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temperament was more thoroughly in- son often boasted of this, and confessed that years, with the assistance of a large number of
the confidence of his mother had infused into pupils. In the mean time, in 1828, he had also fused with the forceful impulse of the mo
his spirit a still stronger enthusiasm for his reorganized the Academy of his native city of tive than is usually the case with the pure chosen pursuit.
Düsseldorf, of which he was appointed directTeutonic type. His nature was a pracIn the Academy of his native city the young
In Munich he had two halls devoted to tically imaginative one; not a metaphys- and gifted boy rapidly improved under the
his own decoration. The Hall of Heroes he ically imaginative one. His views of a guidance of Langer. He was himself fully
decorated with the history of the demi-gods profession purely esthetic in its character aware of his own power and aims; and became
and heroes who contended in the Trojan War; early noted for his spirit of personal freedom
the other, the Hall of the Gods, with scenes were not, as is usually the case, and con
and independence, and for an earnest striving representing the whole of the Grecian mytholsistently, too, visionary or speculative,
after truth in all that he did. His first studies ogy. This work was one of the most remarkbut utilitarian, objective. His wonderful were in drawings from Marc Antonio's engrav
able of our times. The figures are of colossal capability to design allied itself with ings, from the antique, and from the works of proportions, and are as equally distinguished
for their grandness of conception as for their those faculties which appreciate tangible Raphael
, the latter of which he endeavored to purposes and realities; and all that he copy entirely from memory. At twelve years exceeding simplicity in execution. While in of age he commenced upon his own composi
Munich he also undertook the general decorawrought out has in it the elements of
tions, and was soon able to contribute to the tion of the corridors of the Pinakothek, and social utility, social culture. The world
support of his family by illustrating almanacs, commenced a series of symbolical frescoes for is the better off for having had such a painting banners, and other general work. He the ornamentation of Ludwig's Church, comman as Cornelius to labor in the noble received his first important commission when prising the chief features of the contents of the
he was nineteen years old, to paint the cupola Christian confession of faith, from the "Incarrealm of art, and leave behind him con
of the old cathedral at Neuss with colossal nation of Christ” to the “Last Judgment." summations which must refine and edu
figures in chiaroscuro; which was necessarily The last-named picture, measuring cate the observer.
a somewhat crude performance. He had now 30, is the largest painting in the world, exceed
to depend entirely upon himself for support; ing even that of Michel Angelo on the same The first and greatest reformer of German
and, with a deep religious spirit, he aimed to subject. In merit, too, it is well worthy of
fulfill the highest requirements of his chosen comparison. painting-Peter von Cornelius-died at Berlin, on the 17th of March, 1857, in the eightieth profession.
In 1841 Cornelius' fame had spread over year of a glorious and honored life. Com- Cornelius always looked to Rome as the Europe, and both royalty and fortune smiled mencing his career when German art had be- proper theater for his studies; he had already upon him. He was consulted by the British come degraded by foreign and frivolous ele- become inspired with the grand idea of regen- Government with reference to its new Houses ments, he sought to awaken and regenerate the erating German art. In 1811 he reached the of Parliament. The King of Prussia also inslunibering art-spirit of his country; and at his Eternal City from Frankfort on the Main, vited him to become director of the Art Gallery death he was the recognized founder of a where he had been engaged on a series of in Berlin; which honor he accepted. While school which now claims as its followers the illustrations to Goethe's “Faust;" which are here, he painted a portion of the frescoes in the most distinguished German artists of the pres
considered among the most original and suc- Campo Santo, the cartoons of' which are well ent day. Like the noble Goethe in literature, cessful of his designs. In Rome a new world known by the published plates. One of these, he sundered the bonds that held down the true enchanted him. Here he formed an intimate representing the “Four Horsemen" of the spirit of art, and infused life where had before acquaintance with Overbeck; and these two, Apocalypse, is generally considered as his been decay and death. The great motto which with other congenial spirits, formed themselves most powerful and original conception. He inspired all that he did was comprised in that
