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ful Mohammed. The learned cousin of Cadijah was, moreover, the man who first translated parts of the Old and New Testaments into Arabic, and to him Mohammed is supposed to have been chiefly indebted for his extensive knowledge both of the Scriptures and the traditions of the Mishnu and the Talmud.

His mind stored with all the materials for his work, Mohammed retired from the world to a cavern on Mount Hara, and in solitude prepared himself for Allah's service with fasting and prayer.

His whole nature was now in painful travail with his great purpose, and it so wrought upon the healthful condition of his body, and perhaps sound state of his mind, that he became subject to dreams, ecstasies, and trances. For six months successively he is said to have received a series of dreams and visions. We are told that he would often lose all consciousness of surrounding objects, and lie upon the ground as if insensible; and when his anxious wife, whose ministering presence was with him in the cave of Mount Hara, entreated to know the cause of his paroxysms, he evaded her inquiries or answered mysteriously. Moslems consider these ecstasies to have been the workings of the spirit of prophecy, and the revelations of the Most High dawning vaguely

upon him.

At length (in the fortieth year of his age) came the annunciation of his apostleship by the personal administration of the angel Gabriel. The following is the substance of Washington Irving's account of this circumstance: “He was passing, as was his wont, the holy month in the cavern of Mount Hara, fasting and praying. It was the night called Al Kader, or the Divine Decree, a night in which, according to the Koran, angels descend to the earth, and Gabriel brings down the decrees of God. As Mohammed in the silent watches of the night lay wrapped in his mantle, he heard a voice calling him ; uncovering his head, a flood of light broke upon him of such an intolerable splendor that he swooned away. On regaining his senses, he beheld an angel in human form, which, approaching from a distance, displayed a silken cloth covered with written characters. * Read,' said the angel. 'I know not how to read.' 'Read ! repeated the angel, “in the name of the Lord who has created all things, who created man from a clot of blood. Read, in the name of the Most High, who taught men the use of the pen, who sheds on his soul the ray of knowledge, and teaches him what before he knew not.' Upon this Mohammed instantly felt his understanding illumined with celestial light, and read what was written upon the cloth, which contained the decrees of God as afterward promulgated in the Koran. When he had finished the perusal, the heavenly messenger announced, 'Oh, Mohammed, of a verity thou art the prophet of God, and I am his angel Gabriel.' Mohammed came trembling and agitated to Cadijah in the morning, not knowing whether what he had seen was indeed

true, a mere vision, or a delusion of his senses, his family. As soon as Mohammed commenced or the apparition of an evil spirit. His wife to make known to them his revelations, Abu said: “Joyful tidings dost thou bring! By Lahab started up in a great rage, reviling him Him in whose hand is the soul of Cadijah, I for calling them on so idle an errand. Catchwill henceforth regard thee as the prophet of ing up a stone, he would have cast it at his our nation. Rejoice,' added she, seeing him nephew, but the Prophet turned upon him a cast down, 'Allah will not suffer thee to fall withering glance, cursed the hand raised to shame. Hast not thou been loving to thy against him, and predicted his doom to the fire kinsfolk, kind to thy neighbors, charitable to of Jehennam, with the assurance that his the poor, liospitable to the stranger, faithful to scoffing wife should bear the bundle of thorns thy word, and ever a defender of the truth. with which the fire would be kindled. This She hastened to communicate the intelligence woman was the sister of Abu Sofian, the great to her cousin Waraka. 'By Him in whose rival of the line of Haschem, and though the hand is the soul of Waraka, thou speakest son of Abu Lahab had doubly united him to true, oh, Cadijah. The angel who has appeared his nephew by a marriage with Mohammed's to thy husband is the same who, in the days of youngest daughter, Abu Lahab betrayed his old, was sent to Moses the son of Amram. family, and united with its rival. Enraged His annunciation is true. Thy husband is a by the curse pronounced upon them, they improphet.'"

mediately compelled their son to divorce his Thus it will be seen that his fond wife and wife, who came weeping to her father ; but she her learned cousin were the first to rejoice and was soon consoled, by becoming the wife of proclaim Mohammed the Prophet of their her father's zealous disciple Othman, who in nation.

the number of Mohammed's successors ranks For a time Mohammed confided his revela

as the third Caliph in the rise of the vast Motions to his own household, but at length the

hammedan empire. rumor got abroad that he pretended to be a Not discouraged, the Prophet called a second prophet. This stirred up, at the very opening meeting of the Haschemites, and at this time of his career, hostility from every side. His announced in full the revelations which he had immediate kinsmen, of the line of Haschem, received, and the divine command to impart were powerful, prosperous, and identified with them to the chosen line of Haschem. “Oh, idolatry. They therefore considered their children of Abd al Montálleb," cried the family disgraced in the person of Mohammed, Prophet,“ to you of all men has Allah vouchand that he was placing them in humiliation safed these most precious gifts. In His name at the feet of the rival branch of their tribe; I offer you the blessings of this world, and while the rival line of Abd Schems took ad- endless joys hereafter, Who among you will vantage of the opportunity, and raised the cry share the burden of my offer? Who will be of heresy and impiety, to depose the line of my brother, my lieutenant, my vizier ?" For a Haschem from the guardianship of the sacred space of time the assembled Haschemites were shrine of Arabia and the governorship of Mec- silent, some wondering, others smiling in deca. Thus the matter became an issue of rival rision, until the youthful Ali, starting up with family interests, as well as one of a radical enthusiasm, offered himself to his great cousin, conflict between idolatry and the mission of who caught the generous youth in his arms, this earnest image-smasher.

