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BIOGRAPHY.

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and by it may be explain

countenance reigned now a ed many of his extraordi

proud smile; but the head of the blonde lady had sunk upon

her breast, the hot tear-drops The mouth is an im

rolled down her cheeks, and pressive feature in our por

she wished that no one might trait, indicating force of

see her; her hands were claspwill and earnestness of

ed, and a silent, fervent prayer purpose, while the sym

went up from that pure and metrical nose evinces un

pious soul for the young mu

sician. So absorbed was she usual fullness of cerebral

that she did not hear the development. The Abbé

voice which now startled her: must be a genial, winning

“Madam, your son has playpriest as he is a fascinat

ed bravely. I am satisfied ing musician.

with him. You will live to delight in him, and may well

feel proud of your boy. We Though the Abbé Liszt now

will go to him!” The mother lives in the gloom and solitude

of Franz Liszt, for she it was, of a Roman cloister, his ge

now arose, placed her hand in nius still pervades the world,

the arm of the gloomy-lookand his influence upon the

ing man who stood before her, musical life of the present day

and both walked toward the is probably as great as that of

piano. The assembled people any other living master.

everywhere gave place to strange star shone on his

them; they did not speak; birth,” says a German biogra

but every now and then the pher, “the comet, which in

mother raised her tearful eyes that year of the world attract

to her conductor in wonder ed all eyes upward," and dis

and almost in fear. Finally appeared. And such has been

they came to the young musiFranz Liszt's life. Like a re

cian. splendent meteor, he passed

“ Mamma!

you really on his triumphal musical ca

here-Beethoven !' cried he, reer, and to-day, as if tired of

blushing and agitated. A mothe world's applause, he seeks

ment later the star of the the retirement of a monk.

evening' was hanging upon He was born on the 22d of

the neck of his mother; and October, 1811, at the little vil

the friendly smile of Ludwig lage of Raiding, near Oeden

van Beethoven was the first PORTRAIT OF ABBÉ FRANZ LISZT. burg, Hungary, a few hours'

genuine laurel which the ride from the Austrian capi

young musician ever gained." tal of Vienna. At the age of five years he musician eagerly as he now advanced to the This was Liszt's first real success. His first manifested a remarkable aptitude for music, instrument, and a sad smile fitted over her musical excursion was made in the following and his father, who was a musician of some pale face as she heard the first notes vibrating year, accompanied by both his parents. They repute, carefully instructed his son on the piano- through the ball. It was a concert piece of gave concerts in many of the principal cities forte. In his ninth year he was taken to play Hummel's, wonderfully spirited and vigorously of Germany; and in Munich young Franz was at a public concert in Presburg, where his executed; the player was not confused by the greeted as “a second Mozart.” These were astonishing musical talent attracted the notice brilliant company, but appeared as calm and the words, too, that greeted the slender, boyish of some Hungarian noblemen, who procured self-possessed as a pilot on a troubled sea. form in the gilded salons of the aristocracy of for him the instructions of Karl Czerny and Not so the lady. She heard the rapturous Paris. There he was the subject of the most Salieri. For nearly two years he studied very applause which was given to the young pianist; | flattering attention. The Parisian press, withearnestly under these distinguished tutors, and she noticed the smile that settled upon his out exception, were loud in their praise and then again made his appearance before a public countenance as he rested for a moment by his prophecies. The concerts which Adam Liszt audience. A German journal thus describes father's side, and felt a conscious pride as she gave ended in a perfect ovation. But the boy this occasion : heard the admiration of the audience. *

did not become intoxicated by the overwhelm“ Franz Liszt was only eleven years of age Again the boy advanced to the piano; a short | ing applause; his pious-hearted mother was when, in 1822, his father introduced him, a childlike bow, and the slender fingers glided his constant guardian. The élite of Paris could slender, blonde-haired boy, into one of the in Hummel's H minor concert; the audience not draw from Franz Lizst his full powers; it most brilliant circles in Vienna, already ac- was delighted; and that womanly countenance was only when he was in his own room, with quainted with a Mozart. Karl Czerny and became suffused with a deep blush of joy. his own loved mother, that he was seen to perSalieri were there; they sat with the boy's For the last time he took his place for a free fection. Then his cheeks would glow, his eyes father, Adam Liszt, the friend of Haydn, in fantasia. The great hall was as still as a be lit up with joy, the hour and the time would the neighborhood of the piano-forte, and church during prayer, and one scarcely dared be forgotten, until at last his fingers would watched the boy's graceful movements with even to breathe. The themes were from drop tired and helpless, and his burning foredeepest interest. From the farthest corner of Mozart and Beethoven, and his fingers moved head would lay soothed on the shoulders of the great hall a lady watched the young in a magical, wondrous manner. Over Salieri's his mother. She was his idol, and he poured

