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those parts which are voidest of blood, as the nose, the ears, the toes, the fingers, to mortify and rot; especially if you come suddenly to fire, after you have been in the air abroad, they are sure to moulder and dissolve. They use for remedy, as is said, washing in snow water.
. If a man come out of a bitter cold suddenly to the fire, he is ready to swoon, or be overcome.
So contrariwise at Nova Zembla, when they opened their door at times to go forth, he that opened the door was in danger to be overcome.
The quantity of fish in the cold countries, Norway, etc. very abundant..
The quantity of fowl and eggs laid in the cliffs in great abundance...
In Nova Zembla they found no beasts but bears and foxes, whereof the bears gave over to be seen about September, and the foxes began.
Meat will keep from putrifying longer in frosty weather, than at other times,
In Iceland they keep fish, by exposing it to the cold, from putrifying without salt.
The nature of man endureth the colds in the countries of Scricfinnia, Biarmia, Lappia, Iceland, Groenland; and that not by perpetual keeping in in' stoves in the winter time, as they do in Russia:, but contrariwise, their chief fairs and intercourse is written to be in the winter, because the ice evens and levelleth the passages of waters, plashes, etc.
A thaw after a frost doth greatly rot and mellow the ground.
Extreme cold hurteth the eyes, and causeth blindness in many beasts, as is reported.
The cold maketh any solid substance, as wood, stone, metal, put to the flesh, to cleave to it, and to pull the flesh after it, and so put to any cloth that is moist..
.Cold maketh the pilage of beasts more thick and long, as foxes of Muscovy, sables, etc.
Cold maketh the pilage of most beasts incline to grayness or whiteness, as foxes, bears, and so the
plumage of fowls; and maketh also the crests of cocks and their feet white, as is reported.
Extreme cold will make nails leap out of the walls, and out of locks, and the like.
Extreme cold maketh leather to be stiff like horn.. In frosty weather the stars appear clearest and most sparkling.
In the change from frost to open weather, or from open weather to frosts, commonly great mists.
In extreme colds any thing never so little which arresteth the air maketh it to congeal; as we see in cobwebs in windows, which is one of the least and weakest threads that is, and yet drops gather about it like chains of pearl.
So in frosts, the inside of glass windows gathereth a dew; Qu. if not more without.
Qu. Whether the sweating of marble and stones be in frost, or towards rain.
Oil in time of frost gathereth to a substance, as of tallow; and it is said to sparkle some time, so as it giveth a light in the dark.
The countries which lie covered with snow, have a hastier maturation of all grain than in other countries, all being within three months, or thereabouts.
Qu. It is said, that compositions of honey, as mead, do ripen, and are most pleasant in the great colds.
The frosts with us are casual, and not tied to any months, so as they are not merely caused by the recess of the sun, but mixed with some inferior causes. In the inland of the northern countries, as in Russia, the weather for the three or four months of November, December, January, February, is constant, viz. clear and perpetual frost, without snows or rains.
There is nothing in our region, which, by approach of a matter hot, will not take heat by transition or excitation.
There is nothing hot here with us but is in a kind of consumption, if it carry heat in itself; for all fired things are ready to consume; chafed things are ready
to fire; and the heat of mens bodies needeth aliment to restore.
The transition of heat is without any imparting of substance, and yet remaineth after the body heated is withdrawn; for it is not like smells, for they leave some airs or parts; not like light, for that abideth not when the first body is removed; not unlike to the motion of the loadstone, which is lent without adhesion of substance, for if the iron be filed where it was rubbed, yet it will draw or turn.
Inquisitions touching the compounding of metals.
To make proof of the incorporation of iron with flint, or other stone. For if it can be incorporated without over-great charge, or other incommodity, the cheapness of the flint or stone doth make the compound stuff profitable for divers uses. The doubts may be
three in number.
First, Whether they will incorporate at all, otherwise than to a body that will not hold well together, but become brittle and uneven?
Secondly, Although it should incorporate well, yet whether the stuff will not be so stubborn as it will not work well with a hammer, whereby the charge in working will overthrow the cheapness of the material?
Thirdly, Whether they will incorporate, except the iron and stone be first calcined into powder? And if not, whether the charge of the calcination will not eat out the cheapness of the material?
The uses are most probable to be; first for the implements of the kitchen; as spits, ranges, cobirons, pots, etc. then for the wars, as ordnance, portcullises, grates, chains, etc.
Note; the finer works of iron are not so probable to be served with such a stuff; as locks, clocks, small chains, etc. because the stuff is not like to be tough enough.
For the better use, in comparison of iron, it is like the stuff will be far lighter: for the weight of iron to flint is double and a third part; and, secondly, it is like to rust not so easily, but to be more clean.
The ways of trial are two: first, by the iron and stone of themselves, wherein it must be inquired, what are the stones that do easiliest melt. Secondly,
with an additament, wherein brimstone is approved to help to the melting of iron or steel. But then it must be considered, whether the charge of the additament will not destroy the profit.
It must be known also, what proportion of the stone the iron will receive to incorporate well with it, and that with once melting; for if either the proportion be too small, or that it cannot be received but piece-meal by several meltings, the work cannot be of value.
To make proof of the incorporating of iron and brass. For the cheapness of the iron in comparison of the brass, if the uses may be served, doth promise profit. The doubt will be touching their incorporating; for that it is approved, that iron will not incorporate, neither with brass nor other metals, of itself, by simple fire so as the inquiry must be upon the calcination, and the additament, and the charge of them.
The uses will be for such things as are now made of brass, and might be as well served by the compound stuff; wherein the doubts will be chiefly of the toughness, and of the beauty.
First, therefore, if brass ordnance could be made of the compound stuff, in respect of the cheapness of the iron, it would be of great use.
The vantage which brass ordnance hath over iron, is chiefly, as I suppose, because it will hold the blow, though it be driven far thinner than the iron can be; whereby it saveth both in the quantity of the material, and in the charge and commodity of mounting and carriage, in regard, by reason of the thinness, it beareth much less weight: there may be also somewhat in being not so easily over-heated.
Secondly, for the beauty. Those things wherein the beauty or lustre are esteemed, are andirons, and all manner of images, and statues, and columns, and tombs, and the like. So as the doubt will be double for the beauty; the one, whether the colour will please so well, because it will not be so like gold as brass? The other, whether it will polish so well? Wherein for the latter it is probable it will; for steel glosses are more resplendent than the like plates of brass would