and pressing him to his bosam, cried out to the During the first three years of his prophetic assembly, “ Behold my brother, my vizier, my career the number of Mohammed's converts vicegerent! Let all listen to his words and did not exceed forty, and most of these were obey him.” The outburst of the stripling Ali young persons, strangers, and slaves; and so was received with a shout of derision, and the thoroughly was the new sect outlawed, that its Haschemites scoffingly told Abu Taleb that he meetings were held in secret, either at the must now pay obedience to his son ; but nothouse of one of the disciples or in a cave near withstanding their scorn, the youthful Ali Mecca. Their meetings at length were dis- afterward became one of the mightiest of men, covered, a mob broke into the cavern, and a and fourth Caliph of the Mohammedan empire. scuffle ensued, in which one of the assailants Mohammed now began to preach in public. was wounded in the head by Saad, an armorer, The hills of Safa and Kubeis were his chosen who thenceforth became renowned as the first audience chambers, from which he thundered of the disciples who shed blood in the cause of against the reign of idolatry. These places Islam.

were well chosen, for they were sanctified in Mohammed afterward had a second vision, in the minds of the children of Abraham's firstwhich the angel Gabriel commanded him to arise born, by traditions of Ishmael and his mother and preach and magnify the Lord. Accordingly, Hagar; and from these holy hills he sent forth in the fourth year of his religious or fanatical a mighty proclamation that God had sent him activity, he suinmoned the line of Haschem to to restore “the religion of Abraham.” The meet him on the hill of Safa, in the vicinity of Koreishites, enraged by his denunciation of Mecca, that he might unfold to them matters their idolatry and the stiffneckedness of themof importance concerning their welfare. They selves and their fathers in the days of ignoassembled, and with them came his uncle Abu rance”-as the period prior to the Islam era is Lahab, a man of a proud spirit, who held his denominated-and, moreover, much alarmed nephew in reproach for bringing disgrace upon by the spread of the new faith, urged Abu

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Taleb to silence his nephew, and at length threatened to exterminate Mohammed and his disciples. Abu Taleb hastened to entreat his nephew to forego his work. “Oh, my uncle," exclaimed this grand fanatic or prophet, “though they should array the sun against me on my right hand and the moon on my left, yet until God shall command me, or shall take me hence, would I not depart from my purpose.” Mohammed was retiring from the presence of his uncle with a dejected countenance, when Abu Taleb, struck with admiration, called him back, and declared that, preach what he might, he would never abandon him to his enemies; and Abu Taleb, as the representative of his line, forth with bound the descendants of Haschem and Abd al Montälleb to aid 'him in protecting Mohammed against the rest of the tribe of Koreish. They considered the new religion of their kinsman a dangerous heresy, but the strong family instinct of the Arabs prevailed, and the descendantsexcepting his uncle Abu Lahab_of Haschem and Abd al Montâlleb consented to protect him.

About this time Mohammed was assailed and nearly strangled in the Caaba, but he was rescued by Abu Beker. He therefore deemed it wisdom to counsel those of his disciples who were not protected by powerful friends to fly from Mecca, for their lives were now in danger. He advised such to take refuge among the Nestorian Christians, and Othman Ibu Affan led a little band of the persecuted out of Mecca. The refugees were kindly received by the Nestorians, and others soon followed them. Meantime the Koreishites, finding Mohammed persistent in his work and daily making converts, passed a law of banishment against all who should embrace his faith, while he himself was forced to take refuge in the house of one of his disciples. Here he remained for a month. But his fame had spread abroad, and men from all parts of Arabia sought him in his retreat.

His powerful enemy Abu Jahil sought him and insulted and outraged him by personal violence. This was, however, avenged, and the circumstance was the indirect cause of bringing into the faith of Islam two of its mightiest champions. This outrage was told to his uncle Hamza, as he was returning from hunting, whereupon, in great ire, he marched with his bow unstrung into an assembly of Koreishites, where he found Abu Jahl boasting of his exploit; and Hamza smote him with a blow, wounding him in his head. The friends of the smitten man were in their turn about to avenge him, but Abu Jahl, fearing the warlike Hamza, himself pacified them, and apologized for his conduct, urging as his excuse the apostasy of his nephew. Well," retorted Hamza, fiercely, “I also do not believe in your gods of stone; can you compel me?" Forthwith he declared himself a believer in his nephew's mission, and took the oath of allegiance. Yet more important a convert even than the warlike Hamza was Abu