into a little brotherhood, and occupied a part furnished the design for the baptismal " Shield word life. “I despise every composition, of the old convent of St. Isodore as their of Faith” which King William presented to and recognize nothing as art,” he said, “ that studio. So eagerly and absorbedly did they his godson, the young Prince of Wales. He does not live; but the degrees of life in art are pursue their studies, that they soon drew upon also made several other beautiful designs for as infinite as in nature itself; and when I can themselves the attention of other congenial medals. In 1853 he commenced another relove the meanest life with tenderness, so will I souls; among whom were Goethe, Schlegel, markable painting, for the decoration of the therefore not go astray in the highest and most and Niebuhr, who were in full sympathy with Berlin Cathedral, entitled the “Day of Judg. perfect claim of human artistic ability.” their well-known and settled purpose of replac- ment,” visiting Rome several times before its
Cornelius was born on the 3d of September, ing the pedantry and irksome rules of the completion. His later works are quite as vig. 1788, in Düsseldorf, the son of the inspector of academies by a return to the truer and nobler orous in spirit and life as the conceptions of the Gallery of Paintings there. He early found spirit of the old masters. The little band
his younger days. Indeed, he improved rather opportunities to become acquainted with the found abundance of employment. Among the than degenerated up to the day of his death. choicest works of art; even the play-hours of chief works of Cornelius at this period are two When Cornelius had finished the frescoes in his boyhood were passed in the galleries that | frescoes, which he executed for the Prussian
the Ludwig's Church in Munich for King Ludcontained the masterpieces of Rubens and the consul-general: “Joseph Interpreting the
wig I., king of Bavaria, the latter was disold German school. As a mere child, he con- Dream of Pharaoh's Chief Butler,” and “ Joseph pleased with some of the paintings which the tinually exercised himself in the imitation of Recognizing his Brethren." These immedi
great artist himself had executed. Cornelius beautiful forms, and his eminent talent soon ately brought him in high favor. He was also
felt deeply grieved by the manner of the king, became remarked. His father gave him the commissioned by the Marquis Massimi to dec- and requested his release, so that he might first directions in the path of his artistic des- orate the walls of his palace with frescoes from leave Bavaria and find a more congenial tination, and also provided the means for his the Divina Commedia of Dante, but he only home elsewhere. An artist relates that the further improvement in the Academy; but he completed the designs (which were subse
king called him to his cabinet and asked him died suddenly. His mother, though in some- quently engraved by Schoefer) for this work, what he thought of the frescoes which Corwhat straitened circumstances, was advised having received an invitation from the Baya- nelius had painted in the Ludwig's Church. to place her son apprentice to a goldsmith, but rian court to aid in the decoration of the The artist extolled the work of Cornelius, but she had already perceived the extraordinary Glyptothek at Munich.
Ludwig interrupted him abruptly by saying: inclination of her son for art, and declared her Cornelius left Rome in the year 1819, and “But the painting! The painting is worth willingness to suffer privation sooner than take soon afterward commenced his labors in the
nothing! A painter must be able to paint!" him away from his studies. In later years, her Glyptothek, where he was employed for ten ! The artist replied: “But Cornelius is more
than a painter,—he is an artist, and one of the
A FRENCH EDUCATOR ON AMERIgreatest in the world !” “And yet he is no
CAN FREE SCHOOLS. painter," said the king, excitedly. “He wants to go away! Let him go! I will not detain him !" “ Your majesty," said the artist," it
The intelligent reading classes in America
are so much accustomed to seeing our systems will be a sad day for Munich and for us all,
of education censured and depreciated when and you, your majesty, will lose in him a gem from your crown.” These last words aroused
reviewed in comparison with the English Ludwig to a high degree :-“What!" said he,
foundations and the French academies, and “ who is Art in Munich ? Is it Cornelius? I!
that, too, in newspapers and periodicals boastthe king !" But Ludwig found out his loss
ing the highest literary excellence in both the afterward, and deeply regretted the slight that
editorial and contributorial departments, that he had given him; but all his efforts to re-estab
they have generally become convinced that the lish the old friendly relation between them
methods in common use for training the young were futile, for the noble spirit of Cornelius
idea are faulty and even pernicious. was as independent as it was gigantic.
