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EMINENT ROMAN CATHOLIO OLER
GYMEN. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES, WITI PORTRAITS.
On the opposite page we publish our ninth group of representative American clergymen. The denomination which these reverend gentlemen advocate and earnestly seek to advance in number and influence is already one of the most powerful on this continent; while in the United States proper the religion of Rome, fostered by universal toleration and disseminated by the multitudes of immigrants from countries essentiaily Roman Catholic, seems in a fair way to attain ere long among us a position second to no other denomination. Its rapid growth is marked by the numerous church, educational, and charitable edifices everywhere erected or being erected. Especially is its strength and extension marked in the States of the West, where the finest buildings for religious and educational purposes are in nearly every instance the property of zealous, enterprising Catholics. The Cathedral of St. Paul and St. Peter in Philadelphia is probably the largest church edifice in the United States.
According to the Catholic Almanac for 1865, there were in this country seven archbishops, thirty-seven bishops, five vicars apostolic, three mitred abbots, and about 2,400 priests, with a Roman Catholic population of nearly 4,500,000. At present the number can not be far from 5,000,000.
In considering the portraits composing our group, we are struck by one expression common to all-it is a deep, settled gravity. In some, to be sure, this expression is more strongly marked, and appears the outgrowth of natural or acquired asceticism. In nearly every instance the intellectual faculties are well developed, and that species of intellectual force prevails which inclines one to close study and meditation. Probably the most practical “Father" of the group is Rev. Sylvester Malone, who seems at the same time to possess an exuberant good-nature and strong social qualities. Rev. J. P. Woods exhibits considerable breadth of forehead, indicating good reasoning ability, unusual vivacity, and a strong appreciation of the humorous and comic. Tune is also large with him. We infer from the photograph that Archbishop Spalding possesses an excellent memory of details or minor facts. Benevolence is largely shown in most of the portraits, especially in those of Archbishop Spalding, Bishop Lynch, and Revs. Thomas Farrell, I. T. Hecker, Thomas Preston, and James Keogh. Among those who are distinguished for strength of will, and for those forceful elements of character which impart boldness, opposition, or aggression, we may specify the archbishops, and“ Fathers" Malone, Farrell, and Hecker.
It is to be lamented that several of our portraits do not fully meet our wishes, owing to the inferior photographs which were the best we were able to procure.
Tue Most Rev. MARTIN Joun SPALDING, D.D., Archbishop of Baltimore, was born in Kentucky, early in this century. He graduated at the Propaganda in Rome, and after being ordained priest, served in that capacity for several years. On the 10th of September, 1848, he was consecrated Bishop of Legone, and coadjutor to the Right Rev. Dr. Flaget, Bishop of Louisville; in 1864 he was, in accordance with a papal bull, appointed to succeed the late Archbishop Kenrick in the see of Baltimore, and on the 1st of August, 1861, he was consecrated for such position with the usual ceremonies. On the 25th of July, 1858, the Congregation of the Propaganda, hy a decree which was confirmed by his holiness Pope Pins IX., granted the prerogative of place to the see of Baltimore, thus making the Archbishop of that see the Primate of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States, and thus giving him the seat of honor above all other archbishops, without regard to promotion or consecration. In accordance with this decree, Archbishop Spalding presided over the Council of Catholic prelates that assembled in Baltimore last year, and delivered the opening address, which was extensively copied by the press of the country at that time; the address was a brief and remarkably lucid and able review of the Catholic Church, together with a resume of its progress in America. The Roman Catholic Church in the United States has never probably possessed a prelate of greater ability, and one more untiring in his efforts to promote the cause of his religion. An accomplished scholar and a profound theologian, he long since became widely known through his writings on religious subjects. Commencing first as a writer of reviews, he soon attracted considerable notice by the vigor with which he attacked those authors who differed from his Church, or who attacked its infallibility. His “ History of the Reformation," published in two large volumes, is one of the most searching and exhanstive accounts of the great schism from the Catholic Church that has ever been written, and is ranked among the standard theological works in America. He also published "Evidences of Catholicity," "Sketches of the Early Catholic Missions
Kentucky," "Miscellanea," together with other works, all of which have commanded large circulations, and are still regarded as among the ablest defenses and expositions of the Roman Catholic religion.
The Most Rev. Jous McCLOSKEY, D.D., second Archbishop of New York, was born in the city of Brooklyn, N. Y., in the year 1810. At an early age he studied for the priesthood, and in January, 1834, was ordained priest by Bishop Dubois. Soon after his ordination he was appointed pastor of St. Joseph's Church in New York. In 1814 he was consecrated Bishop, and appointed coadjutor to the Archbishop of New York, and in 1847 he was transferred to Albany when that city was erected into a new diocese, and on the 21st of Angust, 1864, was installed with the usual ceremonies Archbishop of New York, to succeed the late lamented Archbishop Hughes.
