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He was at one time one of the officers of the There is truth in this, for of course the more having attempted by remonstrance, challenge,
Prefect of the Seine, Haussmann, and after- disagreeable things he says the more the paper and every other legal means, to secure the sup-
ward Inspector of Fine Arts. He attained, will sell, and consequently the more will be pression of the libel, he struck the printer, who,
also, some note as a critic, in which he dis- the revenue returned to the Government. But in consequence, immediately instituted a suit
played the same fearlessness which character- the Lanterne is established, and henceforth the against him. The suit was decided against
izes him as a politician. In the course of a name of Rochefort is famous. It is a weekly Rochefort, who now finds himself for this, and
criticism of one of Gérome's pictures, The pamphlet of fifty-six pages in a red cover, for the publication of Nos. 11 and 12 of the
Execution of Marshal Ney," he happened to “ with a picture of an open lantern suspended Lanterne, sentenced to twenty-nine months
say that "no one ever merited death more by a rope,” and said, by one of our magazines, imprisonment and a fine of 20,200 francs,--say
than Ney, and that in going over to the to be, in size and external appearance, very $4,040.
standard of Napoleon, after the Emperor's much like a “dime novel.”

The impossibility of a liberal editor obtain. return from Elba, he acted more from ambition Rochefort is the satirical representative of ing justice in Paris has been abundantly illusthan patriotism." The consequence of this the émeute side of the liberal principle in the trated of late, and M. Rochefort can not be plain speaking was a challenge from the Prince Second Empire. As a public man he holds

blamed that he has taken it into his own hands de la Moskowa, son of the Marshal. In his nothing sacred. That he has done good and fled to Brussels, from which city he issued reply, Rochefort insists that a writer has a service is, perhaps, unquestioned, but he might No. 13 of the Lanterne, the light of which he “perfect right to criticise the acts of eminent have done better service if his probing-knife evidently intends to keep shining. In this men," that he should be held personally re- had been of more finely tempered steel. He number he announces that he shall stay outsponsible only for a misstatement of facts, and thoroughly enjoys his work, and enters into it side of France," and change his place of resithat if he can not be allowed to set forth his with his whole heart. The Lanterne is entirely dence from tiine to time so as not to bring own opinion with regard to the public acts of written by himself, and has obtained a popu- neighboring nations into diplomatic embarrassthe Generals of 1815 without fighting their larity previously unheard of in France. The ments with his native country.” No. 14, descendants, then “we must lock up histories Emperor, the ministry, and all other govern- therefore, though published at Brussels, is and put the keys in our pockets,” and con- ment officials come in for a share of his whole- dated from Amsterdam. cludes the letter as follows: “There is a ques- sale contempt. But then he tells the truth The Independence Bélge, a week or two ago, tion of principle involved which I am unwill. about them, and that to their faces; a thing no publishes & characteristic letter from him, ing to compromise. To comply with the man ever dared to do before and the truth is which admirably portrays the inconsistencies request of the Prince de la Moskowa would be what the people want to hear,—they have been of royalty: “I had prepared for circulation in to accept the rôle of insulter, which I reject famishing for it for years. A starving man Paris, on Saturday, September 5, a number of with all my force. I have fought, as perhaps does not stop to cavil at bread because it is the Lanterne, wholly and solely composed, you are aware, several duels, often for very made of wheat-meal instead of superfine from the first to the last line, of extracts from trifling causes, but at least they did not affect flour.

the political works of Prince Louis Napoleon, the right of judgment. I consequently refuse The French people were startled by his intre- now Napoleon III. This number appeared so to set a bad example to my colleagues—that is pidity and brilliancy; he had their sympathy revolutionary to the many printers whom I to say, I decline to give the Prince satisfaction from the beginning, and was raised to the rank asked to print it, that not one of them would by arms."