If we were to believe the strictures on AmerCornelius had long been the acknowledged
ican education which we recently read in a and honored master of German art when death prominent New York weekly, we would decalled him so suddenly away. His life-long nounce our prevailing system as superficial and enthusiasm had not been confined to his own fragmentary in its practical results. But we soul, however ; but by word and deed he had countenance no such view. The grand system kindled it in the hearts of all who knew him. of free education, which is one of the noblest If his motto was, that art should represent life, outgrowths of our democratic republican po)he took care that his should not represent com- icy, commands our warmest approval, and mon life, but human life and human nature in must be acknowledged by every candid mind its highest and noblest potencies. He himself as the surest way yet discovered to the educahad wandered through the whole history of tion and improvement of an entire nation. In man; he had studied him as he found him literature, science, and art, it must be acknowpersonified in Faust, in the Olympic paganism ledged that old Europe is somewhat in adof the Greeks, in Homer's ideal songs, and vance of young America. Our literature, i. e., among the wild romantic legends of his father- the perfected expression of cultured minds, is land; and everywhere his lofty spirit appre- young; it has no centuries of learned authorciated whatever had the true ring of human- ship to refer to as have the literatures of Gerity; that represented man in his most exalted many, France, and England; yet it has already truthfulness; and these he wove into epic and challenged the respect of foreign literati, and dramatic scenes which are not less remarkable its vigor, boldness, ambition, and ardent hope for their pureness of embodied thought than are the earnests of future growth and excelfor their idealistic enchantment. His works lence. The public school has proved, and will are stamped throughout with the genius of prove, a potent auxiliary to its growth, awakenoriginality; his spirit was full of the deepest ing to powerful endeavor, not a few scattered poetic feeling, and from the fountain of his in- intellects, as in the case of schools on a private exhaustible imagination his creations became footing, but many, which are necessarily ever newer, more elevated, and more beauti- brought into conjunction and competition by a ful.
universal free system. But are American Though Roman Catholic in religion, he was schools so faulty, so ill organized, and supertruly catholic in spirit; and whether in decor- ficial? Let foreign testimony have its weight ating the churches of the Protestant capital of in answering this question, especially if such North Germany, or the halls of Catholic testimony be based on the only practical basis Munich, he strove only for truth, and noth- of comparative investigation. It will be ing but the truth-for a mind like his could scarcely necessary to remind our readers that not be bound by any narrow dogma of faith. at the Paris Exposition of 1867 there was a In the annals of the history of German art his school building, with all the interior arrangename will stand forth for all time among the ments and apparatus generally found in Amergreatest of German painters.
ican public schools of the primary grade. It was, in fact, “ an exact reproduction of one of
numerous free primary schools” of the West. THEORY OF TRANSMISSION.—The physical This “curiosity” attracted no little attention, characteristics, the intellectual traits, and the especially from the Continental educators and moral qualities and proclivities descend from savants, and led to the publication of a very sire to son. Upon seeing a man's children we interesting paper on the American public instinctively begin to trace the resemblance to school system in the Manuel General de l'Inthe father and mother, and sometimes discover struction Primaire of Paris, the chief French a remarkable likeness to some grandparent or educational organ, by M. H. Ferte, late Chief perhaps great-grandparent. That was the first of Instruction in Paris. series of observation in this line. Subsequent After a brief statistical review of the state of comparisons of phenomena established what is educational matters in Illinois, in the course of now generally accepted as the law of the trans- which he calls particular attention to the fact mission of mental and moral qualities.-C. F. that a large portion of the teachers employed Deems, D.D.
are females, “a singularity of which France
offers no example," attributing to this organization of teaching the well-known manly in. tellect for which the present generation of women in America are distinguished, M. Ferte proceeds to consider the general school system of the United States. The high-ceiled, commodious, and well-ventilated school-buildings, with their convenient furniture, challenge his admiration. The arrangement of the windows, so that a part of the sash can be readily opened to admit fresh air without creating a strong draft, the plan of the desks, and the adaptations of the maps, globes, books, and other apparatus are pronounced vastly superior to those , in common use in France. To use his definite language: “While we have long tables, accompanied by long benches, for accommodating ten or twelve pupils, who crowd, elbow, and hinder each other, in this American school we find the desks or tables neatly arranged for either one or two scholars, with a seat having a support for the back of the pupil. The teachers who read this will understand at once thic advantages of such an arrangement. Does a scholar necd to leave his seat, he can do so without disturbing his neighbor, or without being obliged, to the great detriment of discipline, to pass before seven or eight of his fellow-students, who never fail to make good such an occasion for mischief. It would be highly desirable to have these American desks introduced in our schools. The discipline would be benefited by it, the children could prosecute their studies without disturbance, and be very much more comfortable. We wish the same for the introduction of the inkstand, with which each table is provided. The calculators, geometrical figures, globes, charts, and other school apparatus, resemble much those in our best schools.