Archbishop McCloskey is considered one of the most polished orators in the Catholic Church in the United States. In his private character he is known as possessing all those virtues which endear man to his fellowman; possessed of a kind and charitable heart, he is constantly engaged in the endeavor to alleviate suffering and to elevate the moral and social standing of those intrusted to his care.
Most Rev. John BAPTIST PURCELL, D.D., Archbishop of Cincinnati, was born in Mallow, County of Cork, Ireland, about the year 1798, and came to the United States while yet a boy. After receiving a preliminary education here, he was sent to finish his studies at the famous seminary of St. Sulpice, in Paris, where he graduated with high honors; he was ordained priest, and returned to the United States about the year 1822. He was soon after appointed president of the well-known Catholic College and Seminary of Mount St. Mary's, Emmettsburg, Md. In accordance with a special bull from the Pope, he was appointed Archbishop of the see of Cincinnati, and consecrated Bishop, October 13th, 1893. About the year 1840 he became well known by his controversial letters (which were published in two volumes) with the famous Dr. Campbell, founder of the Campbellites, on “Catholicity vs. Protestantism." Dur
ing the late war he took a prominent part in sustaining the Government, both by voice and pen; he was also among the first to urge through his official organ (the Catholic Telegraph of Cincinnati) the abolition of slavery in the Southern States.
The Right Rev. P. N. LYNCH, D.D., Bishop of Charleston, S. C., was born in South Carolina about the year 1812. After receiving a preliminary education in the United States, he went to finish his ecclesiastical studies at the College of the Propaganda in Rome, where he was ordained priest. He then returned to the United States, and labored in South Carolina as a zealous priest. On March 14th, 1858, he was appointed and consecrated Bishop of Charleston, to succeed the late Bishop Reynolds.
At the commencement of the late war, Bishop Lynch became well known throughout the country by his correspondence with the late Archbishop Hughes, in which he championed and advocated the “justice of the Southern cause," and tried to controvert the well-known Union views of Archbishop Hughes. In private life, Bishop Lynch is beloved for his many noble traits of character, especially for that of benevolence. He showed much kindness to Union prisoners of war in Charleston. As a preacher, he is well known for his eloquence. After the close of the war he preached in nearly all the Catholic churches in New York in aid of the destitute poor of Charleston. His goodness and piety have endeared him to the Catholics of America generally.
VERY Rev. Dennis DuxxE, D.D., Vicar-General and Administrator of the Diocese of Chicago, born in Queens County, Ireland, February 24th, 1824. Early in the following year his family emigrated to Miramichi, in the northern part of the Province of New Brunswick, where, under the guidance of pious parents, he early evinced a decided disposition for the priesthood. At that time there were but few Catholic collegiate institutions even of a preparatory character, either in the United States or the British Provinces. That in Prince Edward's Island, founded by the late lamented Bishop McDonald, was the inost distinguished for affording to the student a thorough knowledge of the classics, mathematics, etc., necessary to form the foundation of a sound and wholesome theological education. Under the tutelage of the celebrated John Slattery, who afterward entered the Society of Jesus, and was one of the best classical teachers and critics of his time, the young Dunne quickly acqnired the knowledge necessary to at him for the study of the higher branches. As a school-boy, he manifested those qualities of sound judg. ment, and that peculiar tact for conciliating his fellowstudents, without offending any but attracting all, which have since been frequently applauded by the men of stronger passions and sturdier intellects whom he has been commissioned to direct.
Having finished his preparatory studies, he entered the theological department of the Univorsity of Laval at Quebec, from which in deacon's orders he went to Chicago, his family having in the mean time emigrated thither. During the vacancy in the diocese caused by the death of Bishop Quarter, he was ordained priest by Bishop Lefevre, of Detroit, and immediately entered upon the arduous duties of a missionary in the diocese of Chicago; this was in 1848, when that unexplored diocese had but few priests, and their perilous labors were almost unknown beyond their extensive sphere. After the transfer of Bishop Vandevelde to the diocese of Natchez, his successor, Bishop O’Regan, aware of Mr. Dunne's zeal and influence among the ciergy and of his administrative talents, promoted him to the position of vicar-general, which he still holds, with credit to himself and satisfaction to his subordinates. His labors in the cause of Catholic charity as well as of philanthropy are visible in the institutions which for the protection of the orphan and the reformation of the juvenile delinquent he has founded and fostered in the Garden City of the great West. He was the first in the United States to reduce to practical form the idea of those peculiar insti. tutions which have since flourished so effectively under the zealous direction of Father Haskins at Boston, and the lamented Dr. Ives at New York.