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out his young soul to her. The sudden illness him, showed that his long absence had not of an only sister called the mother away, and diminished their enthusiasm over his music. father and son now traveled in the Depart- Mendelsolin himself went to hear him, and ments, and crossed over to England, where wrote: “I have never seen a musician who Franz received the greatest attention.

has the musical sense so entirely at his finger's In 1825 we meet Liszt again in Paris. A ends as Liszt has.

He possesses a short opera, “Don Sancho," was being repre- through-and-through musical feeling, the like sented in the theater of the Royal Academy, of which is nowhere to be found.” The and met with the greatest applause. The judgment of the Paris world between the audience cried out the name of the composer, elegant Thalberg and the brilliant Liszt was and Franz Liszt, scarcely fifteen years of age, charmingly expressed by a lady, who, when was led forward to make his acknowledgments asked which was the greatest man, said, at the public tribunal.

"Thalberg is the first, but Liszt is the only Soon after this performance new sentiments one." were awakened ; lie became gloomy, melan- It was ever a strange feature in Liszt's charcholy, and solitary; le plunged deeply into acter that the moment the storm of rapturous religious books; the lives of the martyrs and applausc began to ring about him, his soul the Confessions of St. Augustine were his con. would ardently long for solitude. He loved stant study. But he still had one friend to then to disappear suddenly from the theater of whom he wrote out his scruples, bis doubts, his success, and bury himself for months in and his reveries, and she thanked the Lord for unbroken stillness. This is the reason that we such an early transformation, and felt that her find him, in 1837, wandering through Italy, prayers were answered when she saw her to Venice, Genoa, Florence, Rome, and Naples, beloved son resting in the deep shade of a without any definite object. It was only in religious establishment.

the following year that he again appeared in But even this silent life soon grew irksome, public, at Vienna, when he gave a series of as it did also to her who had first wished it. concerts in aid of the sufferers by the great His still life was suddenly broken. Paganini, inundation at Pesth. No wonder that his the violin-king, was to give his first concert in Hungarian countrymen could sing: “Franz Paris (1831), and at his first performance young Liszt, the people are proud of thee.” In the Liszt sat in the far corner of the hall, drinking same year he received a deputation of Hunin the inspiration that he felt; and he returned garian noblemen, who invited him to Pesth, home with the fixed idea of becoming the where he was received with extraordinary Paganini of the piano-forte. Day and night enthusiasm, and presented by the inhabitants he never wearied in his endeavor to attain his with the sword of honor and the right of goal.

citizenship. The next few years was a succesWhen he again made his appearance in

sion of fresh triumphs, and probably no musiParis, it was in a far different style from his

cian in the same space of time received so former performances. Instead of the aristo

warm and flattering a welcome wherever he cratic salon, it was now merely a parlor. But

went; and nowhere was his reception warmer it was graced by the ornament of bright intel

than to his own native village of Raiding, lects. By her own fireside sat the charming

whose every inhabitant turned out to greet Madame Aurora Dudevant (George Sand); in

their "son ;" for Franz Liszt never forgot the the flickering light could also be seen Alfred

home of his childhood. de Musset, Jules Sandeau, Alfred de Vigny, This wandering and apparently restless life the talented painter Delacroix, and sometimes may appear strange to us; but in that land of even Victor Hugo was there.

music, the poorest itinerant can travel from In the company of Madame Dudevant and one end of the continent to the other with both Adolph Pictet, Liszt, in the following year, ease and pleasure, giving his rude concerts at spent the most delightful and untroubled every little village. In a higher degree was portion of his life. Without plan or object this life of Liszt's. The language of Bach, of they wandered wherever fancy led them, and Handel, of Beethoven could be understood in were everywhere enthusiastically received. cvcry land; and it had never found a more Of this period George Sand lias written her eloquent expositor. Franz Liszt gave concharming Letters of Travel, and Pictet's certs in Vienna and Prague in 1840, and in St. Journey to Chamounix is simply an apotheosis Petersburg, Moscow, and Riga, in Russia, in of Liszt. Liszt himself has related the impres- the same year. In the summer of 1841 he sions of these treasured hours in his Years of visited England, returned through Holland Pilgrimage. In the cathedral of Freiburg, the and Belgium to Berlin, where he was received most beautiful women and intellectual men “only his own fatherland" could receive listened to the world-renowned organ con- him. trolled by his master hand.

