in private families for $40 per annum—board only included ; negro wenches, slaves, of corresponding ages, so ungraceful, stupid and filthy that no decent man would ever permit one of them to cross the threshold of his dwelling, were in brisk demand at from $65 to $70 per annum, including victuals, clothes, and medical attendance. These are facts, and in considering them, the students of political and social economy will not fail to arrive at conclusions of their

own.

Notwithstanding the greater density of population in the free States, labor of every kind is, on an average, about one hundred per cent. higher there than it is in the slave States. This is another important fact, and one that every non-slaveholding white should keep registered in his mind.

Poverty, ignorance, and superstition, are the three leading characteristics of the non-slaveholding whites of the South. Many of them grow up to the age of maturity, and pass through life without even owning as much as five dollars at any one time. Thousands of them die at an advanced age, as ignorant of the common alphabet as if it had never been invented. All are more or less impressed with a belief in witches, ghosts, and supernatural signs. Few are exempt from habits of sensuality and intemperance. None have anything like adequate ideas of the duties which they owe either to their God, to themselves, or to their fellow-men, Pitiable, indeed, in the fullest sense of the term, is their condition.

It is the almost utter lack of an education that has re

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