At present, during the protracted absence of Bishop Duggan, the entire burden of a large diocese comprising
108 priests according to the Catholic Almanac, rests upon Rev. SYLVESTER. MALONE was born in his shoulders, and by every one his administration is
Meath, Ireland, in the year 1821, and emigrated to the acknowledged to be most satisfactory,
United States when but seventeen years of age. While A most determined opponent of slavery as ne is of
yet a mere boy his heart yearned for God's holy sanctyranny, at the commencement of our national struggle
trary, and accordingly he entered St. John's College, he vigorously espoused the cause of the l'nion and free
Fordham, where he graduated. He was ordained priest dom. By his own exertions he placed in the field, fully in 1844, and sent to the eastern district of Brooklyn, then armed and equipped, the gallant 90th Illinois infantry, known as the city of Williamsburg. The population so famous in our war history on every field from Vicks- then was only 10,000, and there was no Catholic place of burg to Missiou Ridze, where by companies, including worship there. The energy and zeal of Mr. Malone soon their brave Colonel O'Meara, they freely poured out their showed itself; he had been there but a short time when life-blood to uphold and advance the flag of their adopted he had built one of the handsomest and most substantial country.
churches in the diocese, well known as Sts. Peter and In person, the Very Rev. Dr. Dinne is tall and dignificd, Paul's Church. It may be here remarked that Mr. with a face expreseire of qualities eminently social and Malone was the first priest to introduce the Gothic style attractive, and withal of mumistakable firmness.
of architecture into the building of Catholic churches in
this country, and his architect (P. C. Keely) has since deRev. Tuomas FARRELL was born in
signed over three hundred in that style. The Williamsburg Longford, Ireland, in the year 1820, and came to the
that he knew with no Catholic church now has twelve, United States while yet a child. l’e received his ecclexi
all grown out of his parish, to testify to his zeal and astical edncation and graduated at Mount St. Mary's
earnest work as a faithful minister. In the twenty-four College, Emmettsburg, Md., and was ordained priest in
years that he has resided in Brooklyn there is no name the year 1817. He cngaged at first in missionary labor; more honored and esteemed and spoken of with more then became pastor of St. Paul's Church, Harlem, and affection by men of all creeds than the name of Rev. afterward at St. Mary's Church, Grand Street. In 1857 Sylvester Malone. As a pulpit orator, he is eloquent he was appointed pastor of his present church (St. and servid; his sermons are all extempore, and of a pure, Joseph's, corner of Sixth Avenue and West Washington elevated style. During the late civil war his patriotic Place), one of the oldest and most influential congregal- record will long be remembered by every lover of free tions in New York.
institutions. Perceiving at once that the dissolution of During the late war Mr. Farrell was well known for the Union would be the end of self-government everyhis earnest and uncompromising advocacy of the "cause where, he threw all his influence, moral and social, on of the Union," and was a consistent and steadfast oppo. the side of our Government; his whole instincts yearned nent of human slavery, believing firmly in the rights of for freedom, and no man's heart beat gladder than his man to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. During when it was announced that American slavery was at an the dark days of the rebellion our Government had among
When the great fair for the benefit of the Sanitary the clergy North no more steadfast champion, and re
Commission took place, he was one of its most active publicin institutions no tirmer and sincerer friend than supporters. When his ward committee were trying to Thomas Farrell. As a scholar and theologian, he is raise their quota for the army, he, unsolicited, generously ranked among the foremost divines of the Catholic gave one fourth of his salary for a year for that object. Church in the United States. As a preacher, he belongs
It may truly be said of him that " he is more American more to the solid than to the brilliant order. As a great than the Americans themselves." As a minister, he is lover of truth, he is known and beloved by men of all de- distinguished for an intense desire to instill and dissemnominations for his noble qualities of heart and mind. inate the principles of Christian charity, avoiding all Among his brethren of the clergy he is looked up to sectarian controversy, and illustrating the truth of his with the greatest respect and affection, so much so, that religion by a life replete with good deeds to his fellowit is remarkable how many go to him for counsel and advice, and what implicit faith they place in his judgment and understanding.