Among the books we have examined, we find many deserving of high commendation. We notice improved methods of teaching penmanship, excellent and simple spelling, reading, and drawing books, quite superior in every respect, and also conveniences for cleaning black-boards, carrying books, and methods of object-teaching, quite unknown with us."
The sheets of moral mottoes hung up on the walls are regarded as no inconsiderable feature of the school apparatus. The essence of civil virtue and integrity contained in them exerts an influence most favorable to developing in youthful minds those principles which, if practiced, can not fail to make the children good men and women and worthy citizens.
The effects of such universal education are thus grandly described :
* The free primary school in America is truly the common center whence have sprung up the greater number of the men who have shed luster upon the commonwealth. It is there that were formed those energetic nations who have developed, in such a prodigious manner, the power of the United States. It is there that were blended together the Saxon, French, German, Spanish, Italian, and other races
which people the New World. Each one, on landing on these remote shores, brought his own manners, his language, his national spirit, his opinions and tastes. All these unevennesses and differences disappear in the new educated generation, to form only one great nationhomogeneous in its patriotism, persevering and enlightened in the accomplishment of its political and other duties, audacious and powerful in the realization of its gigantic purposes and destiny.
“ All these wonderful results are due in a great degree to the primary school, where the young generations are molded and where they have learned that equality and liberty can live together in perfect harmony."
M. Ferte goes on to describe the higher departments of free education as they are graded in most of the States, viz., the grammar-school, the high school, showing that not only does America aim to afford a substantial basis for the mental development of all her citizens in the way of a thorough primary education, but she also seeks to cultivate a general taste for a high intellectual culture by providing liberal means for “all, without reference to race, color, or religious opinions," who may desire to improve themselves,
The equality of the sexes in mental culture as promoted by the free system is commented upon in the following terms:
"The American system can not be blamed for keeping females in a deplorable inferiority, as is often witnessed in the Old World. Far from it; instead of having not enough knowledge, men of sense have held the opinion that the American ladies have too much, and that they neglect, for abstract sciences, those home and house duties which in a woman ought to receive the first consideration.
“Experience, however, shows that American women are excellent mothers and devoted wives, no less than the women of the Old World ; indicating, in another view, that the education so free, universal, and ample, exerts its beneficial influence upon all classes of society. It is the sanctuary of the family which becomes so admirable in America, and is another school where the young girl learns by her mother's side the lessons of domestic economy which go hand in hand with her school privileges, and which secure such capable and intelligent women as reflect great honor upon the American country and its institutions."
Those things which M. Ferte thinks amenable to improvement are the privilege exercised by teachers or single schools in selecting text books for use, and the almost exclusive adoption of American works in the school libraries. The former practice he regards as conducive to irregularity and detrimental to progress, though some benefit may result from such experimenting; the latter he considers unhappy, because so many valuable foreign authors are not brought to the notice and appreciation of American youth.
The methods of discipline and order are
highly commended, and on them, it is remarked, THE DEVELOPMENT THEORY. depends in a great measure the rapid progress (A Lecture delivered at Washington by Dr. THEODORE made by children in their studies. The closing
Gill, of the Smithsonian Institution, and expressly re
ported by SAMUEL BARROWS, phonographer, for the paragraphs of M. Ferte's review, which are a
PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL.] summary of what has been said, are worthy of reproduction as he framed them.
THE TWO SCHOOLS DEFINED. “It is found that the average expenses for In considering this subject, it is first neces. the education of each child in the United sary to take cognizance of the two different States amounts to about sixty-two and a half
schools which exist among naturalists. One francs (or $17 currency) per annum, Five may be called the Creatory school, and the hundred thousand teachers, male and female, other the Development school. Of the Creaspread in these vast regions the benefits of ed- tory school, the most prominent advocate is ucation to millions of children.
