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reason of state, is void of all piety and justice, the supporters of a king.
6. He must be able to give counsel himself, but not rely thereupon; for though happy events justify their counsels, yet it is better that the evil event of good advice be rather imputed to a subject than a sovereign.
7. He is the fountain of honour, which should not run with a waste pipe, lest the courtiers sell the water, and then, as papists say of their holy wells, it loses the virtue.
8. He is the life of the law, not only as he is lex loquens himself, but because he animateth the dead letter, making it active towards all his subjects præmio et pæna.
9. A wise king must do less in altering his laws than he may; for new government is ever dangerous. It being true in the body politic, as in the corporal, that omnis subita immutatio est periculosa; and though it be for the better, yet it is not without a fearful apprehension; for he that changeth the fundamental laws of a kingdom, thinketh there is no good title to a crown, but by conquest.
10. A king that setteth to sale seats of justice, oppresseth the people; for he teacheth his judges to sell justice; and pretio parata pretio venditur justitia.
11. Bounty and magnificence are virtues very regal, but a prodigal king is nearer a.tyrant than a parsimonious; for store at home draweth not his contemplations abroad but want supplieth itself of what is next, and many times the next way: a king herein must be wise, and know what he may justly do.
12. That king which is not feared, is not loved; and he that is well seen in his craft, must as well study to be feared as loved; yet not loved for fear, but feared for love.
13. Therefore, as he must always resemble Him whose great name he beareth, and that as in manifesting the sweet influence of his mercy on the severe stroke of his justice sometimes, so in this not to suffer a man of death to live; for besides that the land doth
mourn, the restraint of justice towards sin doth more retard the affection of love, than the extent of mercy doth inflame it: and sure where love is [ill] bestowed, fear is quite lost.
14. His greatest enemies are his flatterers; for though they ever speak on his side, yet their words still make against him.
15. The love which a king oweth to a weal public, should not be restrained to any one particular; yet that his more special favour do reflect upon some worthy ones, is somewhat necessary, because there are few of that capacity.
16. He must have a special care of five things, if he would not have his crown to be but to him infelix felicitas.
First, that simulata sanctitas be not in the Church; for that is duplex iniquitas.
Secondly, that inutilis æquitas sit not in the chancery; for that is inepta misericordia.
Thirdly, that utilis iniquitas keep not the exchequer; for that is crudele latrocinium.
Fourthly, that fidelis temeritas be not his general; for that will bring but serum pœnitentiam.
Fifthly, that infidelis prudentia be not his secretary; for that is anguis sub viridi herba.
To conclude; as he is of the greatest power, so he is subject to the greatest cares, made the servant of his people, or else he were without a calling at all. He then that honoureth him not is next an atheist, wanting the fear of God in his heart.
A FRAGMENT OF AN ESSAY ON FAME.
THE poets make Fame a monster. They describe her in part finely and elegantly; and in part gravely and sententiously. They say: Look, how many feathers she hath, so many eyes she hath underneath ; so many tongues; so many voices; she pricks up so many ears.
This is a flourish: there follow excellent parables: as, that she gathereth strength in going; that she goeth upon the ground, and yet hideth her head in
the clouds that in the day-time she sitteth in a watch tower, and flieth most by night: that she mingleth things done with things not done; and that she is a terror to great cities. But that which passeth all the rest is, they do recount that the Earth, mother of the giants, that made war against Jupiter, and were by him destroyed, thereupon in an anger brought forth Fame; for certain it is that rebels, figured by the giants, and seditious. fames and libels, are but brothers and sisters; masculine and feminine. But now if a man can tame this monster, and bring her to feed at the hand, and govern her, and with her fly other ravening fowl, and kill them, it is somewhat worth. But we are infected with the stile of the poets. To speak now in a sad and a serious manner; there is not in all the politics a place less handled, and more worthy to be handled, than this of fame. -We will therefore speak of these points: what are false fames; and what are true fames; and how they may be best discerned; how fames may be sown and raised; how they may be spread and multiplied; and how they may be checked and laid dead. And other things concerning the nature of fame. Fame is of that force, as there is scarcely any great action wherein it hath not a great part, especially in the war. Mucianus undid Vitellius, by a fame that he scattered, that Vitellius had in purpose to remove the legions of Syria into Germany, and the legions of Germany into Syria; whereupon the legions of Syria were infinitely inflamed. Julius Cæsar took Pompey unprovided, and laid asleep his industry and preparations, by a fame that he cunningly gave out, how Cæsar's own soldiers loved him not; and being wearied with the wars, and laden with the spoils of Gaul, would forsake -him as soon as he came into Italy. Livia settled all things for the succession of her son Tiberius, by continual giving out that her husband Augustus was upon recovery and amendment. And it is an usual thing with the bashaws, to conceal the death of the Great Turk from the janizaries and men of war, to save the sacking of Constantinople and other towns, as their
manner is. Themistocles made Xerxes, King of Persia, post apace out of Grecia, by giving out that the Grecians had a purpose to break his bridge of ships which he had made athwart the Hellespont. There be a thousand such like examples, and the more they are, the less they need to be repeated, because a man meeteth with them every where therefore let all wise governors have as great a watch and care over fames, as they have of the actions and designs themselves.