of a hero by his own daring, and the unjust dare to run the risk of doing so. The fifteenth Rochefort finally entered journalism, first on

action of the Government toward him. The number will, therefore, like the fourteenth, be Charivari, then on Nain Jaune, and afterward Lanterne was in everybody's hands; when published abroad." on Figaro. On the latter he remained for

with the second number the circulation had In private life M. Rochefort is cordial and several years, and ranked as one of the most

reached 30,000, the administration forbade its unpretending. He is also reported charitable, brilliant and best paid of its contributors; but sale at the newspaper stalls, and the next week and it is certain that he gave 500 francs to the & warning voice from the Minister of the the circulation ran up to 80,000, and since, to a family of a fireman who recently lost his life Interior whispered that unless the ceaseless 150,000, and it is estimated to have at least a while arresting the progress of a fire. It is barking around the heels of government be

million readers in all parts of France. The with regret that we must add that he is excessstopped, the days of the Figaro would be very name, says a correspondent of a New 'ively prodigal, so that little remains from the numbered. To this event we owe the estab- York daily, has come to be so popular that it enormous income which he received during lishment of the Lanterne. Rochefort made a is “of commercial value, so that dealers in the gala days of the Lanterne, which still pretense of not believing this, and in his finely

matches, sweet biscuit, and other small wares, remains the hope of a large class of French sarcastic style proceeded to illustrate the idea,

find it to their account to offer them to the liberals in spite of the vigilance of the authorholding it beneath the dignity of a Minister to

public in wrappers printed and colored in imi- ities. command an editor into his presence in order

tation of the cover of the say to him, " You have a contributor who In the mean time the forbearance of the FRIENDSHIP REAL.-Some true heart has is distasteful to me. Get rid of him, or don't Government ceased, and with No. 11 the police given expression to its generous nature in the be surprised to find your paper mcet a sudden seized the greater part of the edition before it following beautiful sentiment: “Never desert death." Besides, this would offend against had left the hands of the printer, and “ever a friend when enemies gather around him. the articles of the Code, and must therefore be snatched copies from the hands of persons When sickness falls on the heart, when the impossible. So he wrote to the Minister, reading it in the streets." The libelous Im- world is dark and cheerless, is the time to try & “ taking care to sweeten every line with com- perial organ, the Inflexible, had been unable to true friend. They who turn from a scene of pliments and to adopt a servile tone," asking cope with the straightforward truth of Roche- distress betray their hypocrisy and prove that permission to establish a political paper. The fort, and the police must be sent to its assist- interest moves them. If you have a friend who new law on the press passed, and M. Roche- ance. At last the officially sustained Inflexible loves you and studies your interest and happifort was at liberty to publish his paper on pay- had in preparation a new number in which it ness, be sure and sustain him in adversity. Let ment of a sou stamp on each copy. “He notes was no longer satisfied with attacking the him feel that his former kindness is appreciated, the alteration of the law, and says the Govern- editor of the Lanterne himself, but had coined and that his love is not thrown away. Real ment have sold him the right to say all the a net-work of slanders which should reach him fidelity may be rare, but it exists in the heart. disagreeable things he pleases about them at through his daughter, a little girl being edu- Who has not seen and felt its power? They the rate of five centimes (about a cent) a cated in one of the best schools in Paris. This

deny its worth who never loved a friend, or paper."

raised in him a storm of indignation, and after labored to make a friend happy."

PHRENOLOGY IN THE SOHOOL- are possessed by individuals in different de- noble study, the product of deep thought and ROOM. grees.

severe intellectual application. Its consider

To know this difference is all-im ortant to ation elevates, intensifies, and ennobles the [The following interesting address was delivered be. fore the Wisconsin Teachers' Association, at Milwaukee,

the teacher. I repeat, we should clearly under- mind. But while we thus admiro, we must July 22d, by Mr. T. C. CHAMBERLIN, Principal of the stand these four things: The constitution of the search elsewhere for that practical, specific Delevan High School. Aside from its intrinsic merit it mind in general; the activity of mind in gene- | knowledge of human nature that our necessiis an encouraging exponent of the progress made by the

ral; individual mental composition ; individual ties demand. only safe science of mental phenomena in that most im. portant sphere of human endeavor—the instruction of

mental bias. But is such knowledge within The second system to which our attention is youth.)

our reach? Does nature reveal such a treasure- directed differs from the preceding, fundamentThe work of a teacher is the development house of intellectual wealth ? Has she furnish- ally, in considering mind not separately, but in and equipment of the mind. Mind is the sub- ed the data ? This is the problem of the ages. its connection with and manifestation through stance or essence wrought upon. Mind is that


matter. which must be molded, expanded, and-adorn- On general principles, I answer yes. Great We know nothing of mind except in its relaed. Mind is the subject-matter of the teacher's necessities in nature are always supplied from tion to matter. Mind affects matter; matter labors. A thorough knowledge of mind is, then, her own boundless resources.

