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NAPOLEON III.

seems

FOREIGN CELEBRITIES. this failure in financial calculations always ity. Hence a study of his character and ca

prevails. This imagination of Louis Napoleon pabilities is of the utmost importance. From NAPOLEON-THE NEGRO—BISMARCK-ROBERT MULLER

is, at the same time, a security against certain temperament he is slow, but from organization -LUDWIG II. - MARIA SCHMIDT

acts that many fear from him. Not merely he is persistent, his lymphatic nature being GEN. MOLTKE-VISCHER-GARIBALDI.

his understanding, but also his imagination sustained by a considerable amount of FirmIn the engraving opposite are presented the

declares against a war for the obtaining of the ness and Self-Esteem. His perceptive faculties portraits of several distinguished European

Rhenish countries. For in such a war there are stronger than his reflective or imaginative, and also some representative national types.

lies nothing which can satisfy his imagination, and he dwells in the real rather than in the They are taken from a German phrenological

but only the contrary, a chaos. The imagina- ideal. He has but little reverence for the past, publication edited by Mr. Gustave Scheve, to

tion seeks images ; lives in pictures ; it is and no very brilliant anticipations of the fuwhom the larger part of the descriptive remarks

afraid of chaos. Napoleon I went down ture, being, from the overwhelming strength on character, in the following sketches, must

because his power of thinking did not stand of his sensuous nature, swallowed up in the be credited.

beside any power of imagination; or at least, present. It is not that the basilar region of his The study of the head and character of

phrenologically speaking, not the imagination brain, with his Alimentiveness and AmativeLouis Napoleon, the first in the series of

of ideality, but the blind and empty imagina- ness, is so inordinately powerful, but that the engravings, is interesting, from both the stand

tion of ambition. The opinions on the plans counterpoising elements are so pitiably weak points of phrenology and biography. Indeed,

of Louis Napoleon with reference to Germany that he gives way to his passing appetites. without taking into account these, and the

would be quite different if he had the possi- Simple yet affectionate, fond of his domestic surrounding circumstances of his life, he would

bility of acquiring or controlling the Rhenish relations, his Love of Approbation would have

frontier in a peaceful way. Savoy and Nizza more influence than force. His elevated Ven. be almost an enigina to us. We can understand

are bad examples, but he knows that this eration would indicate that he is by no means Bismarck in his every word and deed, because

possibility does not exist.” In drawing a his large Firmness and his conscience work

devoid of the religious sentiment; and creeds comparison between Napoleon and Bismarck, for a united Germany; but how difficult it is

in passing through his mind become impressed Scheve says: “During a number of years to reconcile the first promise of Louis Na

with the infantile simplicity of the mold Napoleon III. was the most interesting person poleon, “to act always in the interest of the

in which they have thus been recast. Altoof his time. In the last few years, however, masses, the source of all right and of all wealth,

gother, he is interesting and promising, but uthe has found in Bismarck a worthy rival. although destitute of the one, and without

terly helpless. He must be taught everything. The world was deceived in both these men at guaranty for the other," with his subsequent

To him slavery has been of providential purfirst. Napoleon III., at the beginning of his course! Following in the steps of his uncle,

port. As a slave alone could the Negro have reign, was considered of not much importance; Napoleon I., his chief feature of character

passed in sufficient numbers to insure his and little more was thought of Bismarck to be an unprincipled

efficiency. Liberia is now the fair promise of imitational (especially of his speeches advocating the late

his future. He will return laden with the inambition, which, unchecked by any large

war). The present unusual interest in both is development of Conscientiousness, and con

tellectual wealth and highly developed civilgreatly intensified by their position as rivals stantly fed by an uncontrolled imagination,

ization of his tutors, bringing to Africa the rich and adversaries—let us hope never as enemies

dower of her future greatness and prosperity. underlies the greater part of his political acts. --and by the fact that the fate of Europe, to a

What Africa and all tropical countries want is Gustave Scheve, in his little work entitled great extent, depends upon their talents or

the Negro constitution as a basis on which any Phrenologischen Reisenbilder (Phrenological Pic- their wisdom. The head of Napoleon III., in

amount of Caucasian superstructure may be tures of Travels), gives us an interesting sketch the region of the ears, appears to be broader

reared by subsequent development and admixof Napoleon's character, the results of a per- than that of Bismarck, indicating stronger

ture. sonal inspection. “His head is very broad at Secretiveness and Cautiousness; while Bis

