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Note, that the dissents of the menstrual or strong waters may hinder the incorporation, as well as the dissents of the metals themselves; therefore where the menstrua are the same, and yet the incorporation followeth not, you may conclude the dissent is in the metals; but where the menstrua are several, not so certain.
Dr. Meverel's answers to the foregoing questions,
concerning the compounding, incorporating, or union of metals and minerals.
GOLD will incorporate with silver in any proportion. Plin. lib. xxxiii. cap. 4.—Omni auro inest argentum vario pondere; alibi dena, alibi nona, alibi octava parte-Ubicunque quinta argenti portio invenitur, electrum vocatur. The body remains fixt, solid, and coloured, according to the proportion of the two metals.
Gold with quicksilver easily mixeth, but the product is imperfectly fixed; and so are all other metals incorporate with mercury.
Gold incorporates with lead in any proportion.
Gold incorporates with copper in any proportion, the common allay.
Gold incorporates with brass in any proportion. And what is said of copper is true of brass, in the union of other metals.
Gold will not incorporate with iron.
What was said of gold and quicksilver, may be said of quicksilver and the rest of metals.
Silver with lead in any proportion.
Silver incorporates with copper. Pliny mentions such a mixture for triumphales statuæ, lib. xxxiii. 9. Miscentur argento, tertia pars æris Cyprii tenuissimi, quod coronarium vocant, et sulphuris vivi quantum argenti. The same is true of brass.
Silver incorporates not with iron. Wherefore I wonder at that which Pliny hath, lib. xxxiii. 9. Miscuit denario triumvir Antonius ferrum. And what is said of this is true in the rest ; for iron incorporateth with none of them.
Silver mixes with tin.
Lead incorporates with copper. Such a mixture was the pot-metal whereof Pliny speaks, lib. xxxiv. 9. Ternis aut quaternis libris plumbi argentarii in centenas æris additis.
Lead incorporates with tin. The mixture of these two in equal proportions, is that which was anciently called plumbum argentarium, Plin. lib. xxxiv. 17.
Copper incorporates with tin. Of such a mixture were the mirrors of the Romans. Plin. Atque ut omnia de speculis peragantur hoc loco, optima apud majores erant Brundusina,stanno et ære mistis. Lib.xxxiii. 9.
Compound met als now in use. 1, Fine tin. The mixture is thus ; pure tin a thousand pounds, temper fifty pounds, glass of tin three pounds.
2. Coarse pewter is made of fine tin and lead, Temper is thus made: the dross of pure tin, four pounds and a half; copper, half a pound.
3. Brass is made of copper and calaminaris.
4. Bell-metal. Copper, a thousand pounds; tin, from three hundred to two hundred pounds; brass, a hundred and fifty pounds.
5. Pot-metal, copper and lead.
6. White alchemy is made of pan-brass one pound, and arsenicum three ounces.
7. Red alchemy is made of copper and auripigment.
There be divers imperfect minerals, which will incorporate with the metals: being indeed metals inwardly, but clothed with earths and stones : as pyritis, calaminaris, misy, chalcitis, sory, vitriolum.
Metals incorporate not with glass, except they be brought into the form of glass.
Metals dissolved. The dissolution of gold and silver disagree, so that in their mixture there is great ebullition, darkness, and in the end a precipitation of a black powder.
The mixture of gold and mercury agree,
Gold agrees with iron. In a word, the dissolution of mercury and iron agree with all the rest.
Silver and copper disagree, and so do silver and lead. Silver and tin agree. . The second letter of the cross-row, touching the se
paration of metals and minerals. SEPARATION is of three sorts; the first is, the separating of the pure metal from the ore or dross, which we call refining. The second is, the drawing one metal or mineral out of another, which we call extracting. The third is, the separating of any metal into its original or materia prima, or element, or call them what you will; which work we will call principiation.
1. For refining, we are to inquire of it according to the several metals; as gold, silver, etc. Incidentally we are to inquire of the first stone, or ore, or spar, or marcasite of metals severally, and what kind of bodies they are, and of the degrees of richness. Also we are to inquire of the means of separating, whether by fire, parting waters, or otherwise. Also for the manner of refining, you are to see how you can multiply the heat, or hasten the opening, and so save the charge in the fining.