Jahl's own nephew Omar, whose very walk

hand and Omar on the left hand of the Prophet, ing-stick, it is said, struck more terror into be- to protect him from violence; and though the holders than any other man's sword. Omar, Koreishites viewed this demonstration with instigated by his uncle to avenge the blow astonishment and dismay, none dared to interdealt him by Hamza, promised to penetrate to rupt it, for Hamza and Omar glared upon their the retreat of the Prophet and strike a poniard enemies " like two lions that had been robbed to his heart. He was on the way to execute of their young." Next day, also, the fierce his purpose, when he met a Koreishite friend, nephew of Abu Jahl went up to the holy to whom he imparted his design. “ Before you shrine to pray, in defiance of the Koreishites, slay Mohammed, and draw upon yourself the who, though they dared not to interfere in his vengeance of his relatives, see that your own worship, fell upon another of the disciples who are free from heresy,” cautioned his friend, also went up to worship. Wrathful at this, who had himself secretly embraced the faith. Omar immediately sought his powerful uncle. "Are any of mine guilty of backsliding ?" de- "I renounce," said he, “thy protection. I will manded Omar. “Even so," was the reply. not be better off than my fellow-believers." “Thy sister and her husband Seid.” Omar, This terrible military apostle of the Arabian overwhelmed with astonishment, and beside prophet became the second successor of Mohimself with wrath, hastened to his sister's hammed, and under him the conquests of house, and surprised her and her husband Egypt, Syria, and Persia were added to that of reading the Koran. In his rage he struck all Arabia. Seid to the earth, and would have plunged his In the seventh year of Mohammed's mission sword into his heart, but the wife interposed, a schism was produced in the Koreish tribe, and received a fierce blow in her face, which and the rival branch entered into a solemn bathed it in blood. Enemy of Allah,” sobbed league against the Haschemites and the family his sister, “dost thou strike me thus for be- of Al Montalleb, engaging themselves to conlieving in the only true God? In spite of thee tract no marriages and to have no commerce and thy violence, I will persevere in the true with them until they gave up the person of faith. Yes, there is no God but God, and Mo- Mohammed, who had taken refuge in Abu hammed is his prophet. And now, Omar, Taleb's castle in Mount Safa. The families finish thy work.” But Omar, struck by his continued at variance for three years, when sister's spirit, relented, and took his foot from Mohammed told his uncle that God had maniher husband's breast. “Show me the writing," fested to him His displeasure of the league, by he said; but his sister refused to let him touch sending a worm to eat out every word of the the sacred scroll until he had washed his instrument except the name of God. Abu hands. He opened the 20th chapter of the Taleb went immediately to the Koreish, and Koran, and read: “In the name of the most offered, if it proved false, to give up his nephew, merciful God! We have not sent down the but exacted in turn that if it-proved true the Koran to inflict misery on mankind, but as a league should be declared void. To their great monitor, to teach him to believe in the true astonishment, they found it even as the Prophet God, the creator of the earth and the lofty had said, and he was allowed to return to heavens.

Mecca. “ The All-Merciful is enthroned on high ; to In the same year Mohammed sustained a Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens great loss in the death of his uncle Abu Taleb, above and in the regions under the earth.

and three days afterward in that of his wife “Dost thou utter thy prayers with a loud

Cadijah. This year is called the Year of Mournvoice? Know that there is no need. God ing. Left now without the protection of his knoweth the secrets of thy heart; yea, and

uncle, in the midst of his merciless enemies, that which is most hidden.

headed by Abu Sofian, into whose hands at “Verily I am God; and there is none besides the death of Abu Taleb had passed the guardiMe. Serve Me; serve none other. Offer up

anship of the sacred city, the Prophet, neverthy prayers to none but Me.”

theless lost nothing of that grand fanaticism Omar, greatly moved by the new revelations,

that ever sustained him in his darkest hours. continued to read, and before he left his sister's

In the twelfth year of his prophetship he pubhouse, this fierce man of war was a penitent

lished the revelation of his famous night and firm believer in the Prophet, to whose re

journey to the seven heavens. At first, it was

too much even for the credulity of his disciples, treat he hastened, and knocking, humbly and some of them left him ; but Abu Beker craved admittance. “ Come in, son of Khat- timely vouched for the Prophet's veracity; and tab,” answered the Prophet. “What bringest

his prompt testimony to the truth of the night thee hither ?” “I come to enroll my name

vision turned again the wavering faith, and raised the credit

of Mohammed as the favorite among the believers of God and His prophet,” Apostle of God to a towering pinnacle. It is reverently replied the new convert.

thought that this hit of the Prophet was a bold No half-hearted manifestation of faith satis

stroke of policy. Says Mr. Sale, in bis pre

liminary discourse to his translation of the fied this proselyte. He desired to make his

Koran, “ I am apt to think this fiction, notconversion most public, and prevailed on Mo- withstanding its extravagance, was one of the hammed to accompany him to the Caaba to most artful contrivances Mohammed ever put perform openly the rites of Islamism. A pro

in practice, and what chiefly contributed to the cession of the faithful forthwith paraded the

raising of his reputation to that great height

to which it afterward attained.” streets of Mecca, Hamza walking on the right

[TO BE CONTINUED.)