His hopeless immutability in the past has the upper part. It is probably an inch and a marck's head is relatively long, and the top

arisen from his unaltered circumstances. "His half broader at the top than the head of the high; Firmness and Self-Esteem, in his case,

development has been arrested. His features first Napoleon. His forehead is strongly arched are stronger than Caution and Secretiveness.

and head and hair are the same as those repor long. The organs of the sense of Ideality

THE NEGRO. (German, Neger.)

resented upon the tombs of the Pharoahs, beand the sense for what is new and wonderful

From Mr. Jackson's* comprehensive view of cause his environment has been identical with are very large in Napoleon III. as compared

the Negro's condition and capabilities we that of his ancestors. Change the influences, with Napoleon I. While, therefore, the two gather the following.

give him new wants, and he is stimulated to fresh men are men of understanding, Napoleon III.

Contemplated through the medium of com- exertions for their supply; give him more enlargis in a high degree a man of imagination, parative anatomy, the Negro (African) is but ed ideas, and they will ultimately eventuate in a which Napoleon I. was not. His deeds, there

the embryonic, and the Mongol the infantile, grander course of action. With his bodily fore, are not merely directed by the under

form of the Caucasian or perfect man. Their necessities easily supplied, and cut off by geostanding, and are not merely steps of compre

differences, structural and mental, according to graphical isolation from the intellectual culture hension and shrewdness, suggested and con

this view, only mark successive stages of and social refinement of more advanced races, trolled by circumstances, but his whole soul

growth, and, in reality, melt almost impercep- he has stagnated on in contented immobility lives in his own creations, and is inspired by

tibly into each other. The radical defect of through countless ages of well-fed animalism, them. And this imagination in his character

the Negro is want of due nervous development. constituting in that far-off corner of the Old explains two things which we have earlier

His brain is less in proportion to his body than World the great rearguard of the human found inexplicable in him. First, his earlier

that of any other grand division of humanity, army. But the days of this isolation are endadventurous actions, which occurred even as late as manhood.

and as a result, the involuntary and animal ed. He stands now face to face with the CauGreat as the power of thinking was in him,

functions altogether preponderate. Passion and casian, and he must move onward or perish. it was nevertheless controlled by a strong

affection rule principle and faculty, the basilar Africa has yet to reveal her wealth and the

and posterior developments being predominant splendor of an African civilization. imagination. And it is by his imagination

over the coronal and anterior. The African that the great and principal error of his gov

COUNT BISMARCK. Negro is the improvable type of his race; he ernment is explained, which contradicts his

Carl Otto von Bismarck-Schonhausen was usual prudence, and has become dangerous to belongs to the redeemable families of human

born at Schonhausen, near the Elbe, April 1, hlm--we mean his defective financial adminis

*"Ethnology and Phrenology as an Aid to the Histo

1814. His family claimed their descent, it is tration In men (f very strong imagination rian." By J. W. Jackson, London, 1863.

said, from the ancient chiefs of a Slavonian

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tribe; and from that source he inherits his did not succeed in modifying the relations may be an excellence and a defect at the same fine bodily development, characteristic of that between the minister and the Chamber of time, or in the one case an indication of an branch of the ethnological family. Broad and Deputies. In the late Austrian war, which excellence, and in the other of a defect. Large thick-set, with great amplitude of chest, ac- arose partly from a quarrel about the division Secretiveness is an excellence when a man is companied by shortness yet muscularity of of the spoils of Schleswig-Holstein, Bismarck faithful and discreet, but a defect when he is limb, he has been well able to sustain and acted, through the king, quickly and success- blunt. Strong Destructiveness is an excellence to execute, what in most Germans has only fully. His motto was then, as it had long as the foundation of energy; a defect in so far been a dreamy idealism, namely, the grand been: “ The controversies of nations are not as it becomes used for passion and violence. idea of a united Germany under the leadership settled with words and speeches, but with In this way, Bismarck's excellences of characof Prussia.

