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Silver and copper disagree, and so do silver and lead. Silver and tin agree.

The second letter of the cross-row, touching the separation of metals and minerals.

SEPARATION is of three sorts; the first is, the separating of the pure metal from the ore or dross, which we call refining. The second is, the drawing one metal or mineral out of another, which we call extracting. The third is, the separating of any metal into its original or materia prima, or element, or call them what you will; which work we will call principiation.

1. For refining, we are to inquire of it according to the several metals; as gold, silver, etc. Incidentally we are to inquire of the first stone, or ore, or spar, or marcasite of metals severally, and what kind of bodies they are, and of the degrees of richness. Also we are to inquire of the means of separating, whether by fire, parting waters, or otherwise. Also for the manner of refining, you are to see how you can multiply the heat, or hasten the opening, and so save the charge in the fining.

The means of this in three manners; that is to say, in the blast of the fire; in the manner of the furnace, to multiply heat by union and reflexion; and by some additament, or medicines which will help the bodies to open them the sooner.

Note, the quickning of the blast, and the multiplying of the heat in the furnace, may be the same for all metals; but the additaments must be several, according to the nature of the metals. Note again, that if you think that multiplying of the additaments in the same proportion that you multiply the ore, the work will follow, you may be deceived: for quantity in the passive will add more resistance, than the same quantity in the active will add force.

2. For extracting, you are to inquire what metals contain others, and likewise what not; as lead, silver; copper, silver, etc.

Note, although the charge of extraction should ex

ceed the worth, yet that is not the matter: for at least it will discover nature and possibility, the other may be thought on afterwards.

We are likewise to inquire, what the differences are of those metals which contain more or less other metals, and how that agrees with the poorness or richness of the metals or ore in themselves. As the lead that contains most silver is accounted to be more brittle, and yet otherwise poorer in itself.

3. For principiation, I cannot affirm whether there be any such thing or not; and I think the chemists make too much ado about it: but howsoever it be, be it solution or extraction, or a kind of conversion by the fire; it is diligently to be inquired what salts, sulphur, vitriol, mercury, or the like simple bodies are to be found in the several metals, and in what quantity. Dr. Meverel's answers to the foregoing questions, touching the separations of metals and minerals.

1. FOR the means of separating. After that the ore is washed, or cleansed from the earth, there is nothing simply necessary, save only a wind furnace well framed, narrow above and at the hearth, in shape oval, sufficiently fed with charcoal and ore, in convenient proportions.

For additions in this first separation, I have observed none; the dross the mineral brings being sufficient. The refiners of iron observe, that that ironstone is hardest to melt which is fullest of metal, and that easiest which hath most dross. But in lead and tin the contrary is noted. Yet in melting of metals, when they have been calcined formerly by fire, or strong waters, there is good use of additaments, as of borax, tartar, armoniac, and salt-petre.

2. In extracting of metals. Note, that lead and tin contain silver. Lead and silver contain gold. Iron contains brass. Silver is best separated from lead by the test. So gold from silver. Yet the best way for that is aqua regia.

3. For principiation. I can truly and boldly affirm, that there are no such principals as sal, sulphur, and

mercury, which can be separated from any perfect metals. For every part so separated, may easily be reduced into perfect metal without substitution of that, or those principles which chemists imagine to be wanting. As suppose you take the salt of lead; this salt, or as some name it, sulphur, may be turned into perfect lead, by melting it with the like quantity of lead which contains principles only for itself.

I acknowledge that there is quicksilver and brimstone found in the imperfect minerals: but those are nature's remote materials, and not the chemist's principles. As if you dissolve antimony by aqua regia, there will be real brimstone swimming upon the water: as appears by the colour of the fire when it is burnt, and by the smell.

The third letter of the cross-row, touching the variation of metals into several shapes, bodies, or natures, the particulars whereof follow.

TINCTURE: turning to rust: calcination: sublimation: precipitation: amalgamatizing, or turning into a soft body: vitrification: opening or dissolving into liquor: sproutings, or branchings, or arborescents: induration and mollification: making tough or brittle : volatility and fixation: transmutation, or version.

For tincture it is to be inquired how metal may be tinged through and through, and with what, and into what colours; as tinging silver yellow, tinging copper white, and tinging red, green, blue; especially with keeping the lustre.

Item, tincture of glasses.

Item, tincture of marble, flint, or other stone.

For turning into rust, two things are chiefly to be inquired; by what corrosives it is done, and into what colours it turns; as lead into white, which they call ceruss; iron into yellow, which they call crocus martis; quicksilver into vermilion; brass into green, which they call verdegrease.

For calcination; how every metal is calcined, and into what kind of body, and what is the exquisitest way of calcination.

For sublimation; to inquire the manner of subliming, and what metals endure subliming, and what body the sublimate makes.

For precipitation likewise; by what strong water every metal will precipitate, and with what additaments, and in what time, and into what body.

So for amalgama; what metals will endure it, what are the means to do it, and what is the manner of the body.

For vitrification likewise; what metals will endure it, what are the means to do it, into what colour it turns; and farther, where the whole metal is turned into glass, and where the metal doth but hang in the glassy parts; also what weight the vitrified body bears, compared with the crude body; also because vitrification is accounted a kind of death of metals, what vitrification will admit of turning back again, and what not.

For dissolution into liquor, we are to inquire what is the proper menstruum to dissolve any metal, and in the negative, what will touch upon the one and not upon the other, and what several menstrua will dissolve any metal, and which most exactly. Item, the process or motion of the dissolution, the manner of rising, boiling, vapouring more violent, or more gentle, causing much heat or less. Item, the quantity or charge that the strong water will bear, and then give over. Item, the colour into which the liquor will turn. Above all, it is to be inquired, whether there be any menstruum to dissolve any metal that is not fretting, or corroding; and openeth the body by sympathy, and not by mordacity or violent penetration.

For sprouting or branching, though it be a thing but transitory, and a kind of toy or pleasure, yet there is a more serious use of it; for that it discovereth the delicate motions of spirits, when they put forth and cannot get forth, like unto that which is in vegetables.

For induration, or mollification; it is to be inquired what will make metals harder and harder, and what

will make them softer and softer. And this inquiry tendeth to two ends: first, for use; as to make iron soft by the fire makes it malleable. Secondly, because induration is a degree towards fixation, and mollification towards volatility; and therefore the inquiry of them will give light towards the other.

For tough and brittle, they are much of the same kind, but yet worthy of an inquiry apart, especially to join hardness with toughness, as making glass malleable, etc. and making blades strong to resist and pierce, and yet not easy to break.

For volatility and fixation. It is a principal branch to be inquired: the utmost degree of fixation is that whereon no fire will work, nor strong water joined with fire, if there be any such fixation possible. The next is, when fire simply will not work without strong waters. The next is by the test. The next is when it will endure fire not blown, or such a strength of fire. The next is when it will not endure, but yet is malleable. The next is when it is not malleable, but yet is not fluent, but stupified. So of volatility, the utmost degree is when it will fly away without returning. The next is when it will fly up, but with ease return. The next is when it will fly upwards over the helm by a kind of exsufflation without vapouring. The next is when it will melt though not rise. The next is when it will soften though not melt. Of all these diligent inquiry is to be made in several metals, especially of the more extreme degrees.

For transmutation or version. If it be real and true, it is the farthest part of art, and would be well distinguished from extraction, from restitution, and from adulteration. I hear much of turning iron into copper; I hear also of the growth of lead in weight, which cannot be without a conversion of some body into lead but whatsoever is of this kind, and well expressed, is diligently to be inquired and set down.

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