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whether I am a free man or a slave; yet I have always assumed my own freedom. If there be any chains binding me, I never felt them."
Just at this point there was a general and sudden rush, as of a vast crowd in violent motion—a sort of universal buzz, that seemed for the moment very seriously to mar the good order of the conference. “Here we are !" shouted the Feelings, all appearing anxious to be heard at once. “ Yes, here we are -all the Desires, all the Propensities, all the Emotions, and all the Affections, that figure so largely in the history of earth. True, we do not think as does the reason, or choose as does the will; yet we are the steam-power of humanity, both heating and moving its thoughts and furnishing the ultimate seat of all its joys and sorrows. We form the impulsive electricity of human life. We sing all the tunes of that life. We magnetize souls. We constitute alike the attractions and repulsions of men. We have been known by different names, and felt in every heart, ever since God made man of the dust of the earth. We shine in the eye, and we blush on the cheek, and weep in the falling tear. We paint the purest characters of time, and adorn with our own grace all that is human. We can make a hell or a heaven in any bosom.”
Is it possible that all these multiform wonders are brought together in one soul? Is each single man such a stupendous picture-gallery of marvels ? Lives there in every human breast such a vast empire of powers? Is this indeed the man whom we see walking the streets—so God-like in his nature, so glorious when morally erect, and so fully showing his original stateliness even when lying in the dust? What guests, then, did earth receive when human souls came here to dwell? What a wealth of being moves with this revolving globe ! What a wealth of being death is transmitting to some other sphere! Humanity is surely no cheap article to be pitched into a gutter, and left there to rot. Its powers are imperial and immortal. It took a God to make a man. Millions of material suns are not equal to one soul. The universe of souls is immeasurably grander than the universe of matter. The ruin of a soul is the greatest evil imaginable. A chaos of matter would be a sorry sight, but“ a chaos of the soul is a sorrier spectacle than a chaos of worlds."
[So each and all the faculties of the mind
ability, which coupled with his strong imagination enables him to depict in romantic phrase those phases of life which a sympathetic member of society he is disposed to admire. He is ardent and aspirational, fond of popular applause and appreciative of worldly reputation. He lives a physical, earthly life in the main, is not much worked on or influenced by religious or spiritual considerations. He is firm and determined in his purposes, rather independent in action, yet desirous of the favor of society and friends. He en. joys deeply the surprise and admiration produced by the production of a brilliant musical work, and at the same time expects such expressions of approval. Criticism and depreciation deeply wound him, but do not disturb his confidence in himself. He aims to serve and please the world, and at the same time would have the world respect and honor him.
Guiseppe Verdi, the great Italian composer, was born
on the 9th of October, 1814, PORTRAIT OF
in the small village of Ron
cole, where his father kept "talk.” Nothing is more interesting. What can an inn. He received his first musical instrucbe more instructive? There is Benevolence tion from the organ-player of the church of appealing for mercy; Acquisitiveness clamor- his native village. He went to Milan in 1833, ing for gain; Friendship, for the loved ones; and there took lessons of Lavigna, the leader Mirthfulness, for fun; Veneration, for worship; of the theater“ La Scala.” In 1839 his first Spirituality, for a living faith, and Hope for glo- opera was brought on the stage, with a very rious immortality. Listen to the language of favorable result; it was “ Oberto di San Boni. the faculties. But see to it that the passions be facio.” The next, “Giorno di Regno," did not not perverted, and that the moral sentiments please the public; but his “Nabucco” carried govern.)
his fame far beyond Italy, into all civilized
countries. Then followed, in 1844, “LomGUISEPPE VERDI,
bardi" and “Ernani,” with even greater sucTHE POPULAR OPERATIC COMPOSER.
cess than the others.