Rev. Tuomas S. PRESTON was born
in the State of Connecticut in the year 1824; was eduRev. Isaac Tuomas HECKER was born cated and graduated with distinguished honors at Trinin New York, Dec., 1819. He received his education in ity College, Hartford, and was ordained a minister of this city, and entered into business with his brothers in the Protestant Episcopal Chnrch in 1816. He became the well-known milling and baking establishment of assistant minister of the Church of the Annunciation Hecker Brothers. He passed the summer of 1913 with (Dr. Seabury's), of New York city, and afterward in the Association for Agriculture and Education at Brook St. Luke's Church, the well-known Rev. Dr. Forbes Farm, West Roxbury, Mass., and subsequently spent being at that time pastor. The great tractarian movesome time in a similar institution in Worcester Co., ment of Dr. Pusey, which was then in agitation, and Mass. He returned to New York in 1815, and became which brought so many inquiring Protestants within converted to, and received into, the Roman Catholic the Catholic Church, had its effect on the subject of tbis Church. Soon after taking this step he determined on sketch, who, with his associate, Dr. Forbes, embraced entering the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, the Roman Catholic religion, and were received into its and after making his novitiate at St. Trond, in Belgium, communion in 1819. In 1830 Mr. Preston was ordained was admitted to the order in 1817. On the completion a priest, and appointed an assistant pastor at the catheof his ecclesiastical studies he was sent by his superiors dral. In 1855 he was appointed Chancellor of the dioto England, and in 1849 was ordained priest by the late cese-a position of high honor-which he still continues Cardinal Wiseman. He passed two years in England, to hold in connection with the rectorship of St. Ann's engaged in missionary work. In 1851 he returned to Church, to which he was appointed in 1861. Father New York, in company with several members of his or- Preston is known as a ripe scholar and dogmatic theoder, and for the next sevcu years was constantly employed logian, and an eloquent divine. As an author, he has in missionary labors in various parts of the United States. published several religious and devotional works, In 1857, having visited Rome, Father Hecker with some
“ Controversy of Reason and Revelaof his colleagues were released by the Pope from their tion,” “Lectures ou Christian Unity," a Volume of connection with the Redemptorists, and in 1838 he. Sermons, etc. founded with his companions a new missionary society under the name of the Congregation of St. Paul the
The Rev. JOSEPH P. Woods was born Apostle, whose church and monastery are at the corner of
in New York in the year 1836, educated under the Jesuit Ninth Avenue and Fifty-ninth Street. Father Hecker is
Fathers, and graduated with the highest academic the author of "Qnestions of the Soul" (1855), and "As
honors from St. Francis Xavier College. He then enpirations of Nature" (1857). While in Rome he published tered St. Joseph's Theological Seminary, Fordham, and two papers on Catholicity in the United States, which was elevated to the priestly office about the year 1857 by were translated into several languages, and extensively the late Archbishop Hughes, who appointed him assistread in Europe and America. About two years ago he ant pastor of the cathedral. Here he made hosts of started in this city the Catholic World, a monthly maga
friends. He loved the work of the ministry, finding in zine of great literary ability, devoted to the interest of it his highest and purest joye, as well as his severest the Catholic Church. He is also well known as an able trial. He showed himself the sympathizing friend of and eloquent lecturer on religious and secular subjects. the people, studying their characters, that he might the
better know how to correct them. After four years' arduous labor in the cathedral parish he was appointed pastor of St. Augustine's parish, Morrisania, extending from Harlem bridge to Fordham, where he is the idol of his people, and ever spoken of with respect and esteem. In stern religious and moral feeling, in moral courage, in honesty, in fidelity, in charity, in patience, he holds in supreme contempt all arts to obtain popularity; inde. pendence and integrity are to him of priceless worth.
“ His honor, his life both grow in one;
Take honor from him, and his life is done." The mental qualifications of Father Woods are of a high order, and, moreover, they are under the rigid die. cipline of a strong understanding. He is an occasional contributor to some of our weekly and monthly mag. azines, and we hear that he is engaged at present preparing a religious work for publication. Kindness constitutes a prominent element of his nature. Music and the fine arts bave always been cherished and cultivated by him with the greatest affection. Not only does he perform himself, but he is endowed with a rich voice. In the pulpit this gentleman is at home. His preaching is more instructive of late years than rhetorical; the ardor of poetical fire is tempered into the genial glow of a healthful enthusiasm. The Inency and beauty of his language, his carnest manner, his action, conspire to make him an effective speaker. He is all nerve-cach sense, each faculty is absorhed in the great subject of his thought, Jlis memory supplies quotations learned and to the point; his imagination calls each poetic fancy quick to his aid, and his love of music attunes itself to all the varied tones of his discourse, awakening in every breast the sentiments and impres. sions of his own. In delivery he is bold and commanding, and some of his best and most happy addresses bave been extemporaneous flashes. Father Woods is considered one of the most promising and rising divines in the Catholic Church in this diocese.