steel and gunpowder.” The result of that ter, inversed, become his defects. Through He studied at the universities of Gottingen,

short war has placed Prussia the foremost of his high talent and inflexible, dauntless Berlin, and Greifswald, and immediately after- European nations, and Bismarck the foremost courage he has secured a united Germany, a ward entered the military service as a volunteer

of statesmen. He has become the guiding head work which, however, is not yet unendangered, in the Prussian light infantry, and subsequently

of united Germany through her difficult period and which for its completion may still need a became lieutenant in the Landwelır. In 1846 of union, and his word alone carries more master-touch. It is evident that the unification he was a member of the assembly of the

weight with it than even the self-created of Germany is at the same time synonymous province of Saxe, and of the general assembly

Napoleon's. A curious circumstance, repre- with the maintenance of peace. We Germans in 1847. There he was distinguished by the

senting as it does the popular feeling of would therefore rejoice in the strong genius of boldness of his address. At that time, he is Germany, may be here cited. It occurred Bismarck; we hope everything from it against said to have advocated the extinction of all the during the recent difficulties between Prussia the menaces of foreign nations, and we would large cities, because they were the great centers and France about the possession of the fortress hope everything for it for ourselves, for we of democracy. The events of 1848 did not of Luxemburg:

feel that we have grown with him into a great modify these tendencies. In 1851 he com- “At the Victoria Theater in Berlin, a piece

and intelligent nation, and enjoying the same menced his diplomatic career. In his course de circumstance was being performed in the privileges as he, we will not fear him." in the Second Chamber he had attracted the presence of King William, in which one of the

ROBERT MULLER. attention of King Frederick William IV., who actors recited the following sacrilegious couplet: The portrait of Robert Muller is the type of intrusted him with the settlement of excep- God, fatigued with governing the world, many thousands who, like him, are engaged tional difficulties in Frankfort. In 1852 he found a man to whom he could confide that during their whole lives in commercial purwas made envoy to Vienna; hitherto he had heavy task — that is, Count von Bismarck.' suits. The original of our portrait is a native been a warm admirer of Austria, but he saw 'Thou art worthy of it,' said God: ‘for thy of Germany, where he was born about the the danger that she engendered to the life of device is : Firm and Forward! Apply it year 1833, and is now a prominent manufacGermany. Austria had already a very decided always, especially to Luxemburg !'”

turer. To present his biography would be influence on Germany; an enemy to union, The applause was frantic. The king com- to give merely a mass of dry, routine life, and therefore of Bismarck. In 1858 appeared plimented the manager, and added: “Three whose greatest ambition has been honest an anonymous pamphlet in Germany, entitled

years ago these words would have been hissed. wealth, undiverted by any particular genius. “ Prussia and the Italian Question,” discussing Circumstances have changed.” Certainly, now

The German merchant-unlike his American with great earnestness the conduct of Austria he does represent Germany; but he is, as an prototype, who generally has “as many irons toward Italy. In that pamphlet was predicted, English statesman lately remarked, “but the in the fire" as he can well attend to, and who in the event of war, the inevitable supremacy foam on the crest of the wave, which catches aims to sprinkle in with his dull business life of Prussia. Subsequent events have proved the eye and diverts the attention from the something of literature-pursues but one steady the truth of this prophecy. In 1859 he was mass of the wave beneath.” Behind him is an course, generally the same as his father and appointed ambassador to St. Petersburg, where army of citizen soldiery, which can only be his grandfather did before him. There is no he remained until 1862. He gained the esteem compared to that one seen lately in the United change with him; he does not imitate, but and confidence of the Czar, who conferred States, called out only on the necessities of the steadily works on in the position in which he upon him the order of St. Nicholas Newski. hour. How mighty is the fact that Germany, finds himself. In 1862 he filled the same post in Paris, his which had for so many years assiduously cul- Germans, generally, devote all their energy nomination being very favorably received, and tivated the arts of peace and commerce, of to their particular pursuit or calling; and, in on his quitting Paris, the Emperor conferred learning and science, could so soon call up her many parts of Germany, especially in the upon him the grand cross of the Legion of army of Protestant youth, and beat back the manufactories, seren days in the week-with Honor. The stormy conflict on the Prussian