The following year he wandered Thalberg appeared in Paris, and broke up nearly the whole of Europe-Russia, France, the entrancing “dolce far niente" of Liszt, who Spain, Portugal, and Germany. In August, felt jealous of the new rival whose concerts 1845, in company with Spohr, he directed the excited the wonder and praise of all Paris, Beethoven Festival, held in Bonn, on the Liszt presented himself before a public audience, occasion of the inauguration of a monument and the éclat with which the Parisians received to the great master. He visited also Hungary,

Transylvania, Moldavia, Wallachia, Constanta nople, and Odessa, and tired of glory, volutarily closed his career as a performer in the zenith of his fame. Then he commenced the second great mission of bis life, that of directa: and composer, and in 1818, accepted an invitation from the Duke of Weimar to assume the conduct of the court concerts there. Hena. forth Weimar became the chief musical center for all Europe.

“ Who has ever seen Liszt as a conductor must have noticed the enthusiastic power with which he rules the whole orchestral strength as a totality. The accompanying orchestra is an animated body which he permeates and inflames with the inspiration of his own soul," said a critic who had seen him at Weimar. From 1848 to 1861 Weimar was continuals crowded during the season by the nobility and talent of Europe. Maný took up their residence there permanently. He was the means of bringing many promising young composers to public notice. Richard Wagner owes the success of his chief operas to Liszt's friendship. He taught many young and premising pianists gratuitously, for whose benefit he gave private performances. Here he wrote, in 1852, his "work of love"-a biography of Chopin, the famed Polish pianist and composer (born, 1810, at Zelazowa, Dear Warsaw; died at Paris, Oct. 14, 1849); the “Gip sies and their Music," in 1859; and contributed many articles on the operas of Wagner and other subjects in the "Neue Zeitschrift für Musik.” His compositions, transcriptions, paraphrases, symphonies, organ and piano-forte pieces, sonatas, fantasias, capriccios, reminiscences, concertos, etc., mostly belong to this period of his life, and are very numerous. His most genial beauties are probably found in bis

Hungarian Rhapsodies," in the melodies of his home, the songs, the dances and the marches of the Hungarians and the gipsies. The jors and sorrows of his own people, all their feel ings and emotions, find echo therein.

Yet Franz Liszt was never happy even amid his most glorious successes. The early impressions fostered by his mother had taken deep root. She was in Paris, but their correspondence was as constant and loving as

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Great was the sorrow when, in 1861, Franz Liszt departed from the theater of his grandest success and took his course toward the "Eternal City," to re-enter the cloister.

Four years later, on the 26th of April, 1865, was consecrated, in the chapel of the Vatican, Abbé Liszt. His compositions now partook more of his religious character. He had in earlier years composed several smaller hymns, psalms, and sacred piano-forte and organ pieces. In the summer of 1862 he finished bis celebrated opera of the “Holy Elizabeth." Under the roof of the Vatican ho completed his opera of “Christ," which was first per: formed in the service of the mass there. His

Holy Elizabeth" has been performed in most of the chief cities of Europe ; and at the Lu

over

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ther Festival in the Wartburg, in 1867, the day I heard a minister say to his people, "Fol

IN VAIN. composer himself was present as the conductor. low the course I have marked out to you, and

O‘ER the golden prime of morning time, That was a grand day for the German musical you will not only gain much in this world, but

To brood in sullen sorrow, world. eternal life in the next."

From coward fears of future years, This was the last appearance of Liszt out- It was policy for the child to put on the

A stream of trouble borrow, side of Rome in his professional capacity. In appearance of goodness, and he understood When the sunny shine of present time 1864, he had visited Weimar and Munich, it. Many may have thought it policy to

Foretells a bright to-morrow. and his own mother in Paris.

This was be Christians when such inducements were The speeding noon comes all too soon

offered. his last visit to her ; she died in 1866. Liszt

To those whose hearts are lightest;

Soon follow cares, and silver hairs lives now in the cloister of Monte Mario, Dangerous teachers are they, whether moth

O'er heads that now are brightest; which he chose as bis residence soon after his ers or ministers, who teach those under their

But youth well sped, rich blessings shed, entry into Rome. Before we close this sketch, charge to look out for the gain, the result, of

When bright locks change to whitest. let us take a glimpse at the life of the great whatever they do. Is it right? is followed too In vain to sigh for days gone by; musician there. often by that other question, "Is it expedient?"