Verdi composed new operas in rapid succesThis portrait of the composer Verdi repre- sion, as “Il due Foscari,” 1845; “ Jeanne sents an excellent organization temperament- D'Arc," “ Alzira,” 1846 ; “ Attila,” 1847; and ally. There are marks of physical strength subsequently, “Macbeth,” “I Masnadieri," and endurance here which few modern musi- “ The Corsair,” “ Battle of Legnago," “ Louise cians can boast. The base of the brain is Miller,” “ Stiffelia,” “Rigoletto,” “Il Trov. broad and prominent, the nose plump and atore,” “La Traviata." In 1845 he brought large, and the whole mass of the face wide, out " Sicilian Vespers.” Later appeared compact, and strong. The brain is wide in “ Aroldo,” “Simon Boccanegra,” “ Un Ballo the region of the temples, showing large Tune, in Maschera,” and “Lear." His last work is Constructiveness, Ideality ; Form and the “ Don Carlos,” which has recently been perperceptive faculties generally are largely de- formed with great pomp at Paris, and has reveloped, while it may be safely inferred that ceived the attention of all the first Continental the back-head is well rounded, giving warmth theaters. Verdi is a modern composer in the of social feeling and much passionate impulse. fullest sense of the word. His music is lively, His intellect adapts him to appreciate details, sparkling, melodiously sweet, and appeals relations, to collect information and retain it. fully to the senses, but he lacks the depth and He has a good degree of descriptive or graphic sublimity of the great old masters. His music
is of that light, sparkling character which is adapted to represent on the operatic stage the sprightlier phases of fashionable gaiety, and for that reason is among the most popular music in common use. The operas “Rigoletto,” “Il Trovatore,” “ La Traviata," “Un Ballo in Maschera,” are frequently produced in the music halls of Europe and America, and always command large audiences.
Our Social Relations. .
Domestic harpiness, thou only bliks
BY SARAH E. DONMALL.
father, and grandson of a still more unsuccessful grandfather, pressed his suit with more earnestness than all the rest, knowing, as he did, that marrying rich is the easiest way in the world to get rich.
To say that Mr. Dafferty saw no charms in Miss Alice, and sought her only for the pile of rocks, that was to be hers, would, however, be uncharitable. And yet to say that he was ambitious to marry poor would be very untruthful; for he thought that a good wife, with riches thrown in, was a very desirable possession for a man.
With this conviction, he placed himself in the forefront of the line of lovers, and wooed and won and married Miss Alice.
And no man could have desired a more beautiful bride than she was on her wedding .evening, as she passed down the aisle of the crowded church, and no bride could have been more quiet in the consciousness of beauty. Neither did any one in the well-packed church fail to receive the impression that a beautiful bride always makes.
“Our city has lost its belle, and the young men will have dull times now," said one.
Mrs. Trevalle will have a chance at last to push her plain-looking daughters forward," said another. They won't look quite so homely as they have when Alice Cluff is fairly gone."
And another said—and she was a lady who prided herself upon being able to read character—“There is nothing plain or coarse about Miss Alice-now Mrs. Dafferty; she is the very soul of refinement and elegance, and well she may be, for not even the shadow of poverty has ever passed over her. She knows nothing whatever of the coarse associations of the poor.”
Probably no one appreciated the "refinement and elegance" of Alice more than did Mr. Dafferty, and he left the church a proud as well as a happy man.
The home he had prepared for her was a home of luxury. Everything was in harmony with the "refinement and elegance” of the bride, and “the shadow of poverty" seemed farther removed than ever. Their married life, so pleasantly begun, moved pleasantly on. The years, one after another, came and went, but brought nothing and left nothing but prosperity.
slippered feet held out to receive the hot air. “ What do I know of the world ?" answered Mrs. Dafferty. “Well, I know it's not so bad a world as some would like to make it. Come, if you'll look like yourself, and not like grave Judge Dafferty, I'll sing you that song:
This world is not so bad a world
Depends on how we take it.'" “ You can 'take it in only one way," replied Judge Dafferty, “for your knowledge of the world is confined to its good and pleasant things.”
“Of course, my grave judge, I can't have the experience of poor people, for I have never been poor, and I can assure you that I have not the slightest desire to be. It agrees with my temperament and tastes to be rich and have such a home as this. Really, I think I was never born for poverty. I am not adapted to it."
“And who do you think is 'adapted to it?'” replied Mr. Dafferty. “Judging from the struggles of people with poverty, I should say there are none in the world who perceive its adaptation to themselves.”
“Well, do tell me what has stirred you up, my solemn judge. What have you been poring over in that newspaper ?"