strongest enemy that she had in Europe ! the exception of two hours of public service army reorganization brought Bismarck to Bismarck is thought by many to represent the in the morning of Sunday—and three hundred Berlin, and on the 23d of September, 1862, he Cromwell of the present age. In his unflinch- and sixty-five days in the year, are given to was appointed president of the council of ing firmness and strong will he is, but he lacks trade. Strange as this may seem to Amerministers, and given the post of minister of the religious fervor of the Great Dissolver. icans, with their well-kept Sabbath, it is neverforeign affairs. He was an earnest advocate His character, as seen from a phrenological theless a fact, attested by all observant travelof the reorganization of the Prussian military point of view, has been well drawn by Mr. ers. A stranger passing through the best system, but the Chamber of Deputies were Scheve: “Bismarck's character, in Germany, streets of a city on Sunday morning would opposed to any measure that should weaken

has been judged very differently. One places not perceive any difference between that and the existing Landwehr, and the royal message him very high, loves and admires him, while other days. He would find the stores, the closed upon a very stormy session. His ad- another hates him. Could these conflicting churches, and the beer-gardens all with open ministration became distinguished for very views be reconciled, it is very possible that doors, the first and last being the better palively struggles, for conflicts of power, and the the political parties of Germany would be tronized. At early morning, too, on that day, strictness of the regime against the press. brought nearer to each other. If the reader the German peasant and his wife go regularly

Indeed, the Prussian newspapers were, and will permit me a little digression, I will briefly to the field or the garden, remaining there are now, under as strict an oversight as those denote the difference which Phrenology, in during the day; their boys may be found in of France. His course in the Denmark affair, this strife of opinions, indicates.

the beer saloons, and in the afternoon the which ended in the duchies of Schleswig- “Every decided characteristic, every very young women may be found in the dancing Holstein being divided by Austria and Prussia, strong or very weak development of a faculty, halls.

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LUDWIG II.

Mr. Scheve, in his exposition of Herr Mul- the stimulators of the country's industry. The hold duties. But deep and profound thinking, ler's character says: “The breadth of Robert young king has many improvements or what we call the spirit of genius, is not Muller's head over the ears indicates a very make ere his country can be called perfect. found with her. If Robert Muller and Minna strong development of the faculty of Destruc- The system of education is far from good; Schmidt were to attend Vischer's lecture upon tiveness, while the converging forehead and beggary and intemperance are very common; the Theory of the Beautiful, the former could, tophead a very weak sense of Ideality. Mul- the children of illegitimacy number a third of if he would, and saw the necessity of it, un. ler was an extraordinary wild boy, and it was the whole births, and in the city of Munich derstand the sense of the lecture, though he only after he had expended all his force and reaches one half.

might not comprehend the full meaning and rage that he could be prudent and obedient. In 1732 there was a large emigration of exact value of every word; but it would not Now, as a man, he possesses endless activity, the Bavarian Protestant element to America, be possible for Minna Schmidt to understand he knows no fatigue, accomplishes an amount where they settled in the Carolinas, in Geor- the sense of the words." of work that is almost incredible, and is un- gia, and Virginia. Bavaria was the southern- But it is not just, however, to compare the happy and ill-humored when he must be in- most stronghold of Protestantism at the time capacity of a school-girl with the fully-develactive. He is very impatient; for him nothing of the Reformation. Many of the great battles oped powers of a German lingual and esthetic can go quick enough; what he has to do must of the Thirty Years' War raged in this part of professor. There is one point which Herr either bend or break-and sometimes it breaks. Bavaria, as those of Augsburg, 1631, Furth, Scheve fails to speak of, which is undoubtedly He is very violent, and gets quickly into a 1632. Bavaria has produced many eminent her crowning excellence and beauty, as it is passion. But we can not say that he is vi- men. The Franconian school of painters pro- of all women-namely, her well-rounded and cious, for he can be very good; but he be- duced men of the rank of Albert Durer, Lucas fully developed tophead, indicating a high comes too often bad through his passion. His Cranach, and Holbein, and many others order of the moral and devotional faculties, whole spirit is energetic;, he is extremely sober equally celebrated.