Youth's mantle fits the wearer ; " Forty-four years (1866) have flown since betraying an entire want of confidence in the

But work and pray that ev'ry day

May be to yon the bearer Franz Liszt, the blonde-haired boy, began his providence of a loving Father who will ask

of something good of mental food, brilliant career in Vienna. Again is a con- nothing of His child that is not best for him to

To make the sonl grow fairer. cert given by Franz Liszt; again we see him do-setting up weak human judgment against

For all the harms of winter stornos, seated at the piano-forte. But instead of a His all-wise and just demands. We can not

If we're prepared to greet them crowded hall, this time there is only a single know what is expedient, for the greatest seem

With strength of nerve that does not swerve, hearer, an aged countenance-Pio Nono, the ing failure has often proved to be the most glo

But bravely, boldly meet them, Pope of Rome. In an apartment of the Vati- rious success. But we can know what is right;

Will strengthen roots to bear the fruits,

And he who works shall eat them. can the Abbé Liszt plays before the Pope, and at least we can know our highest conviction of

Then look aloft, and see the soft the melancholy eyes of the aged man brighten right, and following that we shall be true, and

Gray light of dawn is nearing, at the sounds which the earnest man in the a true man is to be honored, though he come

And gleaming through the ether blue, dark robes evokes from the strings. *** In far short of absolute truth, for he proves that

The promised land appearing, general, Liszt still lives in the cloister of Monte he is striving after it, and is on the right road

When days of youth return in truth, Mario. His intercourse is confined to a few toward it.

In triple brightness cheering.

For God is just, and you may trust, friends, chiefly the high dignitaries of the Oh, mothers, do not offer rewards to your

Though ne'er his law divining, Church. A near relationship binds him fore- children for being hypocrites! Childhood

That though dark clouds the sunlight shrouds, most to Cardinal Hohenlohe, with whom he should be glad and bright and beautiful, and it

Each has its silver lining, lived, after his consecration, for nearly a year can never be when so unnatural.

And 'round the wreath of cypress leal in the Vatican. The Pope bimself has shown Give to them, abundantly, tender words of

The amaranth is twining. him many fatherly favors and numerous dis- sympathy and encouragement. Place in their tinctions, which in former years were mostly hands gifts of love and appreciation, but SCIENCE AND SKEPTICISM.—The revelations given to him only by worldly princes, and as never teach them to think that right doing de- of science may, and in the nature of things a mark of his highest grace added the brill- serves reward ; for they will soon learn to value must, often be at variance with popular preiancy of his own order to the dark priestly it according to the pay they get. Let goodness conceptions; but variances of this kind need robes of the musician. Sometimes he also vis- and truth be as natural to them as fragrance is not give rise 10 hostility, nor preclude convic. its him in his solitude, in order to listen to the to the flower, just as it ought to be.

Do not tion. Thcologians may be startled by new charming productions of his genius, and Liszt send them out into the world with such miser- discoveries in science, just as their predecessors usually remains then a long while in the pres- able, unreliable guides as “Honesty is the best were by the assertions of astronomy; but they ence of the Pope, who calls him'lis true son,' policy,"

," "The safest way is to do right;" but are not on that account entitled to accuse men his Palestrina.'”

rather teach them to cast policy away alto- of science of skepticism and infidelity; nor, on
gether, to forget reward, to feel that

the other hand, have men of science any right

to retort on theologians the charge of dogma

“ 'Tis perdition to be safe, "HONESTY IS THE BEST POLICY."

When for the truth we ought to die."

tism and bigotry, because they are not prepared

all at once to accept the new deductions. The This old saying, repeated so often by good " Is it right?" My brother and my sister, when skeptic and infidel is he who refuses facts and people, and gaining thereby a kind of sanctity, this question comes to you, for it often comes rejects the conclusions of enlightened reason; is, nevertheless, a mischievous one to be float- to all, and what is truest and best in you un- the dogmatist and bigot is he who, overestiing so freely through the world.

wers, “ It is," let no forebodings of the result, mating his own opinions, undervalues those That honesty and policy can have any con- no whispers of policy, detain you from obeying of others and obstinately resists all convicnection whatever, can hardly be thought of by unhesitatingly this command of God. Though tion. What may be accepted by one mind a right-minded, true-hearted person; and it sacrifice and pain be the result, it will only under the bias of early training, may be insufseems to me a misfortune that the two words show that they are needed.