Professor Agassiz. Of the Development school, “This immense army of instructors is far the chief, as you are well aware, is Mr. Darwin. from being composed, as a rule, of men. Wo- By the Creatory party it is generally maintainmen occupy the first rank in their number, de- ed that all animals, as well as plants, have votion, and talent. Their salary is not large, been created as they now are. The Developbut in return, the teachers (both male and fe- ment theory requires the belief that all animals, male) enjoy a respect and esteem which adds as well as plants, have sprung from one or few very much to their moderate compensation. primordial germs. Most of the advocates of They are welcome among the wealthy and the Creatory theory further believe that all an. most respectable families, who extend to them
imals and plants have sprung from a pair or a every social advantage and consideration. combination of sexes; but it is not by any This distinction is conferred with high satis
means granted by all who oppose the Developfaction as a tribute to instruction, which is
ment theory that this is the case. considered the basis of the social edifice. Pro
AGASSIZ' OPINION. fessorships are esteemed so highly, that the
Professor Agassiz is the one who carries to most substantial families allow their sons and
the greatest extreme this Creatory theory, and, daughters to hold the position, and numerous
it may be added, carries it to its logical conpersons occupy the place of teachers during
clusion. He maintains not only that all ani. preparation for college or a profession, while
mals and plants are descended from like anceslarge numbers risc to eminence from beginning
tors, but that they have descended from comas teachers in the primary schools.
munities; that, for example, man did not come “The changes which are thus influenced
into existence as a single pair; but that when the
fiat of the Creator was given, he sprang upon among teachers must result in many abuses,
the earth in communities such as we now find which would not occur if the teachers found in their occupation an object for its permanent
them. As Mr. Agassiz may be considered the adoption as their definite career. But in the
chief representative of the Creatory theory, United States, as everywhere, teaching is, and
and has very clearly presented the alternatives will always be, a condition requiring great
of belief and non-belief thereon, I may be persacrifices in return for very small compensa-.
mitted to read his views on that subject as pub
lished in Nott and Gliddon's " Types of Mantion. The youth among this enterprising and am
kind,” for they have relation to the subject of bitious people are more able amid the care
preceding lectures. Treating of the word spelessness of material interests given by the hope
cies, and accepting the definition of Dr. Morof a long life to offer the commonwealth the
ton, that species are primordial forms, he says: ardor and abnegation which are the necessary
“I am prepared to show that the differences conditions of good teaching. Everything is
existing between the races of men are of the then for the best in this apparent disorder, and
same kind as the differences observed between without admiring all that pertains to primary
the different families, genera, and species of instruction in America, we can not help prais
monkeys or other animals, and that these difing a system which from so many heterogene
ferent species of animals differ in the same deous elements has been able to form such a great
gree one from the other as the races of men;
nay, the differences between distinct races are nation.”
often greater than those distinguishing species
of animals one from the other. The chimpan. AMERICAN LITERATURE.—The following is zee and gorilla do not differ more one from the an estimate of the books, pamphlets, etc., pub- other than the Mandingo and the Guinea negro; lished in this country during the year 1867: they together do not differ more from the Vols.
orang than the Malay or white man differs Fiction...
.741 Sociology and House- from the negro." Religion and Theology..257 holds... History..
“ I maintain, distinctly, that the differences Poetry .120 Philosophy, Morals, Tem
observed among the races of men are of the Law..
same kind, and even greater than those upon
. 103 Arts, Trades, Occupa- Learned Literature, ctc. 25
as distinct species.” At another place he retions... 142 New Periodicals
sumes: “ The coincidence between the circumEducation 75 Other Books
scription of the races of man and the natural 2,124 limits of different zoological provinces charac
25 21 38
terized by peculiar distinct species of animals, Creatory one is most accordant with all the is one of the most important and unexpected modern results of science," is the question for features in the natural history of mankind examination. The advocates of the Developwhich the study of the geographical distribu- ment theory, as I have before said, instead of tion of all the organized beings now existing admitting that all inen descended from a single upon the earth has disclosed to us. It is a fact pair, or instead of supposing, like Professor which can not fail to throw light at some fu- Agassiz, that all animals and plants are deture time upon the very origin of the differen- scended from communities or aggregations of ces existing among men, since it shows that
individuals, insist that all animals and plants man's physical nature is modified by the same are descended, with modifications, from few laws as that of animals, and that any general
primordial types. Although there are certain results obtained from the animal kingdom re- gradations of belief, yet they are not held by garding the organic differences of its various
men most eminent in science. There are those types must also apply to man."