Her whole training from infancy has been and practical; and no other thought can draw “The king of Bavaria has a strongly devel- moral and religious, and not intellectual. The him away from his business. Poetry and art oped head in its upper portion; it is somewhat greatest pride of a German mother, of Minna's are to him incomprehensible things; he recog- stronger than the lower. The king is more station, is to see her daughter some day settled nizes them only because other people do so, subjective than objective; he thinks more comfortably down in her household duties. but in himself he despises them. Still, he is than he observes. But above all, his Ideality She never dreams that her daughter will not miserly; he lives according to what he denotes an unusual development. The sense fill any other position than the one which believes to be his position, and lets his chil- for the ideal is the leading feature in the she had always occupied ; and thus we can dren, of whom he has a great number, acquire king's whole character, and it will remain not expect to find the intellectual developa good foundation for their studies, because through his whole life. The king will feel ment of Vischer in a mere school-girl. But in he knows that industry, and energy, and edu- happy in his fancy for what is good, honor- the social qualities that belong to her, she is cation are the true ways to wealth."

able, and beautiful; doubly happy as a prince, far ahead of Vischer.
because he can do sọ mueh toward the fulfill-

GENERAL FREIHERR VON MOLTKE. Ludwig II., Otto Friederich Wilhelm, the

ment of his ideals; and unhappy if he can not, The chief of the Prussian military staff is young king of Bavaria, was born at Nymin comparison with his wishes and hopes, ob

probably the most skillful general of the present tain their fulfillment. He will never condephenberg, on the 25th of August, 1845, and

time. To him belongs the credit of having so succeeded his father, Maximilian II., on the scend to the bad, the low, and the vulgar, but

successfully carried through the late Prussian 10th of March, 1864. His mother was Queen will always battle against them. He will be

war against Austria. He, however, with Friederike Franzisca Auguste Maria Hedwig long to the few mortals who remain young

modest piety, does not claim all the honor. (born 15th October, 1825), the daughter of even down to old age.”

"I did my duty at the time, in my position," Prince William of Prussia. The grandfather

he says, “just as my comrades did theirs, but of our subject, Ludwig I., lately deceased, did Miss Schmidt, though a German young

The almighty power of God led the more for Bavaria than any preceding ruler. lady, is not a fair specimen of that robust, Prussian eagle forward in its victorious flight. He was passionately fond of art, and cultivated healthy organization peculiar to the Teutonic The bravery of our army and skill of its leaders it at an enormous expense. The Painting family. We can not do her better justice, per- were (equally with my own plans) only the Academy, the School of Sculpture, and the haps, than present her to our readers in the instruments of His will; and when I hear the Architectural Academy of Munich, all owe words of Scheve.

unbounded and fulsome praise which the pubtheir existence to him. At the late Paris Ex- “I introduce Minna Schmidt, a polite young lic lavishes on me, this thought is always upposition, Bavaria had a large building entirely lady, to our company, in order to say a few permost in my mind.” to herself in the grounds of the Exposition, words upon her head, which to many is inex- The failure of any of his plans, upon which where she exhibited a magnificent collection plicable. Judgment must be based, not so that short, decisive war was based, might have of paintings—in fact, one of the best in the much on whether it is high or low, as if it is resulted in inevitable ruin to Prussia, but by whole series. It is from this progenitor that the full or flat; that is, whether more or less brain the aid of his large Causality, Constructiveness, young king appears to inherit his extraordi- is contained in it. Her forehead is high-as and Ideality he worked out results which had nary love. of the ideal and the beautiful. He high as Vischer's even ; but against this we been foregone conclusions in his own mind for has had as yet but little opportunity to show must take into account its extreme narrow- weeks. He not only baffled the Austrian his practical ability as a ruler; but it is said ness (seen in the picture by the small space general, Benedek, by his intricate plans, but that his passion for music is so strong that in between the eyes]. Minna is not without his own friends were at a loss as to his intenits pursuit he neglects the most important gifts; when she was in school she learned tions, affairs of state. His subjects number nearly remarkably quick, but the trouble with her