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MISS

ELIZA

BIOGRAPHY.

MISS ELIZA A. PITTSINGER,

Language is sufficient to qualify her for THE CALIFORNIA POETESS.

talking, teaching, writing, and explain

ing; she would do well in any literary In the great West we from time to

pursuit that demands a quick, clear, antime meet with authors, poets, orators,

alytical mind. teachers, who have impressed themselves

Though she has taste and refinement upon the Western mind, because in senti

of feeling, she is more known for strength ment, thought, and expression they adapt

than for smoothness, for earnestness than themselves to the tone of thought and

for Secretiveness, and impresses people feeling current there. The portraits, bi

and wins their approval more by the ographies, or effusions of true Western

earnestness and strength of her statepoets, representing different States, have

ments than by their plausibility and melappeared in our JOURNAL from time to

low persuasiveness. Having inherited time, and now California presents one to

her father's temperament, and much of us as worthy of consideration.

his disposition, she inclines to take a This lady has two marked mental pe

higher rank in life than if she resembled culiarities: one is activity; the other in

her mother, even though they were equal.

A. PITTSINGER. tensity, originating in a nervous, wiry,

She is brave to meet and master difficulphysical condition. She can walk or work with a kind of elasticity and spring heart-gush as anything she can speak; word immortality receives as much of a ties and oppositions; has a feeling of

self-trust that does not wince at trouble that is very effective, and at the same

the thought that we are to live forever and give up at discouragements. She time easy. She is sensitive, susceptible,

-as long as God himself exists, is a never has felt so much the necessity for and enduring, yet likely to wear herself out. She has abundant breathing power, great thought to her.

protection as she has for elbow-room, She is ambitious; very fond of the good

and a chance to use her power; and all muscular power, and mental power, but opinion of her friends. She is, perhaps,

she asks of the world is to give her a hardly enough digestive power to furnish too sensitive to the censure and disap

clear track; she asks no help, but simply the requisite support for brain and body. proval of others.

proval of others. When assailed direct- justice, room, and opportunity. We would suggest that a hygienic mode

ly, and when it is proper to respond and of life should be her first study; that is

defend herself, she can meet the attack The subject of this sketch was born at West to say, her exercise, her sleep, as well as

very well ; but a leer, a laugh, a shrug of Hampton, Mass. Her father, whom she reher diet, should be in harmony with hy. the shoulders, or a shake of the head

sembles in feature and temperament, was of gienic law. There has come to be a cuts her keenly.

German descent, and a most humane and betechnical meaning to the word “Hygi

nevolent man. Her mother was of Anglo

She is cautious, always on the watch enic,” and some people think it means to

Saxon birth, and blended unusual personal atfor danger and difficulty; is not easily traction with an amiable disposition and a refrain from meat, butter, tea, and coffee,

circumvented by treachery and policy; spirit naturally bold and aspiring. Her death and to live on a very spare vegetable generally has an eye and an ear open to

occurred at the early age of thirty-two, leaving diet; but we do not mean all this when all such things; and when people are

Eliza with two brothers and two sisters to the we say Hygienic. In this climate a

care and guidance of an older sister, a girl of playing a double game, fair to the face, piece of nice beef is not a bad article of but with a sinister purpose, she generally

fourteen, who thus acted in the double capacity food; but the oily matter, the pastry, appreciates the deception, and withdraws

of mother and sister. Mr. Pittsinger deeply

suffering from his bereavement, became neglithe condiments, the stimulants, these we

from the influence and power of such gent of his business matters, so that his cirwould repudiate.

cumstances and means of supporting his family Miss Pittsinger has a strong emotional She has Constructiveness, which makes

were greatly reduced. Eliza early exhibited a nature; the middle portion of her head her ingenious; large Ideality and Sublim

disposition impulsive, daring, precocious; she

cherished an unusual desire for knowledge of is large and wide between the ears, indi- ity, which give her a sense of the poetical,

all kinds, and availed herself of all improving cating that the force elements are strong, the beautiful, and the sublime in art and

opportunities. giving vigor, earnestness, and thorough- nature. Her integrity is more strongly At the age of fourteen she took charge of the ness. She has courage, fortitude, posi- marked than her Hope; she inclines to house for her father, two brothers, and a sister, tiveness, and power; is not easily dis- live an upright, just life, but not having

and walked a mile (through the snow in wincouraged, not easily repelled. She is large Hope, does not expect favorable

ter) to teach a school; and at the same time

instructed at home a younger brother and sisqualified to elbow her way through diffi- results unless she can help to work out

ter. At sixteen she was teacher of a school in culties, and make herself master of the these results herself.

Western New York, composed mostly of boys situation.