Rev. Edward MCGLYNN, D.D., was born in New York in the year 1837, attended the public schools of that city, and graduated from the Free Academy. He then determined to prepare himself for the priesthood, and went to finish his ccclesiastical studies at the American College of the Propaganda in Rome, where he graduated with distinguished honors, and was ordained priest in 1860. During the war he served as chaplain in one of the army hospitals for three years, In 1865 the late Rev. Dr. Cummings requested the appointment of Dr. McGlynn as his assistant, which was granted, and after the death of Dr. Cummings, Dr. McGlynn was appointed pastor of St. Stephen's Church, of this city, one of the wealthiest and largest congregations in the United States. In preaching, Dr. McGlynn belongs to the solid and persuasive school; his language is pure and elevated. He is alive to the genius of American institutions, but no less active in extending the influence of the Catholic Church in America. We might instance several of his lectures, especially one which be delivered in Cooper Institute about a year ago, adrocating the progressive character of the Catholic Church, in which he displayed sound reason and good judgment. In private life Dr. McGlynn is admired and beloved for his genial and social qualities-in a word, he is the in. carnation of sincerity.
REV. JAMES KEOGH, D D., was born in Ireland, and is now about thirty-five years of age, During his infancy his parents emigrated to the United States, and when ten years old he was sent to receive his preliminary education from an aged clergyman in Pittsburg, Pa.
The young student displayed unusual talent; in fact, when but fourteen years old he was considered quite a prodigy, because of his proficiency in classical studies. He was soon after sent to the College of the Propaganda in Rome, to finish his theological studies. He graduated with high honors. At the end of his theological course, when but eighteen years old, he prepared a thesis treating of mental philosophy. Being yet too young, according to canonical usage, to be ordained, he remained in Rome continuing his studies. In November, 1856, he delivered a public de. fense or thesis from “ Universali Theologia" in the presence of his holiness Pope Pius IX., the cardinals, and other dignitaries of Rome. In consideration of the
manner in which he acquitted himself, Pope Pius IX., by his own hands, presented him with a valuable copy, in mosaic, of Raphael's ** Madonna of the Saggiola." He was then ordained priest, and afterward returned to the l'nited States, since which time he has chiefly becn engaged as Professor of Theology in the Catholic seminaries of Pittsburg and Philadelphia. At the great Catholic Council held in Baltimore last year he was one of the chief lights. Some months previous to the meeting of the Council, by appointment of Archbishop Spalding, he, in conjunction with Rev. Dr. Corcoran, of North Carolina, was engaged in preparing the Latin volume which was the basis of the discussion of the Council. As a preacher Dr. Keogh is judicions and happy. He has a prodigious memory, and probably will be better known as a teacher than an orntor. He is also editor of the Philadelphia Standard, the official organ of the Catholics of Philadelphia.
The Apostles and their successors, the Bishops, are the teaching and governing body of the Church. One of the Apostles, Peter, was made by Christ chief and head of His Church (Matt. xvi.) and chicf shepherd of His whole flock. (John xxi.) He (Peter) made Rome his See, and his successor, the Bishop of Rome, inheriting his authority, is the chief bishop, the center of Unity, and visible head of the Church, of which Christ is the invisible head and the Holy Ghost is the animating spirit. It is not the mission of the Church to invent or reveal new doctrines, but simply to transmit, exponnd, and define the original deposit of faith. This deposit of faith she does not gather from the Scriptures alone, the authcoticity and inspiration of which she upholds, but from her own self-consciousness and her universal teachings, traditions, and practices; she being in her corporate capacity a cotemporary of Christ and His Apostles, as well as of every subsequent age, and an eye-witness and ear-witness, appointed for the purpose, of the teachings and ordinarces of Christ. The living Church is really Christ's last will and "textament" to the world, of which the written book is on its face and hy its own confession (John xxi.) but an imperfect fragmentary record. It is the mission of the Church to enforce Christ's law and apply His ordinances, chief among which are those solemn religious rights called sacraments, which are the outward visible signs and channels of the inward spiritual grace of Christ to those whose minds and hearts are properly prepared by faith and repentance to receive them.
There are seven sacraments established by Christ, viz., 1. Baptism, the sacrament of regeneration and initiation into the Christian Church. 2. Confirmation, in which a special gist of the Holy Ghost is received to perfect and confirm the Christian character in baptism. 3. The Encharist, or sacrament of Christ's Body and Blood-the food of the spiritual life. 4. Penance (the spiritual medicine), for the forgiveness of sins committed after baptism. 5. Extreme Unction, to comfort and strengthen the dying. 6. Orders, for imparting the priestly and episcopal power. 7. Matrimony, for the confirming and sanctification of Christian marriage; the bond of which when once consummated the Church dcclares to be absolutely indissoluble.
The consecration, offering, and receiving by the priest of the Eucharist constitutes the Eucharistic sacrifice, which is commemorative of the sacrifice of the cross (1 Cor. xi.), and which, with the accompanying prayers and ceremonies, constitutes the solemn religions rite which is commonly called the Mass, from an old Latin word which occurs at the end of the service. The Church teaches that, by the power of the Almighty, at the word of consecration the bread and wine are changed into the Body and Blood of Christ, the forms and appearance only of bread and wine remaining as before. This change is called traasubstantiation.