affects mind. Jay, mind is the union of spirit necessary to rational instruction. Can we ra- Far back in the dim ages of geological his- with matter; ar, rather, mind is spirit manitionally cultivate that of which we are igno- tory, when the earth was a vast wilderness or fested through matter. Beyond the bonds of rant? Can the engineer control and direct the an untraversed sea, when no man existed, this matrimony we can not go. Divorce is mighty forces of steam without a knowledge of when not even a living animal walked the face death. Upon the condition of this relationthe parts and powers of his engine? Can the of the earth to foreshadow his coming, nature ship, this system, together with its investigateacher control and direct the still more potent foresaw his great necessities and garnered up tions, is based. energies of the mind while ignorant of its fac- her exhaustless stores. Side by side, layer up- So far as our observation goes, nature proulties and their functions ? Without a tho- on layer, lie the iron and the coal, and deep | vides a specific organ for every separate funcrough knowledge of human nature, how are beneath the springs of oil. And shall nature tion. The mind must, then, possess its organ, we better as teachers than the old alchemists thus lavish her material supplies and neglect and if composed of distinct faculties having as professors of chemistry? Without this the infinitely weightier interests of the mental separate functions, these must each possess its knowledge, what are our methods but imita- world? Has she thus favored the manufac- organ. Pre-eminently is this true, since mind tions of old-time customs; what are our inno- turer and forgotten the educator ? Nay, verily, is spirit manifested through matter. This vations but hazardous venturcs ? Electricity the requisite materials, the needed data are matter, then, is its organ. was not, could not be controlled and utilized given.

This system claims that the brain is the petill its laws were known. So neither can mind Every one has some way of judging human culiar organ of mental manifestation, and that be educated rationally without a knowledge of nature, and prides himself in being particu- specific parts of it are appropriated for specific its laws. I have stated my subject-mental larly expert in so doing. It is universally con- manifestations; that is, each faculty of the philosophy as an aid in teaching. I should ceded that character is indicated somehow, mind has its cerebral organ. It likewise claims have stated it, mental philosophy a necessity in aside from action, and that naturally. But if that whatever may be true of spirit, the essence teaching. For if there be successful teaching so, then it must be on the basis of natural law, of mind, mental manifestation depends solely without a practical knowledge of human na- for nature never acts otherwise. There should upon the size, quality, activity, and other conditure, it is the result of sheer good luck or scr- then be a system (discovered or undiscovered), tions of the brain or its organs. And further, vile imitation. And here I may state that by based upon scientific principles, by which that the location of these cerebral organs has, mental philosophy I mean simply a knowledge character may be known, through which the for the most part, been discovered ; and that of human nature. What can be more absurd great educational necessity may be supplied. their size, quality, activity, etc., can be estimatthan the attempt to develop and furnish a mind

ed approximately. It is unnecessary to state of whose nature, composition, and mode of ac- Let us examine the systems of mental phi

that this system, so richly laden with momention we are ignorant. losophy that are now advanced. But two

tous truth, is known as Phrenology. And as I PRIMARY REQUISITES. deserve our attention, and they differ wide

indicate a belief in its beautiful truths and their We need, then, fundamentally, a clear appre- ly in their mode of investigation and the re

unsurpassed utility, it may perhaps be exhension of the faculties and functions of the sults obtained, but are by no means contra

pected that I shall attempt to prove its princihuman mind ; not only of the human mind in dictory. The first attempts by an investigation ples, defend its theory, and refute its opponents; general, in the mass of mankind, but in each of the ordinary activities and special phenom

that I shall enter upon a train of metaphysical individual pupil. It is not enough to know ena of mind to discover its faculties and their and physiological theorizing to establish its that the mind is composed of the intellect, the functions, and to present an analysis of the

truth. I shall not do so. sensibilities, and the will, but we need to know mind and its activities. It studies mind di

PHRENOLOGY PROVED. HOW? to what extent, in what proportion, these sev. rectly, without regard to its connection with Phrenology was not born of theory, has not erally exist in each pupil under our charge. matter, at least without making matter a me- lived by theory, will not die by theory. PhreWe need to know what are the predominant dium of investigation. This system has ap- nology is the offspring of observation. It is based and what the inferior faculties, in every case- propriated the name mental philosophy, or upon ascertained facts. To that test it appeals. in short, the entire mental composition of the “metaphysics." I shall use the latter term as By the decision of that test it has and will trichild. And not only should we thus know the being most distinctive. What are the contri- umph. mental constitution of man in general, and our butions of this system to our necessities? An If teachers desire proofs, no better field of inpupils in particular, but we should clearly un- analysis of the mind and a sketch of its activi. vestigation can be found than their own schoolderstand how that constitution acts, and here ties.