He had under his command nine corps five millions, three millions and a half of was, that she could not always understand d'armée, numbering 285,000 men, who were whom are Catholics, a million and a third what she learned. She spoke willingly, and distributed over the different theaters of war; Protestants, sixty thousand Jews, and the much, about everything and nothing, and one but as they could only be used effectively torest of various denominations. The greater heard her all day long with pleasure. Among gether, the ultimate object and centralization portion of these are descended from three orl- her friends she is said to be clever [in the of his plans was their union on the battle-field. ginal Germanic tribes, the Boiodrians or Ba- English sense of the word), and readily ac- The different divisions reached their frontier varians, the Francs, and the Swabians. Of quires all the knowledge and skill which are boundaries at Zeiz, Halle, Herzberg, Gorlitz, these, the Bavarians, though least gifted, are necessary for the well performance of house- and Freiburg, but as they were then fifty miles

MINNA SCHMIDT.

no more.

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VISCHER.

apart, even good judges of military affairs be- extreme sternness and gravity. His figure is which appeared in 1835. For this work Strauss
came alarmed. But when the king of Prussia tall and erect, and the expression of his features was compelled to leave his position. Vischer
had decided to strike the first blow, by dint of is as firm as iron. A marble statue could not then renounced his theological studies and
forced marches, the army was brought together give any better idea of fixedness; and every became private tutor of the German Language
at Koniggratz, the crowning point of his line seems as if old Time had chiseled it out and Esthetics in the University. In 1838 he
scheme. “On the morning of that day," he bit by bit. But he possesses with his power a was appointed extraordinary Professor in the
says himself,

our army presented a line of good and generous heart. His benevolence is same institution.
four miles in length. In so extended a line, as large as his bravery is eminent.

He contributed a series of articles to the
we dare not await the attack, but by an aggres- He was an old and esteemed friend of Bene- “ Halle Year Book for Science and Art," and
sive movement onward we were enabled to dek, the Austrian commander, and probably, to the “ Year Book of the Present Time." In
concentrate all our divisions on the battle-field by his praise of him, secured him to that posi- 1839 he visited Italy, Rome, and Greece; and
itself, and thus to convert the disadvantages of tion. Moltke's victory at Koniggratz — or, after his return le published the “Critical
our strategical dispersion into this advantage, rather, the king's under his plans--was not Walk,” being the essays contributed to the
viz., we were enabled entirely to surround the unmixed with sorrow for his old friend. “A year books mentioned above. The first article
enemy." Moltke never lost confidence in the defeated commander !” he said afterward, as is on “Strauss and the Wurtemburgers.” The
success of his own plans. His motto was to act an expression of sadness passed over his manly second essay is on the “General Perplexity in
quickly and forcibly, believing that“ a line of lace. “No civilian can have the faintest idea the Occupation of a Doctrinal Chair at the
conduct which almost always secures the ad- of what those words convey! The Austrian Present Time;" there is also an essay on

The
vantages missed by lingerers." The result of headquarters on the evening of Koniggratz! | Triumph of Religion in Art," in which he
the battle of Koniggratz is too well known to Ahl when I picture that scene to myself! And criticises the picture of Frederic Overbeck.
our readers to need repetition here in detail. such a deserving, brave, circumspect general The critic opposes, with all the aids of science
General Moltke was born Oct. 26th, 1800,
as Benedek !"

and of humor, the painting of myths and
in the city of Mecklenburg, Germany, but

Americans owe General Moltke for many allegorics. He desires to impress art with the passed his youth in Holstein. His father expressions of good-will and interest. To Mr. spirit of reality. Among other works by him served in the regiment Mollendorf, and in

Bancroft, when engaged upon his “History of is a criticism of the literature of Goethe's
tended his son for the army. When he was

the United States,” he furnished copies of many Faust, which first appeared in 1839, in the
twelve years of age he was sent, with his elder important state documents from Berlin, which "Halle Year Book.” Soon after the publica-
brother, to the military school for cadets in
otherwise would have been inaccessible.