The means of this in three manners; that is to say, in the blast of the fire; in the manner of the furnace, to multiply heat by union and reflexion; and by some additament, or medicines which will help the bodies to open
them the sooner. Note, the quickning of the blast, and the multiplying of the heat in the furnace, may be the same for all metals; but the additaments must be several, according to the nature of the metals. Note again, that if you think that multiplying of the additaments in the same proportion that you multiply the ore, the work will follow, you may be deceived: for quantity in the passive will add more resistance, than the same quantity in the active will add force.
2. For extracting, you are to inquire what metals contain others, and likewise what not; as lead, silver; copper, silver, etc.
Note, although the charge of extraction should exceed the worth, yet that is not the matter : for at least it will discover nature and possibility, the other may be thought on afterwards.
We are likewise to inquire, what the differences are of those metals which contain more or less other metals, and how that agrees with the poorness or richness of the metals or ore in themselves. As the lead that contains most silver is accounted to be more brittle, and yet otherwise poorer in itself.
3. For principiation, I cannot affirm whether there be any such thing or not; and I think the chemists make too much ado about it: but howsoever it be, be it solution or extraction, or a kind of conversion by the fire; it is diligently to be inquired what salts, sulphur, vitriol, mercury, or the like simple bodies are to be found in the several metals, and in what quantity. Dr. Meverel's answers to the foregoing questions,
touching the separations of metals and minerals.
1. For the means of separating. After that the ore is washed, or cleansed from the earth, there is nothing simply necessary, save only a wind furnace well framed, narrow above and at the hearth, in shape oval, sufficiently fed with charcoal and ore, in convenient proportions.
For additions in this first separation, I have observed none; the dross the mineral brings being sufficient. The refiners of iron observe, that that ironstone is hardest to melt which is fullest of metal, and that easiest which hath most dross. But in lead and tin the contrary is noted. Yet in melting of metals, when they have been calcined formerly by fire, or strong waters, there is good use of additaments, as of borax, tartar, armoniac, and salt-petre.
2. In extracting of metals. Note, that lead and tin contain silver. Lead and silver contain gold. Iron contains brass. Silver is best separated from lead by the test. So gold from silver. Yet the best way for that is aqua regia.
3. For principiation. I can truly and boldly affirm, that there are no such principals as sal, sulphur, and mercury, which can be separated from any perfect metals. For every part so separated, may easily be reduced into perfect metal without substitution of that, or those principles which chemists imagine to be wanting. As
suppose you take the salt of lead ; this salt, or as some name it, sulphur, may be turned into perfect lead, by melting it with the like quantity of lead which contains principles only for itself.
I acknowledge that there is quicksilver and brimstone found in the imperfect minerals : but those are. nature's remote materials, and not the chemist's principles. As if you dissolve antimony by aqua regia, there will be real brimstone swimming upon the water: as appears by the colour of the fire when it is burnt, and by the smell. The third letter of the cross-row, touching the va
riation of metals into several shapes, bodies, or natures, the particulars whereof follow.
TINCTURE : turning to rust: calcination : sublimation : precipitation : amalgamatizing, or turning into a soft body: vitrification : opening or dissolving into liquor: sproutings, or branchings, or arborescents : induration and mollification: making tough or brittle : volatility and fixation : transmutation, or version.
For tincture : it is to be inquired how metal may be tinged through and through, and with what, and into what colours; as tinging silver yellow, tinging copper white, and tinging red, green, blue; especially with keeping the lustre.
Item, tincture of glasses.
For turning into rust, two things are chiefly to be inquired; by what corrosives it is done, and into what colours it turns; as lead into white, which they call ceruss; iron into yellow, which they call crocus martis ; quicksilver into vermilion; brass into green, which they call verdegrease.
For calcination ; how every metal is calcined, and into what kind of body, and what is the exquisitest way of calcination.