room. There, carefully, cautiously, and faithalso not only universally, but individually. It It, however, proposes no means of determin- fully, compare the known characters of your is not sufficient that we know how nine per- ing the psychical endowments or activities of pupils with their cerebral developments, and sons out of ten will act under given circum- the individual. The deductions of metaphysics upon the result base your opinion. As educatstances, if the tenth, who is our pupil, will act are comprehensive rather than specific, as re- ors, it befits us to investigate rather than assume differently; we should know how that tenth one gards their application to man. Its value as to ascertain facts; to search out truth rather will act. All mankind have the same faculties, an educational auxiliary must then be con- than bow to dogmas. Thus you should do and these have the same functions; but they fined to generalities. This system presents a with the claims of this science.


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And yet a word of caution. Beware of the question I would answer cautiously. Even if nature, a foundation upon which observation false prophet! Phrenology has been more impossible, the science is still of inestimable and experience may rear a complete and per. maligned and vilified, and its progress and in- value in enabling its teachers to understand fect structure. “ The mind of man is the fluence more retarded by pretended professors, and appreciate character, when and after it is noblest work of God." The study of that either grossly ignorant or knavish, than by all manifested. It is a very difficult matter to fully mind is the highest intellectual endeavor of other causes combined. There are scarcely comprehend the mental nature of a child, man. The complete education of that mind is twenty phrenologists in America capable of though that nature is exhibited in our presence the noblest work of man. delineating character with reliable accuracy. day after day. Let our errors of judgment To this work, fellow-teachers, we are callal. Yet there are hundreds of pretenders, devoid of bear witness on this point. While a high de- For the achievement of these grand results we ability and honesty, who impose themselves gree of natural ability, thorough study, and ex- are responsible. To this work, then, let is upon the ignorance of the public, filling their tensive experience are necessary to the accu- come, armed with all the auxiliaries the broad pockets by cheating the community and libel- rate delineation of the details of character, yet field of science affords. Let us come knowing ing the science they profess. Of such Phre- its outlines can be drawn with tolerable accu- ourselves, and prepared to know our pupils. nology is as guiltless as patriotism is of bounty- racy by the mere tyro. The industrious teacher, And when this shall be-when the educators jumpers, upon whom, as upon those vile hyp- possessed of good perceptives, by careful study of our land shall come thus equipped for the ocrites, let the anathema of anathemas rest. and observation in that place so favorable to Herculean task, encouraged by good hearts WHAT IT IIAS DONE.

such investigations—the school-room may and directed by clear heads, then will spring But what are the contributions of this system

ascertain, with all necessary precision, the ra- forth results far mightier than ever issued from of mental science? An analysis of the mind and

tional nature of his pupils. There are those, the founding of empires, the crash of armies, its activities both universally and indirilually.

indeed, whose perceptive judgment is so unre- or the subtile chicanery of diplomacy. Then Like metaphysics, it presents a statement of the

liable as to render this untrue, but such are shall be asked, “ Who are the mighty ?" And mental faculties and their functions as they equally unfit to be teachers.

the glad tones of a grateful nation shall respond, exist in all minds without regard to individual

The Educators." differences; in other words, the universal com- But many and valuable as are the contribuposition of mind. Unlike, and in advance of, tions of Phrenology te didactics, it is yet want

MANHOOD AND ITS DEVELOPMENT. metaphysics, it proposes by means of the con- ing in one important respect. For while it formation of matter which mind has molded presents a clear delineation of natural charac- It is said that Diogenes, the Greek philosoin harmony with its own peculiarities, to pre- ter, it fails to point out, except in a limited de- pher, was once seen carrying a lighted candle sent an analysis of any individual mind brought gree, the voluntary character, the mental habits, through the streets of Athens; and being under examination. To illustrate: Both sys- influence of past circumstances, or, in common asked what he was doing, replied that he was tems alike give that which is analogous to the parlance, “the bringing up.” To ascertain these “ looking for a man." Tradition does not inuniversal anatomy of plant, root, stem, foliage, facts, recourse must be had to a prospective sci- form us whether or not he succeeded in the flower, and fruit. Metaphysics stops here. ence which, though not a system of mental phi- object of his search ; and therefore we do not Phrenology proceeds to classify and describe losophy, is yet allied to, in fact, is a department know what was his ideal of a true man, or its natural orders, genera, and species. To avoid of it. I refer to Physiognomy. I say prospec- what, in his estimation, was necessary to form mistake just here, however, it should be borne tive science, because its principles, if indeed such a character. But doubtless in sonie in mind that the classification of faculties in they are discovered, are not yet altogether satis- modern Athens many who would pass before these systems differs somewhat, owing to a dif- factorily demonstrated. That character is in- his scrutinizing gaze would be dismissed with ferent basis of classification and mode of inves- dicated by the features is generally admitted, a smile of scorn or a contemptuous glance, as tigation.