who are willing to admit that all of the equine “We find upon Borneo (an island not so ex- or borse tribe, for example, may have descendtensive as Spain) one of the best known of the
ed from a single horse-like animal, or all the anthropoid monkeys, the orang-outang, and feline tribe from a single cat-like one; yet the with him as well as upon the adjacent islands
naturalist of wider experience, conversant with of Java and Sumatra, and along the coasts of
the classification of organic beings, contemthe two East Indian peninsulas, not less than
plating all the conditions of existence, and ten other different species of Hylobates, the
going back to the times of the past and recoglong-armed monkeys, a genus which next to the
nizing the fact of development among animals orang and chimpanzee ranks nearest to man.
and plants, is logically and almost inevitably One of these species is circumscribed within
forced to the conclusion, if he admits these vathe island of Java, two along the coast of Coro
riations at all, that all are descended from a mandel, three upon that of Malacca, and four
few primordial types. upon Borneo. Also eleven of the highest or
THE THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT. ganized beings which have performed their
A statement of a few arguments for this bepart in the plan of the creation within tracts
lief may now be submitted. It has been shown of land inferior in extent to the range of any
in previous lectures that there is an identity of the bistorical nations of men! In accord
of plan among all animals; that the plans are ance with this fact we find three distinct races
few in number; that there is also a regular within the boundaries of the East Indian realm:
subordination; that we find species that agree the Telingan race in anterior India, the Malays
with each other in almost all essential characin posterior India and upon the islands, upon
teristics, but differing in different ratios; that which the Negrillos occur with them.”
these species are combined into genera, these In closing he says: "Now there are only
genera characterized, as is generally said, by two alternatives before us at present--1st. Ei
ultimate modifications of structure, and differther mankind originated from a common stock,
ing also in various degrees. These genera are and all the different races with their peculiari
likewise combined into other groups, into subties in their present distribution are to be as
families and families, characterized in a greater cribed to subsequent changes, an assumption
or less degree by fundamental similarity of for which there is no evidence whatever, and
form, and these families are combined again which leads at once to the admission that the
into orders, these orders into classes, these diversity among animals is not an original one,
classes into branches, of which we liave adnor their distribution determined by a general
mitted five. In the vegetable kingdom we plan, established in the beginning of the crea
find nearly the same gradation, but with diftion; or, 2d. We must acknowledge that the
ferent names attached to some of the groups. diversity among the animals is a fact determ
In examining these groups, we find as we ined by the will of the Creator, and their geo- ascend from the simple to the more compregraphical distribution part of the general plan hensive that it becomes more and more diffiwhich unites all organized beings into one cult to find distinctive characteristics for them; great organic conception; whence it follows that is, it does in the main; there are excepthat what are called human races, down to tions. Although these different categories, their specialization as nations, are distinct pri- these different combinations of individuals, of mordial forms of the type of man. The con. species, are recognized by the naturalist, it is sequence of the first alternative, which is con
by no means the case that they are clearly and trary to all the modern results of science, runs distinctly defined in nature. Every practical inevitably into the Lamarkian development naturalist is well aware of that, and the history theory, so well known in this country through of science shows well what a conflict there has the work entitled “Vestiges of Creation,' always been, and still is going on, as to the though its premises are generally adopted by limits of species and the limits and variations those who would shrink from the conclusion
Take, for example, man himself. to which they necessarily lead.”
It is generally admitted that man forms one THE QUESTION AT ISSUE STATED,
species; but Professor Agassiz will maintain Such are the alternatives presented, and that there is an indefinite number of species, fairly presented, I think, to us. Whether the for he is not decided upon the number, reserycommunity of origin of man and the alleged ing the question for further study. But though consequence à Development theory-or a we may variously estimate the varieties or
species, calling them three, accepting the views of Blumenbach; or five, accepting the views of Cuvier; or cleven, with Pickering; or many, with Professor Agassiz, it is impossible to give to each one of those species characteristics which will differentiate them from all others. If we look at the skull, we will find in the same race in the same tomb-yard those which are characterized by both brachycephalous and dolichocephalous forms. And take what character you will and run it through a long series of skulls, and it is impossible to find any one character which will hold good as defining any race. We can call in hybridity to account for this, but the facts exist nevertheless.
