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pound than does bread. The tree is grown in southwest Asia, southern Europe, under the date palms in Egypt and French Africa, in California, Texas, and Louisiana. Smyrna, which ships millions of pounds every year, is the leading market for figs in the world.

Grapes and their products.—The vineyards on the hillsides are a source of wealth. Many are owned by people who live in the towns and take their families to them for a vacation during the grape harvest, which begins in August and lasts several weeks. Much of the fruit is sold fresh, but more of it is made into raisins and wine. One species which is not edible is manufactured into grape sugar, and often several vineyard owners build a crude refinery. Others boil the syrup as we do maple sap. When the syrup is the consistency of thick molasses they beat it into a fudgelike sweet. Women of several families sometimes meet in the courtyard of one of the homes and make the entire yearly supply of sweets for all of them. They add starch to the boiled mixture and press it into sheets. They also mix it with nuts or raisins and make all sorts of candies to be served to guests. Much of the syrup is saved for cooking purposes and is used in place of molasses.

LIFE OF PLAIN, MOUNTAIN, AND PLATEAU In Anatolia, as in other regions of little summer rainfall, the vegetation is not dense. Lovely flowers and shrubs are seen, however, on the hillsides. Azaleas, rhododendrons, laurels, a variety of holly, and the bay from which comes the bay leaf that your mother uses in seasoning are found here. Birds are abundant, especially water fowls, storks, and buzzards. Many wild animals, including the brown bear, wolves, mountain lions, wild cats, panthers, and deer live in the mountains. The wild boar roams in the plain of the Meander River. Asia Minor is considered the sportsman's paradise.

Most of the vast forests of Anatolia which were within easy reach of transportation have been cut for charcoal and lumber. The shiftless Turk has not replanted the hillsides, so the country has been greatly damaged. Large areas of pine, fir, elm, beech, chestnut, walnut, and oak still remain and await the coming of railroads for their development. Tons of acorn cups from the vanolia oak are shipped to tanners in Europe.

Animal industries.-Tanning would be a great industry here, for herding goats and sheep is the chief business on the arid plateaus. Three million mohair goats produce hundreds of tons of the best wool in the world. Four million dollars' worth of wool is sent annually to the Mediterranean ports to be shipped to Constantinople, England, France, and the United States. Some of the wool is woven into mohair cloth and beautiful carpets in the homes, where rude looms are used and several women work on one rug.

Weaving by this method is slow. A hearth rug two yards long and three or four feet wide requires several months of labor. These rugs are clipped smooth with scissors when completed and are very beautiful. Morocco leather is manufactured in the towns, as are shoes, saddles, and harnesses, but most of the hides are exported untanned. Cheese is made in many localities, and evaporated milk is prepared at Smyrna and Konia.

Mineral resources.-Anatolia is rich in mineral deposits, many of which are unworked, as the Turkish government refused to grant mining concessions to foreigners. An exception was made of the Germans, however, for the Krupp interests purchased the chrome mines, which produce seven per cent of the world's output.

Coal and iron are known to exist near each other. Silver, lead, zinc, copper, petroleum, potash, and alum are found in the peninsula. The output of mercury furnishes three per cent of the world's supply. Beautiful marble that helped furnish the Greeks with materials for temples and statues is easily quarried in many mountainsides. Western Asia Minor and the Isle of Nacos have

almost a monopoly on the world's supply of emery rock. Practically all the meerschaum comes from this region and the Turks manufacture many pipes.

Manufacturing.--Most of the manufacturing in the country is done by hand. There are a few factories in the towns, as the silk mills at Brusa, where child labor is employed, and various manufacturing plants at Smyrna. 1. In what ways is the cutting of forests detrimental to the

climate and soil of a country? 2. Why has Asia Minor such a variety of products? 3. Make a list of these products and tell why they are not ex

ported in larger quantities. 4. Name the undeveloped resources of Asia Minor. 5. For what is emery rock used? What countries would naturally

buy most of the output? 6. Why is Turkey such a backward country?

LESSON XXX

ASIA MINOR, THE LAND OF YESTERDAY AND

TO-MORROW

TURKEY, with its feet on two continents, may well be called the "Historic Bridge-land of the Old World." Anatolia, the only portion left to the Turks of their large empire in Asia, is a land of great resources. It blossomed into civilization under the developing influences of Greek and Roman culture. Many of its people accepted the broadening religion of Jesus Christ preached by Paul, the "apostle to the Gentiles," and other Christian missionaries. It lost most of its beauty and prosperity under the blighting hand of the Turk. Now it is awaiting the power of modern thought, industry, and invention to help it on the way to success and achievement.

TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION ROUTES AND CENTERS

The remains of many fine old Roman roads still exist in Asia Minor, but the Turks have built practically no new ones. Most of the transportation in the interior is carried on by horses and cattle. The country has a good telegraph system, but few railroads. Most of the foreign trade of Asiatic Turkey is with Great Britain. Italy and France are trying to share this trade and are selling merchandise in the large cities. Business firms in the United States are introducing sewing machines, typewriters, office supplies, boots and shoes, furniture, and other manufactured goods. Most of the merchants of the Near East are Armenians, Germans, Syrians, and Jews.

“The crown of Ionia.”—Smyrna, the largest city in Asia Minor, has a population of over 200,000, consisting of Turks, Armenians, Greeks, Jews, and Franks. The harbor is full of

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craft, among them large steamships that carry goods to the Mediterranean ports and Great Britain.

The foreign part of the city is on a flat near the water's edge. The Turkish part of the town rises gradually on the slopes of the hill at its back. Its bright-colored wooden houses, interspersed by gardens, tall, dark cypress trees, and the white minarets of the mosques, make an attractive picture from the harbor. At that distance the traveler does not wonder that for generations it has been called “the lovely” by its inhabitants.

The business interests of Smyrna are largely in the hands of the Armenians, who own the principal buildings. An American firm has erected an ice plant, an improvement which will extend to other towns to take the place of the native pits in which snow is stored in winter for sum

The city is one of the chief rug and carpet markets of the East. The products of home and village looms are brought in by railroad and caravan, some from great distances. One sees donkeys with large baskets on their sides loaded with dried licorice root which is pressed into bales and shipped to Europe and America.

Smyrna is the most important port in western Asia. It is an ancient city, having been an important center at the time of Alexander the Great. It contains one of the seven churches to which was sent the message given in the opening chapters of the Apocalypse, or book of Revelation (Rev. 2. 8), by John the Beloved Disciple.

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CAMELS LADEN WITH GRAIN AND FIGS ON THE WHARF AT SMYRNA

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