and the fact universally utilized. When the entirely unworthy of the name we give them. Metaphysics divides the mind primarily fierce tornado bursts forth from the recesses of Judging by the Christian standard, we think into the intellect, the sensibilities, and the the mountains and sweeps across the beautiful that where true manhood exists, but little note will; Phrenology, into the intellectual, semi- face of nature, destruction marks its path, and is taken of it, and where most of its higher intellectual, moral, selfish, social, and animal ruinous traces reveal nature's passion. So elements are wanting, it is sometimes supposed faculties, the nomenclature indicating, in a when the fiercer furors of the mind break forth to exist. measure, the difference. The former may be and cast their fiery mantle o'er the dial of the These things ought not thus to be; a person compared to chemistry, the latter to anatomy, soul, the vestiges remain the tokens of their may be learned, or wealthy, or what people Each phrenological faculty is capable of meta- rage. Thus nature keeps her records.

call religious, and yet lack much of being a physical analysis, just as each anatomical sec- But if character is thus indicated in the fea- genuine man. We are three-fold beingstion is capable of chemical analysis. Thus, tures, it must be in accordance with fixed rules, physical, intellectual, and spiritual—and no one though the symptoms differ, they are no more for this alone is nature's method. And when of these elements should be educated at the contradictory than the sciences with which these rules have been discovered and demon- expense of the others, for the full development they are compared. They are in perfect har- strated, then will physiognomy take its place of all these is essential to the completion of tbe mony, and both necessary to a thorough knowl- as a department of mental science.

highest type of manhood. edge of the mind; but for the practical pur

And while we wait in hope this important As you gaze at the Capitol at Washington, poses of the educator, the vast superiority and attainment, let us honor those zealous benefac- you feel that it is a grand and magnificent peculiar adaptability of the latter can not have tors of their race who, without the praise of structure, worthy of the great people by whom escaped notice. Its peculiar fitness to aid in the men, yes, even mid their jeers, are devotedly it was erected; but strike from it the lofty selection of a course of study, the methods and searching the unfathomed intricacies that in- dome, and it becomes only a vast pile of stone. manner of instruction, and especially in disci- volve the subject, and who are slowly lifting It may indeed still serve as a building in which pline and the exercise of personal influence, the vail that hangs over its dark inysteries. the Congress of the nation can convene-but would seem almost to indicate that the design But though not a science, physiognomy can its distinguishing feature is gone, its glory is of nature was to aid us in our character-form- still be utilized. Though “the horo and the departed. Remove the main body of the ing labors.

why" may not be evident, we can still judge building, and the dome has no support—the man “ by the looks of him.”

lower foundation alone remains to tell the folly " But can the ordinary teacher master and Thus are the demands of our necessities met. of the builder. Take from beneath the strucapply the principles of Phrenology so as to Thus from these three sources may we derive ture the foundation, and the whole mighty form reliable judgments of character ?" This the basis of a thorough knowledge of human fabric tumbles into ruins. So is it with man.


If he do not cultivate the spiritual element, his mind remains dark, his life an enigma-no ray of light reaches him from beyond his earthly existence. He may be learned, may possess great genius, but the noblest element of manhood is wanting. If the intellect be undeveloped, the man is but an animal, with the physical nature neglected; he lives a whining, sickly creature, or dies before his time, his work but half accomplished.

All that is needful for our development we have. All that the body needs-light for the eyes, air for the lungs, harmonious sounds for the ear, and all the exercise necessary to develop the body to its greatest degree of symmetry and power. For the social sentiments, there are friends to love and cherish. For the intellect, there are the principles of science—the facts of history—the sublime inspirations of poesy—and the profoundest thoughts of philosophy. The spiritual sentiments can soar beyond nature into the realms of the infinitedrink from the fountains of Divine truth-and by the guidance of Divine love and wisdom exalt and glorify our social and intellectual life. We need this culture—this education; for without it we are slaves, like the caged eagle, with little life or vigor; every acquisition of knowledge we make gives us greater freedom. So it should be the great object of our lives to obtain this development.