“I've been poring over an article on “The Woman Question,' as it is callcd."
“The Woman Question ? Well, I suppose it says that women are angels, and that mankind ought forcver to concede to them that great fact."
“No; it says that hundreds and thousands of women are dying of half-paid labor, and that ladies—ladies who know nothing of toilare not in sympathy with them. It says, too, that the labor of women, whether it be the labor of the hands or the head, will never bring a just price until justice gives every woman her rights.”
Ar nine o clock, remember, the hour at eventide,
play, And see thee sweetly smiling, as thou dost smile alway. You'll know just when I'm coming; for all the dark and
gloom Will vanish in a twinkling from out your lonely room ; And if you'll listen, darling, across the fallow lea You'll hear the spirit's greetings of hope and love to
thee. Then through the open casement, and through the open
door, The silent, shimmering moonbeams will play upon the
floor; And all the stars of heaven will brighter, brighter seem, And you perchance will think it a sweet delicious dream. But, ah! this life is real; as you and I both know: We can not chain the spirit here in this stern world be
But like the wind that bloweth o'er flowery mead and
dell, It cometh and it goeth - but how, we can not tell. Oh! holy the communion when soul to soul is drawn, In silence, like the shadows that fall upon the lawn; And sweet as dewy fragrance that scents the evening air, And pure the spirit greetings, as holy angels are.
a "Well now, Judge Dafferty, if you haven't
AND THE GREAT QUESTION.
BY A. A. G.
Mrs. DAFFERTY was not born low down, where women are born, but high up, where ladies are born. Her father belonged to the very top layer of society, and was known as a tip-top gentleman; for as soon as he entered on the business of life he began to make money, and made it faster than lightning can leap from one cloud to another. Fortune, who seems to have likes and dislikes, favoring some and frowning on others, called Mr. Cluff her well-beloved son, and poured her treasures into his lap. What wonder was it, then, that Alice Cluff had more suitors at her feet than she could manage ? And what wonder was it that Mr. Dafferty, son of an unsuccessful
and Alice Dafferty was neither a widow nor the wife of a poor man, but the petted wife of rich Judge Dafferty, for everything he had touched had turned to gold. She was ten ycars older than she was the night she passed out of the church, the admiration of all beholders ; but she was only slightly changed, for the troubles and struggles that scar and mar so many she had known nothing of, as she had lived in all the ease and comfort that money brings. know of the world, Alice ?" said her husband, one wild night of winter, as she sat in her velvet chair by the register, with her velvet
got hold of that newspaper—religious newspaper they call it—that publishes so many articles on women's rights ! That crazy old progress man, that fanatic and reformer, has lent it to you, avd the first thing I know you'll be as wild on the great question as he is. Really, I for one am tired of it. A body can hardly find a literary article in any newspaper or magazine in these days. Everything is about women! women! women! I wonder where the great question of Women's Rights' started ?"
“In women's wrongs, of course. No one can look deeply and candidly into this great question and not see that it has its source in wrongs."
“I'm not at all sure of that. I'm inclined to think it has its source in ambition,” replied Mrs. Dafferty, dropping her embroidery and throwing herself back in her velvet chair. “The women of these days—the women, I mean, not the ladies--are very ambitious to take the places of men, and I have no sym
“What do you
BY RHO. SIGMA.
pathy with them. My whole nature revolts
“Ali, Lady Alice Dafferty,” said the judge,
The seasons and the years come and go, but bring you no discomforts, no hardships.”
“Now, don't preach to me as if you were an ordained clergyman, please don't.”
"I want to bring you into sympathy with women-with toiling, suffering women—and I must talk. Women do not seek power for its own sake, or because they want the places of men. Nearly all who advocate · Women's Rights' have been led, through suffering, to do it, and their own troubles have opened their hearts to the troubles of others, of those who, like themselves, need relief. A great many of them, Alice, have no rich husband for a prop, and some have no husbands at all, but are widows, with five or six children to support; and they know that the advancement of women to a higher place than they have ever yet occupied will give them new ways and means of support, and make everything they do more profitable.”
