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times works in the fields. No one takes any care of her, so she is often ragged, unkempt, and unhealthy looking. The Kurd women have more freedom, as do the Armenian.

Home life.—The women and girls live separate from the men. They eat what food is left after their husbands and

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brothers have finished, and never visit with them. They weave beautiful rugs in their own apartment, sitting at rude looms. As many Turks will not allow men physicians to visit their wives, women "half-doctors" have become very common.

Conditions are improving, especially in European Turkey and the larger cities of Anatolia. High-class women, like the

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patriot Halideh Hanoun, whom the Sultan Abdul Hamid tried to murder, have led the fight in Turkey for emancipation of women. Many are working through newspapers and in every way they can for three things for the advancement of their sex: education, the right to earn a living, and just laws concerning marriage and divorce.

Many Turkish women have discarded their veils. Those who travel in parts of Europe outside of Turkey usually change their clothing at Buda-Pesth and don skirts and hats, packing away their pantaloons and veils. 1. Compare the life of a Turkish wife with that of your own

mother. 2. In what other countries through which we have traveled is

woman degraded? What is the prevailing religion in these countries? What conclusions can you draw from your own

answer? 3. Why are conditions for women improving more rapidly in

European Turkey than in the countries of southwest Asia?



Asia MINOR was settled by a people who built good houses of clay over two thousand years before Christ. Authors speak of it as a land whose rivers rolled down "golden sands” in the days when Cræsus, whose name has become a synonym for great wealth, ruled over its western portion about B. C. 500. Many great cities have risen to power and fallen within its boundaries since theil. It is still a country whose wealth of soil, forest, and mine is undeveloped.


Anatolia, or Asia Minor, is a region with narrow coastal plains separated by mountains from the rolling plateau of the interior. Its rivers have for ages run across the plateau toward the west, carving rocky barren canyons in the highlands. Their silt has filled in the boggy marshes and drowned valleys and made long, narrow, fertile plains running back into the mountains. On the north and south coast the rivers have formed deltas, making most of the harbors in these two sections poor. The sinking

. of the land has left good harbors on the western coast. The plains are regions of rich soil and plenty of rain, except during the dry summers.

The mountains force the winds from the Black and Mediterranean Seas to give up their moisture, so there is practically none left for the greater part of the peninsula.

A variety of crops.—On the coastal plain and in the valleys wheat, olives, grapes, figs, cotton, peaches, apricots, Indian corn, rhubarb, sugar beets, vegetables, mulberry trees for silkworms, and poppies for opium are raised. Sugar cane, oranges, and lemons are grown along the southern coast. Much of the

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plateau is suited to the growth of crops, especially cereals and vegetables, but owing to the lack of irrigation and transportation this region has not been developed. Little food is grown for export.

Anatolia is noted for its figs, which are grown in various parts of the country. The orchards surrounding the city of Smyrna on its land side are the greatest in the world. The beautiful trees are produced from seeds, cuttings, and buds. They are planted sixteen or more feet apart and yield fruit when three years old. After that they bear two or three crops a year for a century or more. The fruit, which is ready to pick early in August, is gathered when fully ripe, laid on boards, pressed into shape one by one and packed in boxes. Fresh figs spoil quickly. Much of the fruit is dried under the trees and sent to the Smyrna packing houses, where it is sorted. Some orchards have pits or kilns in which the fruit is heated and thus dried more quickly. Over half of the dried product is kept at home, as each family uses a large supply during the year.

Many varieties of figs.--There are over 100 varieties of this ancient fruit which has been eaten by man since the dawn of history and which is spoken of many times both in the Old and New Testaments. When good King Hezekiah was "sick unto death” he was cured “by a lump of figs” (Isa. 38). The fig tree represented peace and prosperity, for the Bible says, “Judah and Israel dwelt safely, every man under his vine and under his fig tree, from Dan even to Beer-sheba, all the days of Solomon" (1 Kings 4. 25). Our Lord based some of his parables on the fig tree (Matt. 24. 32; Luke 21. 29-31).

Dried figs have been used in Europe and America for many years. The people of the United States purchase almost $1,000,000 worth of Asiatic figs each year. The fruit, which resembles a small tomato, is white, black, purple, yellow, or green. The purple figs are the most luscious, but the yellow ones are the most beautiful. Figs contain more nourishment pound for

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