But says one, Should it not be the great aim of life to labor for the advancement of the glory of the Creator, and the elevation of our fellow-creatures ? True-but these are involved in the other. He who is most truly laboring for his Maker, does that which will give the highest development to his own faculties. For if we labor rightly, every stroke of work we do, every fact of science and history we gather, every noble aspiration or desire we have, every feeling of joy or delight that thrills us, every act of charity and kindness we perform, gives fresh power to our intellectual and spiritual nature. Our work is like that of Tennyson's “ Lady of Shalott,"

* Who weaves, by night and day,

A magic web with colors gay,
And moving through a mirror clear,
That hangs before her all the year,
Shadows of the world appear.
And in her web she still delights

To weave the mirror's magic sights."
Su with us, images of all the varied scenes
through which we pass are woven into the
texture of our characters.

To me, this is a work of delight that will cease not with time, but continue through the endless ages of the “Great Hereafter;" and if we perform our part rightly, with genuine faith and hope, the ideal will become the real, this realization surpass in brightness the most fondly cherished dreams of youth, and our lives be made radiant with a beauty that shall fade not, but prove indeed a joy forever.


CONCENTRATED PROGRESS OF THE or even the Minié of Inkerman, with the com-

mon musket which the veteran pedants of the

Duke of Wellington's army could scarcely be Few phenomena are more remarkable, yet persuaded to discard. Compare the Armfew have been less remarked, than the strong, the Blakesley, or the Whitworth orddegree in which material civilization-the nance of to-day-with their almost boundless progress of mankind in all those contrivances caliber, their terrible projectiles, their marvelwhich oil the wheels and promote the comfort ous precision, and their three-mile range-with of daily life-has been concentrated into the the round shot or shell fired from the field last half-century. It is not much to say that pieces which battered Badajoz and St. Sebasin these respects more has been done, richer and tian. It is probable that within fifty years more prolific discoveries, have been made, from the first application of gunpowder to war, grander achievements have been realized, in the destructive power of the fire-arms then inthe course of the fifty years of our own lifetime vented was nearly as great as that of those than in all the previous lifetime of the race, since

used in the reign of Napoleon. It is probable states, nations, and politics, such as history

that we are now within far less than fifty years makes us acquainted withi, have had their of the furthest point to which the conditions of being. In some points, no doubt, the opposite

matter will permit that destructive power to be of this is true. In speculative philosophy, in

carried. poetry, in the arts of sculpture and painting, in Then as to printing. The books printed the perfection and niceties of language, we can within five-and-twenty years after the first use scarcely be said to have made any advance for of movable types were as clear, as perfect, as upward of two thousand years. Probably no beautiful specimens of typography as any that instrument of thought and expression has been

were produced five-and-twenty years ago. A or ever will be more nearly perfect than Greek little more rapidity and a great deal more or Sanscrit; no poet will surpass Homer or cheapness make up, perhaps, the sum-total of Sophocles; no thinker dive deeper than Plato the improvements in the typographic art beor Pythagoras; no sculptor produce more tween the time of Caxton and the time of glorious marble conceptions than Phidias 'or Spottiswoode. But within the memory of Praxiteles. It may well be that David, and those still young the wonderful art of rapid Confucius, and Pericles were clothed as richly stereotyping has been introduced; and to this and comfortably as George III. or Louis alone it is owing that newspapers are able to XVIII., and far more becomingly. There is supply the demands of their hundred thousand every reason to believe that the dwellings of readers. It would be of course impossible to the rich and great among the Romans, Greeks, compose more than one set of types within the and Babylonians were as luxurious and well very few hours allowed for the supply of each appointed as our own, as well as incomparably day's demand. It would be equally imposmore gorgeous and enduring. It is certain sible to print off from that one set more than that the palaces belonging to the nobles and an eighth or a tenth part of the number of monarchs of the Middle Ages—to say nothing

copies which the leading papers are required of abbeys, minsters, and temples-were in

to furnish within three or four hours. But by nearly all respects equal to those erected in the casting from the first composed types as soon as present day, and in some important points far completed, any number of fac-simile blocks can superior. But in how many other equally

be produced, and from these, by the help of significant and valuable particulars has the circular machines, an indefinite numbur of improgress of the world been not only con- pressions can be struck off in an almost incred

ibly short space of time. Twelve thousand centrated into these latter days, but singularly spasmodic in its previous march!