ficient to induce belief in another differentiy were ever linked together. The moment one "Is it truth?” If from the deepest conscious- trained but equally earnest to arrive at the stops to think of policy before doing what seems ness of your soul the decision come, too plain truth. “To faith,” says Bunsen, “it is immato him a duty, that moment his honesty becomes to be misunderstood, that it is truth, then ac- terial whether science discover truth in a spirit of a doubtful character.

cept and advocate it, though it bear you into of skepticism or belief; and truth has been It is sad to see how people are coaxed into places new and strange, though it lead you really found by both courses, but never by dis'doing right” and “ being good;” sad to hear into the most unpopular church and party, honesty or sloth.” Arguments may prevail ; so many appeals to the selfishness of our nature; though it take from you friends and bring you abuse never wins over converts. Bad words sad to know that policy, after all, is the secret enemies; though reproach and poverty and never make good arguments; and we may rest of much seeming honesty.

pain come upon you, still be true for the truth's assured that he who is in the habit of using I beard a mother say to her little boy one

sake, and like the noble Luther be too brave to them is by no means in a fitting spirit to enter day, “ Now, do be a good boy, and you shall “speak or act against your conscience.”

as a worshiper into the great temple of truth. have a large piece of maple-sugar.” The same

HOPE ARLINGTON. -Man: Where, Whence, and Whither?

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ARMINIUS VAMBÉRY,

they immediately gave him a sum of money

which more than sufficed to procure his pasTHE HUNGARIAN ORIENTALIST.

sage ticket. His remarkable talent gained for

him many friends after this, and in 1854 an THE Magyar or Hungarian race has long

office was procured for him in Posego, in Slabeen a subject of profound investigation by

vonia, whither he traveled on foot; but he did the ethnologists of Europe. Its origin has not

not hold his appointment any longer than conyet been exactly ascertained, although it is

sisted with the purpose he had in view of the generally received opinion that the Mag. visiting the East. yar is an offshoot from the Turanian stock.

In order to complete himself for this work, Differing in blood from nearly all the rest of

it was necessary that he should become acEurope, this people exhibit marked peculiar

quainted with the languages, literature, and ities of mind and mode of life, which indicate

customs of the Mohammedans, and for that both an Asiatic and a nomadic ancestry. The

purpose he went to Constantinople. In an subject of this sketch is considered a good rep

incredibly short space of time, his whole stay resentative of the Magyarian type, with some

being little over four years, he had acquired Teutonic elements infused. He early became

twenty Oriental languages perfectly to his interested in the endeavor to solve the intri

command, even exciting the attention of the cate problem of the original derivation of his

sluggish Turks themselves, to whom he could race, and he wished, as he said himself, by a

talk like a native. He gained in position practical study of the living languages of the

among them until he was made private secrerelated grades between the Magyars and the

tary of Fuad Pasha, who gave him a good Turkish-Tartar tribes of Middle Asia, to trace

salary. In this office he had access to the arout this origin. This was the star which led

chives of the country, received and answered him to the Orient, from Hungary to Constan

all the state papers, and copied at his leisure tinople and Mecca; from Teheran, in Persia,

hundreds of the most important historical across the Turkomanian desert to Khiva, Bok

documents. He forwarded important conhara, and Samarkand, and even to Afghan

tributions of these labors to Hungarian, Ausistan. The accounts which he has given of

trian, and German journals, with which he his researches while on this journey are treas

was in constant correspondence. He called uries of ethnographical facts in relation to the

the attention of the Hungarian Academy to Middle Asiatic tribes, some of which had

the existence of the remainder of the library never been visited by a European since the

of King Korrian, and for this and other serdays of Marco Polo. Our sketch of himself

vice he was elected one of its members in and his travels must necessarily be very brief.