“Ah, well,” said Mrs. Dafferty, tapping her pretty feet on the register, women and negroes will be discussed in what you call the 'high-toned' newspapers until the end of the world, I suppose."
“It is to be hoped that all wrongs will be righted long before that,” replied Judge Dafferty.
'Come, now, be amiable enough to drop that paper, and let's have a literary article from one of those magazines lying on the table."
“ There is no such teacher as experience, you know, Alice,” continued Judge Dafferty ; "and if you had been compelled to foil and struggle, you would be in sympathy with women, with these very women whom you regard as ambitious to be in the places of men, and whom you denounce as no ladies. Yes, Lady Dafferty, you would feel the sufferings of women, if you had only suffered yourself. And you would appreciate the disadvantages under which they labor, if there had ever been in your life anything that could be called a disadvantage."
Mrs. Dafferty winced a little, and moved uneasily in her velvet chair, but replied, as if not yet convinced of women's wrongs, “What you say may possibly be true, but you know there is a very great difference between women and ladies."
“Yes, I know it, and I know, too, that ladies often fail to be womanly. Now, I want my wife to be a true woman as well as a true lady, and I want her to be in womanly sym
pathy with all women who are tasked and while we consider whether you, young clerk
Setting aside the bare cost of the cards, Judge Dafferty said no more, but, while which will be anywhere between fifty and Lady Dafferty sat thinking, took up his three hundred dollars, according to style dropped newspaper, and was soon lost in the and quantity, look at the expense involved in study of“ The Woman Question.”
a brilliant wedding and the consequent recepYes, the woman question. And what man, tion. Of course the time and labor spent in or what woman, living in the light of the preparation are not taken into account, nor nineteenth century, shall dare call the woman do I ask you to consider the sum total for the question an inferior question ?
bridal tour, which, whether long or short, will What lady shall sit at ease in her palace, be considerable. At the lowest figure, the and, handling her rich embroidery with jew- cost is from three to five hundred dollars more eled fingers, laugh at the toils of women and than it would have been had the parties been sneer at “ The Woman Question ?"
contented with a plain ceremonial and “No Cards.” To be sure, five hundred dollars isn't
much when you can count your tens of thou"NO CARDS."
sands. But to a young couple just setting out in life it is a very considerable sum. Five
years hence they can realize it better than On taking up a morning paper, the first
At the end of that time many a young thing I do- and does not every woman
wife is broken down with care and toil, much the same ? -- is to glance down the col
of which might have been spared her had she umn of “Marriages" and “Deaths," to see
been willing to forego a stylish wedding. if any whom I know have passed through
“But," objects some calculating young lady, either of these most momentous epochs in “the presents one gets more than cover the huinan life. Occasionally I meet with a famil
cost.” iar name. It may be that of an old school- Well, admitting that they do, that is just mate or early friend; and many a pleasant
what I don't like. I never begged in my life. recollection prompts the tear of regret for the
No kind of honest contrivance, no manner of departed, or the hope of happiness for the fashionable subterfuge, no sort of pretext howwedded.
ever plausible, can make it respectable. Sometimes I find recorded here the death Should queen Fashion decree that I stand of one whom I but lately saw in the enjoy- at the street corner with my hand outstretched ment of health, and surrounded by everything and a placard on my breast, or that I send out that serves to make life desirable; or the mar- cards, saying that at such a time I would be riage of some young couple concerning whose at home to receive anything that people had a courtship Mrs. Croaker declared a thousand mind to give me, I would be equally as obstitimes“ that it never would come to anything." nate in the latter case as in the former. Look But, whether these things be so or not, the at it which way you will, it is neither more perusal of this column always furnishes food nor less than begging. Certainly, if one fanfor reflection. Under the head of “Deaths" cies it, the most pleasant way is to do it elewe frequently find “Curiosities of Literature,” gantly and politely. But fashionable beggary which make ridiculous the sublimity of grief; doesn't pay as well as genuine mendicancy. and occasionally, though far too seldom, we If you want to make it profitable, you had see appended to marriage notices the words, better procure a tattered gown and basket; “ No Cards."