Take also the monkeys of the genus Hylobates. We find that Professor Agassiz admits ten species, while it is generally supposed that there are not more than seven or eight. There is, however, a reason for this latitude of opinion. These species of Hylobates are related together in various degrees. We have one type very distinct from any of the others. We have that one group equivalent in its value, although containing only a single species, to another containing, we will say, seven species, and those seven species so related to each other that they can be variously combined. The differences existing between the most nearly related of these aggregates of individuals have in one case been considered specific, and in the other varietal or individual. There is a difference of opinion also regarding the number of species of the orang-outang, or the genus Simia. Some say there are two, some three, and some that all are only varieties of a single species. With regard to the chimpanzee, some say there are three species, others that there are two, and others, again, that there is only
There is also doubt about the value of the characters differentiating this animal from the gorilla. Some say that the characters are of generic value, others that they are only of specific value. In this case, likewise, difference of opinion prevails with regard to the interpretation of value rather than to the exact form of difference. It is acknowledged by all that difference exists. There is no doubt that the chimpanzee is separated from the gorilla by its smaller size, its less robust frame, its more rounded cranium, the number of the ribs, and the relative size of the incisors. There is no doubt that these differences exist; the only difference between naturalists relates to the interpretation of their value. So, in the same way, there is no doubt of the distinctions between representatives of the groups to which the name of genera, families, orders, and classes have been given; but there are doubts as to the interpretation which is to be given of these differences. Again, we see that although the differences between certain animals are extremely wide, there is still a recurrence in these extremes of the same elements; and though it becomes difficult in extreme cases for one who has not made a thorough study of comparative anatomy, of embryology, and geology to see these similarities, yet to one who is acquainted with these sciences, and who is endowed with
THE TYPES IN NATURE.
a proper scientific spirit, it is easy to see the the general features of its skeleton almost com- between the skeletons shows quite a regular transitions from one to the other. But if we pletely resembles the horse; but on each side gradation of characters from one to the other. limit our studies to one homogeneous group, of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones, instead Bearing in mind also what has been said of it becomes casy to institute a comparison. A of small splint bones existing, there are larger rudimentary organs, in examining these animere tyro in anatomy can institute a compari- and quite well-developed bones which are evi. mals of the ruminants, we find that in the son between the various forms of the mamma- dently metacarpal and metatarsal bones, and young cow or the young sheep there are front lia. It will be easy for him to recognize in the these are capped by phalanges with hoofs. teeth developed in the upper jaw, but they do lowest forms the same bones that are developed The rhinoceros on comparison with this not become functionally developed, and are in the highest ; he will be led to observe the animal (which is called hipparion) is found to early absorbed in the gums. perfect identity of type in animals most widely exhibit the same number of bones in the feet, In embryology we have another series of separated externally.
but then there is a greater hypertrophy of the facts which it is important to take into con
splint bones of the horse, for instead of being sideration. We find that the animal of a high The great types in nature generally recog
small comparatively, as in the hipparion and type, man for example, goes through a series nized are five. These five, as I have said, are
the related types, they are very large, so that a of changes, and that those changes assimilate
hoof with three well-defined toes is the result. distinguished by difference of plan from each
him for the time being to the various animals other; but even here we find it difficult to say
Now there is a striking affinity between the which are below him in the scale of nature
equine race and the rhinocerotal race. But if how great is the value of those differences. In
in a certain ratio to their rank and conformity the highest forms there is no difficulty what
we study the group to which these forms with type. We do not find, however, exact
belong in the living world, we find only the ever in perfectly appreciating the great dis
similarities, and we should not expect to find tapir, the rhinoceros, and the horse tribe, tinction existing between the groups ; but
them ; for if Darwinism is true, we should when we descend in the scale, when in every representing compact, strongly-marked fami
rather expect that there should not be a gradalies; but when we examine the animals of the group or branch we go from the high to the
tion through a single series, but that there past we find that between these families, low, from the complex to the simple, then
should apparently be divergences from a comtrenchant as are their differences in the living distinguishing characteristics become one by
mon type, and that these divergences should world—there exist so many intermediate types one so diminished there is an atrophy of cer
increase in ratios approximate to the dissimithat their close affinities can not for a moment larities of the adult forms. Such we find to be tain organs, or the differentiating character
be called into question. And this is only one the case. The fætus of man at one time is istics are not manifested on account of the
out of many examples. Few groups can be very similar to that of the dog, hog, or porsimplicity, that it is difficult to ascertain what
named which can not be taken up in the same poise, but not to the adult animals. are the great groups and branches to which
way. these lower forms belong. At present there is
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF BRAIN. no doubt concerning the vertebrates; that
AFFINITIES OF SPECIES.