1860. It was through the influence of this Arminius Vambéry (Vamberger) was born, Academy that he was enabled to consummate in the year 1832, at Duna Szerdahcly, a Da- his long-projected travels. nubian island belonging to the province of Vambéry left Constantinople mysteriously Presburg, Hungary. His ancestors appear in the year 1861, and, joining a party of Beg. originally to have emigrated from Germany, gar Monks, proceeded first to Mecca, the shrine though they had been settled for some time in

of the pilgrim monks, and thence to Teheran, Hungary. His father, who died when Vam

the chief city of Persia. Here he gave himbéry was very young, was a common Hun

self out to be a pious Mohammedan, calling garian peasant, and his mother, a pious Prot- himself Reschid Effendi, and was soon known estant woman, early sent her son to the

as a good friend of the poor and ragged Mecca village school. When fifteen years of age he pilgrims. He introduced many of these to the attended a school in the city of Presburg, Turkish consul, procured them assistance, and where he studied industriously, though in even kept some at his own expense in order great poverty, and managed to support him- that he might thus more perfectly learn their self by teaching the Slavic cooks and servants language. In this manner he became acthe Hungarian language. His own talent for

quainted with a party of pilgrims who were languages developed very carly, and by the

on their homeward journey to Bokhara, and time he was seventeen he had acquired, with

to them he communicated his genuine Islam out a teacher, the Latin, Greek, French, Ital- wish to visit the holy people of Khiva, Bokian, English, Servian, and Croatian languages. hara, and Samarkand. The Tartar pilgrims He not only acquired them theoretically, but answered, “ We are resolved not only to be could speak them quite fluently and correctly; thy friends, but also thy servants;" and he was and his memory was so retentive that he daily received into the caravansary as a fellowcommitted six hundred words.

traveler, though they did not know him exA testimony to his correctness of speech is cept as a holy dervish like themselves, for he, thus recorded: he had been studying for a too, had been to Mecca the holy. short time in a school at Vienna, where he

& motley collection. was in very great poverty, when he was Some," says he, "rode on mules or camels, obliged to return to Presburg. He had no but the poor, foot-sore worshipers were very money with which to pay his fare, but while ragged. In my wretched clothing I had constanding in the railroad depot he courageously sidered myself a beggar, but among these peospoke to two gentlemen, respecting his situ- ple I was a king." The head of the caravan ation and need, in such excellent Latin, that was Hadschi Valal, of Aksu, in Chinese Tar

tary, priest to the Chinese-Mussulman Government of the same province.

The time occupied in the journey was occasionally enlivened by the pilgrims singing pleasant songs, by relating to each other their adventures. The Hungarian dervish soon made himself friends by his conversations; he understood his audience intuitively, and realized now that he was fairly in the midst of Asiatic life.

The route from Teheran taken by the caravan was eastward, across the borders of Persia, across the Turkomanian Desert to Khiva, the chief city of the Turkomans, known even amid the lawless tribes of that portion of the country as the very seat of cruelty. He relates several appalling instances of judicial cruelty which he himself there witnessed. The present Khan of the province would procure for himself the name of a defender of his religion, and believes that he will acquire it by punishing the smallest offense with the most rigorous severity. The casting of a single glance upon a deeply-vailed woman is enough to bring upon the offender terrible punishment. A man who has committed adultery is hanged, while the woman is buried to the waist, in the neighborhood of the gallows, and then stoned to death by the mob. Scarce a day passed, during Vambéry's stay, that did not witness some poor victim hurried off to the scaffold. But amid these rough scenes and customs,” he remarks, “I have spent in Khiva and its provinces, in my dervish incognito, many of the most beautiful days of my travels.”

From Khiva, which lies to the south of the Aral Sea, in Turkistan, the caravan proceeded in a southeasterly direction to Bokhara. Vambéry's mode of traveling was about as our engraving represents him. He had for his own use an ass, upon which he sometimes rode, and also half of a camel, which carried his traveling bag.

The heat, when they were fairly upon the desert, was intense, for it was July. They were obliged to travel six hours every day, besides at night, and the nomad Turkoman robbers constantly annoyed them.

Vambéry mentions a caravan station which they reached on the 4th of July, which bore the very attractive name of Adamkyrylgan, that is, the place where people die. And truly it was a lifeless waste. As far as the eye could reach, extended an apparently boundless sea of sand, now whirled by the wind into huge rolling waves, and now reflecting the rays of the sun like the zephyr-stirred mirage of a still sea. No bird in the air, no worm or beetle upon the earth, was to be seen, but only traces of extinct life; the whitened bones of men and animals, in great accumulation, served as waymarks to the pilgrim travelers. This desert is very wide, and not a drop of water upon it. Vambéry's party soon felt the need of drink, and the languishing cry, “ Water, water," was repeatedly uttered in vain by parched lips. On July 8th, Vambéry had only eight glasses of water in his store, and half of this was de

This caravan

was

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