She sympathizes deeply with those who much older than herself. During the three She is strongly social, and believes in suffer, and has reverence for things sa

following years her time was spent in teaching friends, society; in affection and love; cred. Her intellect is sharp, clear, and

through the summer, and attending the Norand as a wife would be very devoted to practical; she picks up knowledge by

thampton high school in winter, from which

she graduated with what is generally considone who was adapted to her. the wayside, everywhere; her observa

ered a thorough New England education. She has a strong love of life, and the tion is quick, clear, and accurate. Her Subsequently she was engaged for several

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persons.

Communications.

THE INDIANS AND MOUNTAINS OF

OREGON.

years at Rogers' stereotype institution in Boston as proof-reader and reviewer. In the spring of 1854 she sailed for California ; and four years later her stirring songs and lyrics began to appear in the California journals. In the Golden State she has created many admirers and warm friends by her fervent patriotism and devoted enthusiasm to the zealous efforts in the cause of social and moral reforms. In the mining districts she was most enthusiastically received and appreciated.

In 1866 and 1867, at Nevada City, Grass Valley, at the lakes and among the Sierra Nevadas, at St. Francisco and elsewhere, she nas read her own poems to enthusiastic audiences, and at the same time wrote letters of travel for San Francisco papers. A farewell benefit was tendered her by the influential people of that city on the eye of her departure for a visit north.

Miss Pittsinger is now writing an extended “Poem on California,” to be compiled with others, ere she returns to her adopted State, and will probably give some readings after more important duties are attended to. We close this brief sketch with a specimen quotation of her poetic muse. The verses are from a poem written in 1867, entitled “ Ode to the Moon,” Their style is smooth and flowing, yet tender and thoughtful. All human life, perchance, is hushed in sleep!

Ah, who can rend the vail of night, and scan
The shattered hopes and broken threads that keep

Their silent councils in the soul of man?
Ah, who can rend the mystic shroud, and link

To joy and life those severed chords again,
That coldly tremble from the silent brink

Of past ambitions, planned and reared in vain ? 'Tis almost midnight! and my soul is wrapt

Within the glory of thy subtile heams;
Far hence I watch the hills with grandeur capt,

While Nature lulle nie in her softest dreams! 'Tis almost midnight! and I linger still

Beneath the glory of thy subtile spell, Like one enchanted with new joys, until

My very thought in songs of rapture swell. 'Tis almost midnight! and they call me hence !

Those dreamy graces, with their waving wand; But wrapt within a vision most intense,

To their soft charms will I not yet respond ! They call ine hence ! in vain their witching spells !

'Neath thy magnetic rays I have no thought Save that which upward soars, and fondly dwells

On those grand laws with hidden glories fraught! Thou midnight moon! most soothing, calm, and bland !

Oh, tell to me what silent mysteries lie Betwcen thy beams and that directing hand

That shapes thy course along the pathless sky! Thy sister orbs, securely in their train,

What power upholds them in that world of light ? From what unbidden wisdom may we gain

A key to its vast depth, its magnitude and might ? The distant bells now cease their varied chimes,

The lesser orbs no longer greet mine eyes, Thought after thought to azure summit climbs,

And revels in the grandeur of the skies! On speeds the spirit in its wingéd car;

But, ah, what music thrills its quickened ear! What name how trembles from that dome afar,

But IIis alone who rules the starry sphere !

bill of fare. The dried salmon are eaten in the winter. The wookus" (of which I inclose sample) is the baked and ground seeds taken from the pericarp of a yellow water-lily, quite similar to that so common on the Atlan. tic coast. Each secd vessel contains nearly half an onnce, which, when baked, is natritious and palatable, tasting like parched wheat. The “camus" is a species of onion, gathered in June, eteamed for two days, then dried in the sun, when it is ready to be eaten or preserved for winter's use.

When I said that the Indians were like the animals for some reasons, I should have made an exception of the men, or asked pardon of the birds and beasts ; for from the time the boy is born, to old age, he does nothing for himself, but looks upon his mother, sister, or wife as a slave and drudge. When he is about twenty years old, he buys & wife from her parents, paying from three to five of his woolly horses, this “swap" being the only marriage ceremony; and from that time forward she is expected to build the houses, gather and prepare the “wookus," " camus," and often the fish, care for his horses--in fact, do everything, while he sits by the fire he is too indolent to keep, smokes his " kinikinick" (of which I send sample), sleeps, eats, and like Punch's "gentleman," is “a man who has po business in the world."

Under sach treatment his wife grows old rapidly, and in a few years, surrounded by a family of children, she would often be taken for their grandmother. And then how is she treated ? In her premature old age she and her children are turned out of doors, in the winter or summer, as it pleases him, and he bnys another and younger wife. This is the custom, and I have yet to see an exception. The fact that two thirds of the men have been killed in wars with other tribes makes this practice possible.

Their natures and lives are peculiarly free from romance or sentiment, and the only exhibitions I have seen of a feeling descrving the name of love have been between mother and child. They are good, kind, and loving mothers. On horseback a few days ago, I stopped at the hut of a young chief and wife, and was surprised and pleased to find what appeared to be real conjugal love, and noticed little sacrifices made by each for the happiness of the other, which I told them was the custom among civilized people. I fear they saw doubt on my face; I did on theirs. But just as I was leaving, the chief, attracted by my horse, wished to buy it and a rifle, offering in return the wife I had shown so much interest in. For once, a Yankee refused to trade on any terms.