copies an hour, and even more, can, we believe,

be easily produced by each machine. The Take two of the most remarkable inventions

multiplication thus rendered feasible is practiof all time, both of comparatively modern

cally almost unlimited. date-gunpowder and printing. One is four, the other five, centuries old. How infinitesimal But it is in the three momentous matters of the difference between the fire-arms of the year light, locomotion, and communication that the 1400 and the year 1800! The “Brown Bess," progress effected in this generation contrasts the field guns,

and the carronades with which most surprisingly with the aggregate of the Nelson and Wellington and Napoleon won progress effected in all previous generations their victories when we were young, were put together since the earliest dawn of authensuperior in little except readiness to the match- tic history. The lamps and torches which illulocks and the cannon with which the barons minated Belshazzar's feast were probably just of the Middle Ages fought out their contests, as brilliant, and framed out of nearly the same as soon as they had discarded the bows and materials, as those which shone upon the splenarrows which had susliced for ipankind from did fêtes of Versailles when Marie Antoinette the days of Thermopylæ, and earlier, to the presided over them, or those of the Tuileries days of Agincourt, and later. But now contrast during the imperial magnificence of the first the progress since 1810 with the progress of Napoleon. Pine wood, oil, and perhaps wax, the previous tive hundred years. Compare the lighted the banquet halls of the wealthiest needle gun of Sadowa, or the Chassepot rifle nobles alike in the eighteenth century before of Mentana, or the Enfield of our own troops, Christ and in the eighteenth century after

SATIRE is a glass in which the beholder sees the faecs of others, but not his own.

And state each case JCST AS IT IS,

G. A.

Christ. There was little difference, except in sage, not a hundred miles, but a thousand, in In the strict sense, are any jast? finish of workmanship and elegance of design twelve minutes.- London Spectator.

God knows-and so might we,

If we but brush the mists away, -little, if any, advance, we mean, in the illu- [The writer might have continued his illus

That we may plainly see. minating power, or in the source whence that trations concerning the concentrated progress power was drawn-between the lamps used in of the world. He could have named the cot

To do by one what's mainly just

When we our wishes please, the days of the Pyramids, the days of the Col- ton-gin, spinning-jenny, safety lamp, steam- Is not enough to make as just, iseum, and the days of Kensington Palace. plow, ether and nitrous oxyd, modern surgery,

'Tis only loving case. Fifty years ago, that is, we burnt the same art- the sewing-machine, the reaper and mower, But if we'll speak the truth of all, icles, and got about the same amount of light electro-magnetism, the great improvements in Whether we please or not, from them, as we did five thousand years ago. the telescope and microscope, and the most

If we will act the truth in full, Nono, we use gas, of which each burner is equal wonderful of all, the art of photography.

All biases forgot; to fifteen or twenty candles ; and when we And may we not mention in this connection If we are true to the anjust, wish for more, can have recourse to the elec- the development of Phrenology ? May we

E'en when they are unkind, tric light or analogous inventions, which are not claim for it a scientific method of charac

By zeal nor hate made blind; fifty-fold more brilliant and far-reaching than ter-reading ? and the happiest influences on even the best gas. The streets of cities, which

And then, if to all this we add our modes of juvenile education, the treat

Those finer shades of thought, from the days of Pharaoh to those of Voltaire ment of insanity, imbecility, and of criminals ? With delicacy and love combined were dim and gloomy, even where not wholly Is it claiming too much for this comparatively

Do all the "Just One" tangbt,unlighted, now blaze everywhere with some- new discovery to assert that it promises—when Then may we claim the title "just," thing of the brilliancy of moonlight. In a generally understood—to prove a blessing of Applied to mortals here, word, all the advance that has been made in incomparable importance to mankind. Here And fearing naught that may assail, these respects has been made since many of us is what GEORGE COMBE, author of "The Con

May, with a conscience clear, were children. We remember light as it was in stitution of Man,” said of it:

Stand rock-firm 'mid all shocks of time, the days of Solomon; we see it as Drummond

Unmoved amid dismay, "I speak literally, and in sincerity, when I

And linking this with life to come, and Faraday have made it. say, that were I at this moment offered the

March forth to endless day. The same thing may be said of locomotion. wealth of India on condition of Phrenology