The ordinary condition precedent for the receiving of the sacrament of penance is, besides faith and repentance of sin, with purpose of amendment, the confession of one's sins to a priest, whose absolution constitutes the essential rite of this sacrament. (John xx.)
The Church teaches that works of self-denial, such as fasting, must be practiced, to discipline the lower appetites, and to do penance, or satisfaction, even for sins that have been absolved; and that there is a middle state of souls departed in the grace of God called purgatory, in which they are for a time excluded from heaven, either because of minor imperfections that will there be corrected or purged ont, or because they have not yet fulfilled the measure of penance which the Divine justice exacts even of the sinner to whom the eternal guilt has been remitted. The Church teaches that not only are its members benefited by the prayers and good works of one another in this life, but that this communion extends beyond the grave, that the souls in purgatory are benefited by the prayers and good works of the living, and that the living may ask and enjoy the prayers and efficacions sympathy of those who have died in the grace of God.
The Church is partial to symbolism, and to an imposing and beautiful ritual in her worship, and believes that it is salutary to enlist in the service of religion and morality the natural instincts that make men treasure the portraits and every memorial of the departed objects of admiration or affection. It is in this spirit that she loves to adorn her churches and the homes of her members
with pictures and images of Christ, the Blessed Virgin, and other Saints, and places the relice of Christian martyrs under her altars. She believes that all the nobler capabilities of man should co-operate in fostering and giving expression to religion, which is the noblest of them all, and hence she calls to her aid in the expounding of her doctrines and the services of her ritnal, philosophy, oratory, poetry, music, architecture, sculptnre, and painting, the greatest masterpieces of which have been inspired of her genius.
While teaching that Christian marriage has the dignity of a sacrament, the Catholic Church enjoins absolute perpetual celibacy and chastity upon her clergy and upon others, both men and women, who dedicate themselves voluntarily by solemn vows in certain religions communities to works of charity and religion ; which practice of celibacy and esteem for virginity she derives from the apostolic age, and commends hy hier experience of its utility in giving to her ministers a singlemindedness and devotion that were otherwise nnattainable.
The highest authoritative utterances and enactments of the Church are those of her general councils of bishops, presided over by the Pope in person, or through his delegates. There have been eighteen general councils. The first was held at Nice, in Asia Minor, in the year 3:23, the last in Trent, 1545-1563.
The essential difference between the Roman Catholics and their separated brethren appears to be that the former believe in the indwelling of the Holy Ghost in the Church as a successor to Christ to infallibly teach the truths of faith and morals; whereas other Christian denominations profess to believe that the individual, aided by the illumination of the Holy Spirit for the searching mind, finds the truth of faith and morals in the Bible. The Catholic Church maintains in individual moral responsibility, whereby the individual who denies the authority of her teaching power is bound before God and man to leave her communion. The Catholic Church maintains the freedom of man, and his individual moral responsibility, which involves his capability of selfgovernment and adaptability to republican institutions. She also maintains the sacredness and inviolability of conscience, and refuses to admit to her communion those who do not sincerely believe and honestly accept her teaching
CARDINAL DOCTRINES. The Catholic Church teaches that there is an all-perfect, eternal, spiritual Being, called God, who is possessed of infinite intelligence and free will, and who has of His free will created all other existences, both spiritual and material, out of nothing, with natures and substances totally distinct from His own, and not by any merc development or emanation from the Divine nature.
In this one God there are three persons--the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit; each with one and the same divine nature.
That the human race was from the beginning elevated beyond its natural deserts to a condition of grace and communion with God, the consummation of wbich was to be a more perfect and everlasting communion with Him in the beatific vision which is called Heaven. That by violating the Divine law the race forfeited these gratuitous gifts, which were supernatural, without losing anything that its nature absolutely requires ; so that man could have been created as he is now born; but that the individnals of the race incur, moreover, a penalty for their individual sins. Thus, those who die unregenerate, are excluded from heaven, and condemned to suffer the consequences and penalties of their personalsins, in that condition of being which is called hell, and which, as well as heaven, is, from the immortal nature of the soul, everlasting; and even the infant who dies unregenerate, no matter what degree of natural beatitude it may enjoy in the next life, bas no right to, and will not attain to, the superior happiness of heaven.
That to restore man to the grace of God and the promise of heaven, and to atone for sin, the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity became man, was born of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and suffered and died on the cross. He (Jesus Christ) is true God and true man, having two natures, the divine and human, in but one Divine Person, Christ's humanity never having had a mere buman personality, as it was from the first instant of its existence made His owu by the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity.