If I could send you one of their heads, with its low forehead, high, full back-head, and wide middle-head, you would have a clearer insight into their social and spiritual life than I could possibly give.

At death, they are almost immediately burned, with all their earthly possessions, slaves, their prisoners of war, horses, etc. The body is supported about six feet from the ground by long green boughs, the ends of which rest upon two piles of stones. Under it a huge fire is made, and the body indeed returns to dust. Their property is burned in the same fire. No worthless fons here, idly waiting for the "old man" to die! When the owner of a few slaves is seriously ill, they are most attentive, sympathetic, and patient nurses. Disinterested friendship!

Their religion, as an old lady replied, "is nothing to speak of." If they have been brave and good during life, especially toward their doctor, whose duties, by the way, are not confined to a physical realm; and if then their property is properly burned, so that there is nothing left to draw their spirits again to this world, they are rewarded by an eternal rest or sleep. But if during life they have committed many sins; if they have degraded themselves by working like (their) women, or spoken ill or falsely of others often, as there ignorant, wicked savages do sometimes; or if one of their slaves or horses lives after them, their spirits can know no rest, but, floating in the shadowy air of the densest forest and darkest valleys, through which they infuse a feeling of sacred sadness, they live alone in sorrow for many years, only coming to their living friends in the winds of winter, so full of their moaning.

When we consider the close intermingling of physi.

Fort KLAMATH, OREGON, Feb. 17, 1863. EDITOR OF PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL-My dear Sir: In October last I reached this beautiful Indian Valley of Klamath, which is to be my home for a few months. The valley is near the Californian boundary of Oregon, two hundred miles from the coast, and seems made and stocked for Indians, nine hundred of whom arc scattered along the border of the lake and river.

During my travels, since I left New York in July, I have been many times reminded of pleasant and valuable experience under your vise guidance and generous kindness. Your buet of Phrenology was the first friend to greet me in Aspinwall, Panama, and San Francisco; then at Portland, and Salem in the Willametta Valley; and then at an old hanter's cabin, at the foot of the great mountains covered with cloud and snow-a day's journey from any other cabin. Imagine my surprise to find, on the table of rough hewn timber, a Bible, an almanac, and a Self-Instructor in Phrenology!" Isn't this fame ?*

Ascending the mountains by a narrow way that leads toward heaven, with strong forebodings but stronger mules; surrounded by a dense and dreary forest of firs and pines, noon finds ns six thousand feet above the sea, where Old Winter bas full sway, while the seasons we love make earth beautiful below. The snow, already quite deep, was then falling, and the trees as heavily loaded as they could bear-the beautiful snow, like the rest of the world, bearing down most heavily upon the weak ones which had just commenced to bend; the cliffs of snow away up and up, seeming ready to fall and bury us; and below us the great canyons, nearly two thousand feet down, altogether made a glorious picture of dreary, wintry solitude !

We reached this valley at night, and with its clear, mild climate, its pure water, its fish and game, it is a pleasant, happy home to us. My desires and duties as physician have brought me into daily intercourse with the Indians here, who, like the animals, have made little or no improvement upon their original customs. The different tribes on this coast bear a strong general resemblance, physically and mentally, but they are far inferior to those of the Plains in all respects. I am still looking for the “noble red man."

They are an example for us in nothing, unless it be their frequent use of the Turkish bath. Their baths are not quite like Dr. Shepherd's, of Brooklyn, but are made close to the bank of the river, of boughs driven into the ground, their tops meeting together, and then covered by skins or blankets. In this two or three are huddled together; boiling water is poured upon heated stones for fifteen or twenty minutes, and when in a profuse perspiration they throw themselves into the river.

The Indian babe, when a week old, is wrapped in a wolf-skin, and fastened to a board, partly dng out and having a hole in its upper end, by which it is hung upon a hook or peg. Thus the little infant, early accustomed to “hanging," seems to enjoy it a wonderful illustration of the power of habit-and is at once the Indian's only substitute for furniture, pictures, and statuary.

Their winter houses are constructed of logs, covered with bark and dirt; the only door is an opening at the top, through which all the smoke and family must pass. In the cold nights of winter even this opening is closed, keeping out the cold air so effectually, that according to the most accurate physiological and mathematical calculations, allowing so many square feet of air to each person, the family ought to die each morning between two and three o'clock! But these irregular red men scem resolved to neither live properly nor die scientifically.