and if you can hire a small baby at a reasonIn these days, whicn the reign of Fashion able price per day, you will succeed handis almost supreme, it costs somewhat of a somely, no doubt. struggle for the generality of young people to But, seriously, the gifts seldom cover the act in defiance of her laws, especially when expense. The actual and immediate cost may those laws are delightfully in accord with be returned threefold, but in the long run you their own wishes. Excepting that of being are the loser. Suppose your wedding cost you born, and that of dying, marriage is the most five hundred dollars, and your gifts amount to important event in life, and this fact is usually as many thousands, how much will it cost you felt by those who are about to take upon them- to live in a style corresponding with them ? selves its vows and responsibilities. It is a Book-keep-ing-ly and clerk-ing-ly speaking, popular institution, and the majority of young when will you be able to do it? Five hunpeople desire to make their wedding as pop- dred dollars would help you materially on ular an occasion as all the appliances of rent-day. Will wedding presents do this? Fashion can render it. But the majority of A clerk on a salary of twelve hundred was young people do not belong to the “highest married recently, and had ten thousand dolcircles," where alone the capricious queen lars' worth of presents. I wonder what he holds undisputed sway. Let us leave her did with them? The presentation of gifts at laws for those who are bound to obey them, I a wedding is one of the most beautiful of all
social customs. But let them be the voluntary offerings of friends and relatives who have a tender interest in the young couple, and wish to be remembered by them. Then, even the most insignificant articles will be fraught with sweet associations, and, to say nothing of the money saved, the recipients will be the better able to enjoy the gifts for not having begged them.
In conclusion, I have only to say that when you see a marriage notice with the addition of “No Cards,” you may safely conclude that the parties are people of taste and culture, and in all probability, of wealth. For, I am sorry to say, it is only the rich who think that they can afford to wear patched boots, and only the wealthy who dare to be married with “No CARDS."
also shown in the mouth, the luscious loving lips, and in the eyes. We see in this face, not much of aspiration, not a restless, discontented nature, but one who would love her husband, her children, her home, her friends, her pets, her duties, cares, and responsibilities, and be satisfied when she had fully met the claims of all these.
In some of these beauties we perceive wit, love of dash and display; in others, earnestness, sincerity, and a sense of duty; but in the German, in the Hollander, the English, and in the Russian we find those domestic qualities which give strength to a nation, and those constitutional developments which give power to a people. In the Grecian, and in the French and Austrian we find grace, elegance, brilliancy, sprightliness, dash, and wit; in the Swede, sincerity and tenderness; and in the Polander, power, patience, perseverance, patriotism, and a shade of melancholy. In the Asiatics, there is not much of the vital or the voluptuous, and much less of the mental and the spiritual. Take off the bands of barbarism and supply them with the light of a higher spiritual life, and they will take on expressions in accordance with the superior culture, true philosophy, and religion thus afforded.
In conclusion, we may state that the way to be BEAUTIFUL is to be HEALTIIFUL, VIRTUOUS, and good. To be selfish, vicious, dissipated, and bad, is to be ugly and repulsive. Vain, fashionable flirts always come to a bad end; while the temperate, the gentle, the kind, the meek, just, devotional, trusting, and selfsacrificing, no matter how plain in feature, are always reliable, lovable, good, gracious, and godly.
NATIONAL TYPES OF FEMALE
moral sentiments, a full, eloquent eye, and a really womanly face. Jenny Lind has taught us to respect whatever is truly Swedish, and without any knowledge to the contrary to think well of it. Next comes the Chinese, with its contracted forehead and opaque features. There is not much expression of the spiritual in her, Restricted in her education and sphere, she must content herself with dress decoration, and a diffident, submissive, subordinate life.
Next, at the top, we have the elegant Austrian. Here is a stately beauty-we are reminded of Marie Antoinette-classical in every feature, straight and dignified in person, with beautifully chiseled features, tresses abundant, exquisite taste in dress, which, though elaborate, is very appropriate. The Austrian woman is loving and lovable, and doubtless merits all the gallantry of her countrymen. The next is a Polish beauty with a square hat and a tassel. She has a good figure, a marked face, and a strong character; but we fancy there is a sadness in the expression, and we can not think of Poland without a feeling of sympathy. In looking at this sad countenance, it is perhaps made more so by looking through sad glasses. In that head, how much of ambition and bravery, how much of affection and patriotism, how much of intensity and power! and there, too, is a faultless figure, full, straight, dignified, suggestive of her noble derivation. We next have the Holland beauty, leaning on her hand. She has a quiet, motherly, loving look; the calmest, the most contented face in the group; and exhibiting a most domestic, good-tempered, and affectionate person.