'Tis well “all evil to abhor," Nimrod and Noah traveled just in the same being blotted from my mind forever, I would

And yet love one another; way, and just at the same rate, as Thomas As- scorn the gift; nay, were everything I possess- To * cleave to all that's pare and good," sheton Smith and Mr. Coke, of Norfolk. The ed in the world placed in one hand and Phre

Let’s aid-not wrong, a brother. chariots of the Olympic Games went just as nology in the other, and orders issued for me to fast as the chariots that conveyed our nobles choose one, Phrenology, without a moment's

LIGHT LITERATURE. to the Derby,“ in our hot youth, when George

hesitation, would be preferred.” the Third was king.” When Abraham wanted

HENRY WARD BEECHER says: “I regard THERE is a class of readers who make it a to send a message to Lot, he dispatched a man Phrenology as far more useful and far more special business to con every new novel that on horseback, who galloped twelve miles an practical and sensible than any other system “ comes out” (that very properly expresses hour. When our fathers wanted to send & of mental philosophy which has yet been their origin—as with the Topsies who were not message to their nephews, they could do no evolved."

born but “growed"), to the end that they may better, and go no quicker. When we were

But even Phrenology is not all we nced to get together and rehearse the vapid and stale young, if we wished to travel from London to know, though we commend it as of inestima- flights of modern flash writers ; and if, by acciEdinburgh, we thought ourselves lucky if we

ble value. We are to use the faculties God dent, some person who dovotes his time to delrcould average eight miles an hour, -just as has given us for the further development of ing in mines of rich and useful learning stray Robert Bruce might have done. Nou, in our

earth's resources. We are, by the inventive into their presence, he is intolerably bored by old age, we feel ourselves aggrieved if we do faculties, to turn water, air, the winds, the tides, the questions, “Have you read Jack the Giant not average forty miles. Everything that has electricity, magnetism, and other natural agen- Killer?" or "Mother Goose's Melodies ?" or been done in this line since the world began,

cies, to the further use of man. It is not im- something equally profound. Of course the everything, perhaps, that the capacities of mat- probable that greater discoveries and greater stranger is compelled to say “No” to every one ter and the conditions of the human frame inventions than have yet been made will be of a long series of like questions, slightly indig. will ever allow to be done, has been done since opened up to the eager scrutiny of present civ- nant that he should be suspected of being we were boys. The same at sea. Probably, ilization.]

“accomplished” in this kind of " literature ;" when the wind was favorable, Ulysses, who

and every answer elicits the ejaculation of surwas a bold and skillful navigator, sailed as fast

"JUST”–NEITHER MORE NOR LESS. prise, “ Why! This process is continued by as a Dutch merchantman of the year 1800,

these Chesterfields, who are delighted to find nearly as fast at times as an American yacht

Love worketh no ill."

an occasion to ventilate their polite culture, beor clipper of our fathers' day. Now, we steam What is it to be truly just,

cause they mistake their victim's silence of contwelve and fifteen miles an hour with wonder

Wben fully 'tis defined ?

tempt for the embarrassment and confusion ful regularity, whether wind and tide be favor

And who dares say that he himself

which the ignorant experience in the presence

Is just to all mankind ! able or not ;-nor is it likely that we shall

of the erudite, until they have exhausted their ever be able to go much faster. But the prog- To say one's just, is a small thing

capital, 'whereupon they abandon him as ilress in the means of communication is the

When we don't weigh the thought,


But quite another thing to be most remarkable of all. In this respect Mr.

On scales of justice brought

A man who can stand this inquisition withPitt was no better off than Pericles or Aga

out losing his temper, or getting entirely disIf Ruth had wislied to write to When every sin of every hoe

gusted with those whose minds are so shallow,

Has weight, and form, and size, Naomi, or David to send a word of love to

When take means theft, love means do right,

that a long-drawn, sickish “love-story" can Jonathan when he was a hundred miles away,

And all untruths are lies,

satisfy their deepest longing, and without tellthey could not possibly have done it under

ing them all about it right on the spot, is a twelve hours. Nor could we to our

When thoughts, and words, and acts conjoin
To form one whole, however small,

paragon of Christian forbearance, and should friends thirty years ago. In 1867 the humbleşt

Though there be bud, and flower, and fruit, have a leather medal hung to his neck with a citizon of Great Britain can send such a mes

The germ contains them all.

life-sized calf stamped upon it.



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