Having no guns, they are able to get but very little game. Fish, “wookus," and "camus" is their entire

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MR. IRA ALDRIDGE, a son of the late colored tragedian, a sketch of whom appeared not long since in the columns of the PIJRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, was lately announced as a prominent feature in the "cast" of the Melbourne Theater Royal,

ORVILLE GARDNER.-A well-known gentleman, in a recently published letter, in substance said he was riding between Ithaca and Waterloo, when he saw a small cabin standing on the bank of Cayuga Lake. A grave-faced working-man was chopping wood near by. This was Orville Gardner, the converted prizofighter. It is now twelve years since he was touched by the inspired gocdness of some missionary exhorter in New York, and he has since been struggling worthily to help others into the path of reform, preaching and praying, working and striving, in his earnert, rough way, while many of his former companions are in jail, or in the grave-yard and poor-house. Orville Gardner, matched against the wilderness, strengthened by faith, is fighting the good fight, hoping at last to receive an imperishable crown. Truly, he is the greatest champion who conquers himself.

BEFORE AND AFTER.

BY NATHAN UPHAM.

cal and spiritual conditions and feelings, we see a cer. tain appropriateness in their having but one doctor for both. In your great city it would be a little too much for the poor “ medicine man" to soothe and care, or even to prevent the suffering and agony of its million head and heart aches, or to modify and regulate the dict of both hungry bodies and souls. But wouldn't it be as well if oor spiritual doctors would give a little more thonght and care to the dwelling-house of the spirit ? sometimes so fererishly hot and dry, so damp and cold. Thus the sick spirit which they wonld teach to soar toward heaven, seeking a life and world to come, by the use of the tonics joy, hope, and confidence, would be more effectually restored to health and strength.

In this tribe of Indians, two or three hundred have their foreheads flattened artificially, though it wonld seem nature had done quite enough in this direction. The babe, when a week old, fastened to its hanging cradle, has its forehead pressed and flattened by a thin board, which is padded and fastened by one end to the top of the cradle, the other to a curved stick passing over its body, and secured to the cradle. The board is kept on three weeks, and then permanently removed. This pressure upon the soft, yielding cartilage, before its development into bone, seems to canse no pain. I can not see that this practice, directly or indirectly, has any inAnence upon their health, nor of course upon their dig. position or character.

After much inquiry and searching for the true reason for this custom, I now believe that in this tribe it is more a desire to promote the usefulness of the child in fature years than to increase its comeliness. safely be said that nine tenths of the infants whose heads are so made flat are females ! The girls and women, you remember, do all the work, carrying heavy loads long distances. And these heavy loads are so arranged in a basket on their backs, that a great portion of the burden comes upon their flat foreheads, by a strap passing over it and secured to the hasket. In carrying their loads, often as heavy as themselves, their heads are necessarily bent downward slightly, and unless they were quite flat it would be impossible to keep the strap in place. Then the males have more pride and vanity than the females--as in New York-yet it is seldom we find one fat-beaded. As one or two companies of soldiers have been stationed here four years, several of the Indians have shaved their foreheads, naturally so low, to improve their appearance, and thus make themselves like the "great Boston men,” as they call all white men. But though their standard of beauty is changing in this respect, the female infants have their heads nattened as before. (See casts and skulls of Flat-headed Indians at our Phrenological Museum in New York.)

If you could examine the portraits of many of these Indians, you would doubtless be perplexed to account for their weil-shaped Grecian roses, according to the teachings of “Signs of Character," as they lead a low, degraded, savage life. The reason is this: from ten to twelve years of age, both boys and girls have the septum of their nose cut or punctured, and wear in this wound a small round shell during the rest of their lives usually. This draws down the apex, and gives the nose its peculiar shape. Ridiculing an intelligent Indian for wearing this ornament--the same as a chignon is-I learned, to my discomfiture, that he had seen one white woman with her earrings, and of course my argument was lost, as no one away out here can say one word against white women; for if the few we have the pleasure of seeing are not all like angels, their visits are.

Wishing you the success you have so fully earned in a life-long pursuit of truth and in helping humanity, I am, sincerely and affectionately yours,

E. 8. B., M.D.

There are no small number of gentlemen of leisure afloat, living upon their wits at the expense of an innocent public. Some of them personate families to which they have no claim by blood nor marriage. One young man staid a few days with a venerable retired minister of Central Illinois, as the son of Dr. Crary, and the nephew of Dr. Eddy. Now is the first, by no possi. bility known to heraldry, ancient or modern, could he have been the second? And he was not the first. However, he secured his board and some money. Almost weekly we receive notices of fellows playing the pious confidence dodge--preaching and borrowing, or otherwise victimizing good brethren-with a request to publish. We do not print a Police Gazette, nor are we fond of giving the pedigree or portraiture of scoundrels. If a pastor puts stranger into his pulpit of whose capacity to instruct the people he is ignorant, he deserves to be mortified. There is no law of courtesy which requires a pastor to surrender his pulpit to another, and he is not justified in so doing unless he is certain that he will canse no injury to the congregation for whose in. struction in righteousness he is accountable to God and the Church. The fact that a man bring credentials as a preacher, gives him no claim to another man's place and pulpit.

The Aminadab Sleeks are numerous, and try various plans of deception. We will give one specimen. We copy a letter from Rev. W. B. Farrah, of Hannibal, Mo.