Christ is the new Adam, the Father of the order of regeneration. He came to regenerate men, in a manner adapted to their intelligence and free will, by teaching a system of truth and guiding and disciplining their affections; and hence He requires of us faith in His teachings and obedience to his ordinances. Besides the atonement, which Christ consnmmated on the cross, the other es. sential part of His mission, viz., the application of this atonement, and of His doctrine and ordinances to individual souls, He but began during His mortal life, and continues through a corporate Society which He has established for the purpose, and which He called His Church, and commissioned to teach, and gather into one fold, all natio ps, and with which He and His Holy Spirit are to abide to the end of the world ; so that Christ is the Church, -- His Body," as it is called by St. Paul, is living, and teaching all other ages and nations, with the same authority and explicitness with which He taught the nation and age in which He lived His mortal life. He has made His Church the depositary of His doctrine and ordinances, and has given her a well-defined constitution, power, mission, and means for its fulóll. ment, which she has no power to change, being the creature and not the creator of this divine constitution, which Christ has declared should last till the consummation of the world."
SAINT PETER. HIS PHRENOLOGICAL CHARACTER.
We have lately received the following letter:
“ Editor Phrenological Journal - In our Sunday-school class, the phrenological character of ST. PETER, as shown in his life, was lately brought up as a topic for consideration. Will you please give us your opinion on the subject ?"
We have always fancied that, if accustomed to drawing heads, we could portray St. Peter pretty nearly to the life. He must have had a stout, robust body, and have been broad in the shoulders, deep in the chest, brawny in the arms, broad in the back, with a plump abdomen, rather high check-bones, but a round, broad face notwithstanding, with a great, square manly chin, a firmly set and rather high nose with large nostrils, a square forehead, a head broad between the ears, strong in the occiput or social region ; large in Approbativeness and Firmness; large in Combativeness, and not very large in Self-Esteem. His complexion we judge to have been bordering on the florid, with dark brown or black hair and beard, the latter slightly tinged with red, with a gray eye bordering on the blue. This would give him an impulsive temperament, great ardor, earnestness, and courage, and gencral enthusiasm and magnanimous manliness, which in many instances are clearly defined in his character. When his Master said to him,
“ Simon Peter, lovest thou me ?” his answer was, “ Yea, Lord.” His Master replied, “ Feed my sheep.” He repeated the question, and the answer was repeated. It was asked a third time, and Peter's full heart was touched; his strong Friendship and Benevolence and Approbativeness were awakened as well as his faith when he responded with emotion, “ Lord, thou knowest all things—thou knowest that I love thee !" The Master answered, “Feed my lambs.” Such a colloquy would have been impossible with the Apostle Paul.
When Peter saw his Master walking on the sea, he was the only one who cried out, “ Bid me that I come to thee.” This was eminently characteristic of him. It showed his faith, his enthusiasm, his affection, and his impulsiveness; and when his large Cautiousness became excited by the novel dangers of the scene; when his reason began to teach him that he was walking on an unnatural foundation ; when he began to consider the perilous condition in which he was placed, his faith wavered and he began to sink, and his impulsive, affectionate, confiding faith, as well as his fear, were instantly expressed—“Lord, save, or I perish !”
When the Master suggested that his disciples would leave him, Peter spoke up bravely and yet impulsively, “Though all forsake thee, yet will I not.” When enemies offered bold and manly opposition, Peter could draw the sword and defend the cause at the expense of the ears of the high-priest's servant; he was ready to battle for his Master.
On the Mount of Transfiguration, Peter, James, and John being present, Peter's affectionate heart began to glow; his brave and enthusiastic spirit burst forth and said, “ Lord, it is good for us to be here. If thou wilt, let us make here three tabernacles—one for thee, one for Moses, and one for Elias.”
At the trial of Christ, before his crucifixion, a maid of the high-priest came to Peter and said, “ And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth ;” and he denied it, saying, “I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest;" and a second maid saw him, and began to say to them that stood by, “ This is one of them !" And he denied it again. This was done, not so much from a want of integrity, but through excessive Approbativeness, and that kind of gallantry for woman that can not bear to have her ridicule and laugh at him. Millions of followers of Christ have denied him in various ways from excited Approbativeness, who, like Peter, have gone out and“ wept bitterly" when the excitement of that feeling had subsided, and when Conscientiousness and Veneration and Benevolence had an opportunity of coming into action. There is no feeling which it is so exceedingly difficult to withstand as that of mortified Approbativeness. Shame, of all the emotions, unless it be remorse, cuts the deepest. Had Peter been endowed with larger Self-Esteem and less Approbativeness, he would not have denied his Lord, nor would his Lord have prophesied such a result. Peter has been made the subject of ungenerous
comment for many centuries; but we can well I have not yet spoken. I have a sharper eye understand how, without any serious moral ob- than all of you-I am absolute sight. All primliquity, even a strong, bold, courageous man itive ideas and necessary principles are mine. like Peter, wh assailed on this tender point I am, after all, the ultima authority. I hold of Approbativeness, could break down and for no disputes, and I hear none.