We compared, on a former occasion, the group is well defined. There is no transition Let us take another illustrating the presence condition of the brain of man with those of between the vertebrates and any other of the of rudimentary parts. Among the animals of the ape and the lower animals. We see in the branches. But there is difficulty concerning the present day we find that there is a division marsupials that the corpus callosum is almost the articulates, and the mollusks, and the of ungulate animals into the two groups of the entirely wanting, that functionally it might be radiates. The manner in which the relations Astrodactyles and the Perissodactyles ; that is, said to be insignificant; that there is, how. of the lowest forms to their respective branches those having the hoofs in even number, as the ever, a great commissure which takes its place is ascertained is rather by a series of consecu- cow and pig, and those having them in odd | functionally. Now, if we could examine the tive inductions than by the perception of any number, like the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. brain of fætal man, we should find that almost single character.
If we go back into past times, we find that the same characteristics are represented in Another matter to be taken into considera- these forms are not so well defined as in those him. The brain, instead of being connected tion, and which logically follows the con- of the present day. In examining those of our by a well-developed corpus callosum, is simisideration of conformity to type, is the oxist- ny, we find that those animals having larly connected by a rudiment of the corpus ence of rudimentary organs. As has been the toes in even number are again divisible into callosum, as in the marsupials; and the anterior shown in former lectures with reference to the two well-defined groups, ruminants and non- commissure, as in the marsupials, is likewise different forms of the vertebrata, all the im- ruminants. Of the ruminants, the cow is a good well developed. But the resemblance would portaut bones are represented to a greater or example; of the non-ruminants, the pig. These be still greater between the brains of the young less extent; but there are some of the bones groups among existent animals are strongly dis- of both forms; the more advanced developwhich are represented in a very rudimentary tinguished. One of the distinguishing char- ment, however, causes the likeness to be lost condition. Take for example the horse. We acters, in ardition to that of the structure of in the adult man. You may also observe the the stomach and intestinal canal, is the pres
difference in the combinations of bones. In two small slender bones, one upon each side
ence or absence of teeth in the upper jaw. the lower forms the elements of the occipital of the carpal and tarsal bones, that are not
All those animals that have a stomach and bone and the elements of the temporal bone apparent cxternally, which are called the splint intestinal system adapted for rumination are of man are separated in all periods of life and bones. Now these bones are nothing but likewise distinguished by an atrophy of incisor persist as true independent bones. In man rudimentary metacarpal and metatarsal bones. teeth in the upper jaw; the camel is a partial these clements combine at a very early period The single hoof is not the homologue or cor- exception, and retains the external incisors. and form single compound bones. respondent of the double hoof of the cow, or All those that have a simple intestinal canal
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TYPES. the double hoof of the pig. It is rather the have incisor teeth in the upper jaw as well as
Now let us take into consideration a few homologue of the external of these, and it is in the lower. The pig is a well-known ex- facts with reference to the geographical disthe homologue of the third digit in the hand ample, and to the same group belongs the hip- tribution of animals. In the first place there and foot of man; and the two splint bones on popotamus. Now if we examine the animals of is a distinction of types in proportion to the each side are respectively the homologues or past days, we do not find that these combina
isolation of areas. We find that in America the representatives of the second and fourth. tions of characteristics exist. Of course we
we have one combination of animals, in EuNow there is no transition in living forms can not know the condition of the intestinal
rope we have another; that as we go from the between that type and the type with multiplied canal; it is only by analogy from comparison
warmer regions of those countries from this hoofs. But let us go back into the past. We of the skeletons that we are able to judge.
portion, for example, of Anierica, and from find in the early tertiary an animal which in But the comparison that we are able to make England in the Old World—as we go upward
find that his feet end in single hoofs. We find the