"A man of clerical appearance and pretensions, about five feet six inches high, rather heavy set, with smooth face, rather light hair combed back, with a large head and forehead inclined to baldness, of honeyed words, neat and well dressed, with a black cloth suit, strait collar, and single-breasted coat, professing to be from Virginia originally, from Canada latterly, now just on his way to visit a very dear friend at Evanston, 11., who is sick, presented himself in my study last Sabbath morning with a handful of letters of recommendation, and among others one purporting to be from you, reconn. mending him to the favorable attention of railroad and steamboat men generally, by which with others he was procuring half fares, free passes, and seems to be getting on in the world economically. He becomes all things to all men that he may gain something.

"He is Episcopalian, Methodist, Christian, rebel or Union, just as occasion may require. He claims you as a very dear friend indeed; but Dr. McClintock is still nearer and dearer. Addresses persons as dear-"yes, dear,' 'no, dear,' 'thank you, dear,' etc. Seems to be sharp and well informed, and gave his name as M. H. Livingston, and his address, Evanston, Ill.

“He is evidently an impostor, and is either a grand rascal or an educated fool. · He was exceedingly annoyed by extravagant charges at the hotel; was sick and ate but little, but they had the audacity to extort full price, which left him without means to get to Keokuk; wanted just enough money to take him there, which, to get rid of him, we gave him; received many good promises, but never expect to sce the man or money again.”

The Adrocate adds: We do not know him. We don't give letters to any such men. We could not endure such fawning long enough to write a letter.

Bro. A. B. Kendig, of Davenport, writes us that A. G. Fletcher has left that city under sore censure; that he claims to be a local preacher, but that any Church letter he may present from Davenport is spurious. Bro. Kendig asserts he has signed none euch.

To all we say, “ Beware of confidence men and women." Deal kindly with strangers and aid the deserving, but scrutinize very closely the claims of any who come asking money and hospitality, on Church letters, especially scrutinize such as come without them, and yet ask for aid on Church grounds.

[Why not examine their heads, and thus learn if they have Conscientiousnese, Veneration, etc.? A good physiognomist can read a rogue the moment he sees him. Why not apply it? It would be good economy.)

It may

Timp and shy as a frightened hare,

Who knoweth her heart or her secret thonght? Is it love? or a fancy lingering there?

Dearest of jewels are the slowest hought! “Coy as a maiden"—the adage is old

Far better bc coy than a maiden too bold ! Finally won! Is the wife like the maid !

Read here the answer, plain as a book: Trusting, in thine, a soft hand is laid;

Boldly, in thine, the loving eyes look! Ah! it is well; and we need not be told,

"The love of my wife is more precions than gola!"

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We offer the following to all who may feel an interest in the circulation of the PURENOLOGICAL JOURNAL:

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For 75 subscribers, at $3 each, a ticket for one winter course of Professional Lectures on Phrenology, Physiol. ogy, and Anatomy, price $100.

For 60 subscribers, at $3 each, a five Octave Melodeon, for church or parlor, worth $100.

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For 25 new subscribers, at $3, we will give a Gentleman's Tool Chest, worth $35; and for 18 new subscrib. ers, at $3, a Youth's Tool Chest, worth $25, For 10 new subscribers, at $3, a Boy's Tool Chest, worth $15. See advertisement on cover.

For 15 subscribers, at $3 each, the worth of $16 in any of our own publications.

For 12 subscribers, at $3 cach, a handsome Rosewood Writing Case furnished with materials, worth $12.

For 10 subscribers, at $3 each, Webster's Quarto Dic. tionary, Unabridged, Illustrated Edition, price $12.

For 10 subscribers, at $3 each, the Universal Clothes Wringer, worth $10.

For 7 subscribers, at $3 each, a handsomely finished Rosewood Stereoscope, a beautiful and useful article for home amusement, with 12 views, worth $6.

Those persons desiriog our own publications instead of the premiums offered, can select from catalogne books amounting to the value of the premium for which they wonld have such books substituted. Subscriptions commence with January or July numbers.

Ralph WALDO EMERson, in his eloquent lecture, “Quotation and Originality," thus epitomizes the essential features of literary success. can not overstate our debt to the Past, but the moment has the supreme claim. The Past is for us; but the sole terms on wbich it can become ours are its subordination to the Present. Only an inventor knows how to borrow, and every man is, or should be, an inventor. We must not tamper with the organic motion of the soul, 'Tis certain that thought has its own proper motion, and the hints which flash from it, the words overheard at unawares by the free mind, are trustworthy and fertile, when obeyed, and not perverted to low and selfish account. This vast memory is only raw material. The divine gift is ever the instant life, which receives, and uses and creates, and can well bury the old in the omnipotency with which Nature decomposes all her barvest for recomposition."

Rev. N. STACY, the oldest Universalist preacher in this country, lately died at his recidence in Columbus, Pa., aged 90 years.

"You

IMPOSTORS.

Tars class is not confined to phrenology, medicine, and astrology, but they may be met everywhere. The "press" is largely infested hy impostors and pretenders, and so is the pulpit. Free Masons and Odd Fellows complain that these creatures continually impose upon them. Here is wbat the Northwestern Christian Advocate of Chicago days of religious impostors:

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