The Japanese beauty doubtless looks beautiful to her countrymen, but those oblique almond eyes, that narrow forehead, and that general expression of weakness is not particularly fascinating to us. Still, there is benevolence if not bravery or beauty there. We will look further.
This English face, though beautiful, has less strength of expression than is requisite to illustrate English feminine character. It fails to do justice to the subject. An English-AngloSaxon-beauty has a soft silky skin, a florid complexion, fine auburn hair, blue or gray eyes, an ample chin, an aquiline nose, full rolling lips, sound, regular, and handsome teeth, and is one of the best of wives and mothers. The artist was unfortunate in the selection of his model to illustrate the typical English beauty. There is a class of ladies in England which that face might represent, but there is not enough of breadth and strength to represent the true English woman. There has been in this representative so much refining as to abolish the elements of strength, leaving only effeminate dignity.
The last in the group is the German beauty. She is plump, strong, broad, and substantial. Health, constitutional vigor, endurance, and power are seen here, rather than artistic grace or aristocratic refinement. A motherly affection is evinced in the full back-head, and is
In analyzing briefly the types of female beauty represented in our engraving, we must begin somewhere, and to avoid the appearance of partiality we proceed, as we used to, with a spelling lesson, beginning at the left-hand row and going downward, and next taking the second column in the same manner, and so on throughout the group. We may follow this with types of other nations at a future time.
First in the group we have a Turkish beauty, a dark, plump, inexpressive though voluptuous face, without much forehead and without much apparent vivacity. In the next we have a brisk, intelligent, well-formed French face, with pointed features and a dashing style of dress, somewhat unique and independent, showing that she belongs to that polite and facile nation which, while it gives fashions to some of the most influential nations in the world, has fixed fashion of its own, each lady dressing according to her own figure, complexion, and taste, and always being tasteful; vivacity, emotion, and spirit are her leading traits. In the next, we have the Russian, from that growing giant nation of the North. What staid substantial features! what a neck! what a broad chin ! how sedate and earnest the expression! what an ample bust! evidence of no effeminacy, but of healthfulness, vigor, and endurance. There is stamina, if not so much delicacy here.
Going to the top of the next column we find the Grecian, with her jaunty hat, classic features, tasteful babit, and symmetry of forn, more artistic than utilitarian. Perhaps she would nearly realize the adage, “A thing of beauty is a joy forever;" but in the Russian we see strength, steadfastness, endurance, power, and less of the artistic and ornamental. In the next face we have the Swiss girl, with her masculine hat and short curly hair; the features indicating health, cheerfulness, physical exuberance, with not much culture. Liberty and self-helpfulness rather than sentiment are scen to be the characteristics. Next comes the Swede, with a well-formed head, strong
THE AMERICAN FACE.-Dr. Bellows writes the Liberal Christian, from Florence, as follows:
“Mr. Powers, the sculptor, says the American face is distinguished from the English by the little distance between the brows and the eyes, the openness of the nostrils, and the thinness of the visage. It is still more marked, I think, by a mongrel quality, in which all nationalities contribute their portion. The greatest hope of America is its mixed breed of humanity, and what now makes the irregularity of the American face is predestined to make the versatility and universality of the American character. Already, spite of a continental seclusion, America is the most cosmopolitan country on the globe. Provincial or local as manners or hab. its may be, ideas and sympathies in America are world-wide. And there is nowhere a city in which so many people have the complete world under their eyes and in their hearts and served up in the morning press with their breakfast, as New York !"
WHAT WE ALL SEEK. –There are those that say happiness is nothing; that one should not care or look for it. When you hear such a sentiment expressed, know that the speaker is saying what in his inmost soul he disbelieves. While nobody believes that happiness is the only object to be sought in life, there is not that human being who, while he lives, say what he may, is not seeking it either openly or unacknowledged to himself.