When I speak, the moment even deny his Master. We should all men believe. My opinions are laws. I detry to avoid doing the same thing; but if we pend on nothing but myself. All absolute cerchance to fail in our faith and courage at the tainties must have my indorsement." trying moment, let us remember that the Apos- “ All right, so far!” said Reason, bearing the tle“ went out and wept bitterly.” And if we distinctive marks of being a hard worker. Yet deny our Lord as did Peter, let us at least have argument is mine, syllogism is my formula ; the grace to repent of it as earnestly and as conclusions are my creations, and premises my quickly.
instruments. I pass from the known to the unknown, using the former to find the latter.
The Websters, the Bacons, and the Newtons of A CONVENTION OF THE FACULTIES.*
the race are my pupils. Even common people BY S. T. SPEAR, D.D.
can do nothing without me. Having an end,
I plan the means. Seeing an event, I find the The several faculties which constitute the
When anything is to be proced, my sergrandeur and glory of our spiritual humanity vices are always in demand.” as so many distinct and separate persons, held a convention. Each of these mysterious per
Imagination had been patiently waiting her
turn; and now it came. Before uttering a sons made a formal statement of his exploits
word, she spread her plumes and scented the in the kingdom of mind. I saw them, and
air with fragrance. Her shining countenance, heard them, and took brief notes of what they
her long and flowing robes, her graceful attisaid.
tude, at once fixed all eyes and opened all Perception through the bodily senses-a solid
ears. Thus she proceeded: “I am the creative and matter-of-fact-looking character — thus
faculty, reconstructing the relations of thought, opened the conference : “My office is to make
gathering nectar from every flower, culling all men acquainted with the outward world. I
the beauties that exist in the garden of nature, am a sentinel posted on the watch-tower of
and so combining them as to delight the chilmaterial nature. By me the eye sees, the ear
dren of men. At my touch the passions bum. hears, and the hand touches. I rock the cra
The Cowpers and the Miltons were tanght in dle of the first human thoughts. With me be
my school. The diction of the orator is the gins all knowledge. All the physical sciences
charm I have lent him. A common object in come to me for all their facts and observations.
my hands shines like a gem. I know where In my own sphere I am supreme; and who
men keep their hearts, and how to reach them. ever disputes my authority in that sphere is
Reason, until warmed by my inspiration, is simply a fool, with whom it will be a waste of
cold, passionless, and unimpressive." words to hold any argument."
And who is that grave, sedate, dignified, and “Yes,” said Consciousness - a much more
imposing character, that followed the Imagindelicate and ethereal personage, now becoming
ation with the measured and awful tread of the speaker—" this is indeed your work; but
moral truth ? Hear him: “I am Consciente. let me tell you that I have an eye that you have
That is my name. I am the sense of right and not. If you see matter, I see mind. I am a soul
wrong in human action. I enact and publish seer; and but for me men would know nothing about themselves. What they call mental
laws for the government of men. Of their science is simply the inscription of my pen. By
duties, I judge. I am the great comforter of
the good, and the unpitying tormentor of the me the soul works in an atmosphere of pure
bad. My smile is peace, and my frown is woe. light, and bathes itself in the limpid stream of
Those who dispute my authority do so at their self-knowledge. I am the sun of the interior
peril. Those who keep my laws are safe
. world, and shed my beams on all its parts."
Both the happiness and the virtue of the world “ Very true,” responded Memory, seeming to
depend on my sway. The God who made me, be loaded with an immense budget of some
made a monarch." thing. “ Yet bear in mind that I am the keep
At length a character, seemingly little else er of knowledge. I am the historian and anti
but bone and muscle, marched forward, and, quarian of the soul. I tread the walks of the
mounting the rostrum, gave utterance to the mysterious past, and connect that past with
following words: “I am the Will—the free, the present. All that man acquires he trusts
the sovereign, the choosing power. When I to my care, and I keep it safely for his future
tell the hand to move, it moves. When I bid use. Without me there could be no education,
the reason to think, it thinks. I am the comno mental progress, and no well-taught experi
mander-in-chief of all these forces. Purposes ence.”
and decisions are mine. Ends adopted and Intuition next came forward, having an eye
plans pursued are my choice. I say Yes and blazing with the very whitest light, and thus
I say No. Energy is simply the steadiness of addressed the conference: “Wait a moment!
my hand. But for me these other speakers * Publiehed in The Independent, after the manner of
would be a mere mechanism of rigid and ine"A Debate in Crania," published in Our Annual for 1865. lastic fate. Philosophers have long disputed