tion of the “Critical Walk," Vischer was
Copenhagen. In 1822 he entered the service

nominated regular Professor of German Literaof Prussia, and, after a strict examination, was Frederick Vischer, Professor of Esthetics ture and Esthetics in the University of Tubinaccepted as second-lieutenant in the 8th regi- and German Literature in the University of

gen (1845), and at that time delivered his ment of Foot. He then entered the military Tubingen, and in the Polytechnic Institute in

famous academical installation oration, which school of Berlin, and was shortly afterward Stuttgart, was born in Ludwigsburg, Germany,

gave such great offense to the Orthodox and intrusted with the superintendence of the then June 30, 1807. His father was a pastor in that

Pietistic party. His numerous opponents sucsomewhat insubordinate School of Division. city, and died in 1814. In 1821 he entered ceeded in delaying the commencement of his This task was most satisfactorily performed, the seminary at Blanbeuren, and, four years

labors for two years, during which time he and he was then attached to a commission for later, the University of Tubingen, to prepare

carried out his long-designed plan of writing a topographical surveys in Silesia and the Grand himself for the theological office. Among the

“ Text-Book of Esthetics,” which appeared in Duchy of Posen, at the head of which was young men with whom he studied were David 1846–1857, in 4 vols. This work constitutes the General von Mufing. He was promoted to Strauss, Wilhelm Zimmerman the historian,

climax of Vischer's influence upon the German the rank of captain, and, two years afterward, Gustav Pfizer, who afterwards became dis

science of the beautiful in nature and art. His received an appointment on the General's staff. tinguished as a lyric poet, and others who

influence to-day is very extraordinary; chiefly In this position he remained seven years, four

have risen to eminence in the German literary through the many students and scholars who of which were spent in Turkey; and a journey world. In the autumn of 1830 he passed his

make use of the work. Vischer devotes a part through Roumelia, under Sultan Mahmoud, theological examination, was assistant pastor

of his time to lectures in the University of resulted in the issue of a historical work en- for a year in a small village, and then private Tubingen, and a part in the Polytechnic Instititled “The Russian-Turkish Expedition, 1828- tutor in the seminary of Maulbronn. In 1832

tute at Stuttgart. 29.” Afterward, with four Prussian comrades, he visited the Universities of Berlin and

“The head of Vischer denotes high intellecthe proceeded to organize the Turkish army. Gottingen. While here he studied closely,

ual qualities. The organs of Causality and While in Asia Minor, he took the opportunity but was fully absorbed in the words that fell

Comparison, together with Ideality, are very
to revise the maps of that region, of which the from his great teachers, Hegel and Schleier- strongly developed. Also the whole of the
celebrated Professor Ritter has subsequently macher. During an excursion which he made

perceptive faculties are pretty strongly devel-
availed himself to declare their accuracy.
to Prague and Vienna, he was surprised by

oped. In comparison with his high intellect,
When he returned to Europe he was ap- the Oriental physiognomies and dresses that he

Vischer's weakness lies in his defective develpointed to the command of the 4th Corps saw in the streets. The beautiful drives, the

opment of the faculty of Language. If Vischer d'Armée, with the rank of major. In 1859 he grand equipages, the beautiful women, the plays

is an orator, it is through the strength and fullbecame lieutenent-general, and in the same in the theater, and, after leaving these, a

ness of his thoughts, not through the grace of

words."
year was appointed aid-de-camp to the Crown summer sojourn amid the beauties and mag-
Prince of Prussia. When the Schleswig-Hol- nificence of the Tyrol, made him forget the
stein affair occurred he did not take an im- teachings of Hegel and Schleiermacher; and Garibaldi, the last of our group of interest-
portant part, being much restricted by political when he returned to his studies in Tubingen ing public characters, commends himself, in
considerations. It is the late war which has he found they had become uncongenial to him, many ways, and more to the hearts of the
developed his peculiar genius, namely, his and he gradually gave himself to the study of American people than any of the others. His
planning ability. His course during that poetry and art. At this time, too, he read good, honest heart only beats for one object-
period we have already faintly sketched. Goethe's Faust and his Esthetics; and led into united Italy. The assertion that he is an

General Moltke has a very finely developed intimate companionship with the skeptical" enthusiast” is true in every sense of the
form. This, taken together with his counte- Strauss, he took a sympathizing interest in the word; because he has pledged his heart, his
nance, produces on strangers an impression of work of his friend, “The Life of Jesus," soul, his life—all to one great, consuming

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GARIBALDI.

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