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holders are under the shield of a perpetual license to murder. This license they have issued to themselves. According to their own infamous statutes, if the slave raises his hand to ward off an unmerited blow, they are permitted to take his life with impunity. We are personally acquainted with three ruffians who have become actual murderers under circumstances of this nature. One of them killed two negroes on one occasion ; the other two have murdered but one each. Neither of them has ever been subjected to even the preliminaries of a trial ; not one of them has ever been arrested ; their own private explanations of the homicides exculpated them from all manner of blame in the premises. They had done nothing wrong in the eyes of the community. The negroes made an effprt to shield themselves from the tortures of a merciless flagellation, and were shot dead on the spot* Their murderers still live, and are treated as honorable members of society! No matter how many slaves or free negroes may witness the perpetration of these atrocious homicides, not one of them is ever allowed to lift up his voice in behalf of his murdered brother. In the South, negroes, whether bond or free, are never, under any circumstances, permitted to utter a syllable under oath, except for or against persons of their own color; their testimony against white persons is of no more consequence than the idle zephyr of the summer.
We shall now introduce four tables of valuable and interesting statistics, to which philosophic and discriminating readers will doubtless have frequent occasions to refer. Tables 22 and 23 will show the area of the several States, in square miles and in acres, and the number of inhabitants to the square mile in each State; also the grand total, or the average, of every statistical column; tables 24 and 25 will exhibit the total number of inhabitants residing in each State, according to the census oft 1850, the number of whites, the number of free colored, and the number of slaves. The recapitulations of these tables will be followed by a complete list of the number of slaveholders in the United States, showing the exact number in each Southern State, and in the District of Columbia. Most warmly do we commend all these statistics to the studious attention of the reader. Their language is more eloquent than any possible combination of Roman vowels and consonants. We have spared no pains in arranging them so as to express at a single glance the great truths of which they are composed ; and we doubt not that the plan we have adopted will meet with general approbation. Numerically considered, it will be perceived that the slaveholders are, in reality, a very insignificant class. Of them, however, we shall have more to say hereafter. TABLE NO. XXIV. RECAPITULATION—AREA.
POPULATION OF THE FREE STATES 1850.
TABLE NO. XXV.
POPULATION OF THE SLAVE STATES 1850.
87,422 288,548 384,984 239,459
771,623 209,897 91,532 87,445 906,185 982;405 517,762 583,034 606,326 682,044 869,039 668,507
3,200,364 , 9,612,979
Square Miles. Acres.
Area of the Slave States. 851,448 544,926,720
Area of the Free States 612,597 392,062,082
Balances in favor of Slave States... 238,851 152,864,638
RECAPITULATION POPULATION 1850.
Population of the Free State* 13,233,670 13,434,922
Population of the Slave States... 6,184,477 9,612,976
Balances in favor of the Free States 7,049,193 3,821,946
FREE COLORED AND SLAVE 1850.
Free Negroes in the Slave States v 228,138
Free Negroes in the Free States 196,116
Excess of Free Negroes in the Slave States 32,022
Slaves in the Slave States 3,200,364
Free Negroes in the Slave States 228,138
Aggregate Negro Population of the Slave States in 1850... 3,428,502
THE TERRITORIES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
Area in Square Miles. Population.
Indian Territory 71,127
Minnesota" 166,025 6,077
N.Mexico" 207,007 61,547
Oregon" 185,030 13,294
Utah" 269,170 11,380
Columbia, Dist. of 60 *51,687
Aggregate of Area and Population, 1,472,121 143,985
* Of the 51,887 inhabitants in the District of Columbia, in 1850, 10,057 were Free Colored, and 3,687 were slaves.