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The use of these buildings is free to the traveler. The "inn" is often two stories high and is very strongly built. It surrounds an open court, which sometimes has a fountain in the center, or a cistern in one corner. A platform rises from two or three sides of the court and is divided into many sections. Behind each section is a small, dark room for the traveler. His animals are kept in the stable side of the building. On account of the heat many caravans move at night and rest part of each day.
Under the open sky.-In regions where there are no “rest houses” the camels of a caravan are grouped inside of an inclosure made of their loads, where they are watched carefully so they may not escape into the desert. The men sleep in their long cloaks. If there is danger they huddle near the animals with their guns at their sides, while watchmen patrol the camp. 1. Would you like to take a trip by caravan in Asia?
would, tell the route you would choose and why. What time of the year would you prefer to go? Give the reason
for your answer. 2. Describe a night's rest in a caravansary. Why would it doubt
less be a noisy place? Would it be very clean? ? 3. Tell what merchandise the camels in an Arabian caravan would
probably be carrying. In a caravan going through Persia.
ARABIA'S CHIEF SOURCE OF WEALTH AND ITS FUTURE The carrying tra le of Arabia has been and still is its chief source of wealth. The products of India are sent through Muscat (Lesson XXI) and Aden to Africa. Cotton cloth is received, and ivory, gums, and dyewoods sent back to Bombay. Many American goods are shipped to Arabia from ports in India. Native importers also handle our goods at Aden, Hodeida, and Muscat.
Arabia's trade with the United States.—Motor cars, bicycles, sewing machines, safety razors, clocks, typewriters, cheap watches, and phonographs bearing the trademarks of American firms are common in the bazaars from Koweit to the shores of the Red Sea. Much starch made from our corn goes into the popular sweet of the Orient, “Turkish delight.”
In the years preceding the World War the United States was Arabia's best customer, buying thousands of boxes of dates, Mocha coffee from Yemen, and hundreds of thousands of brinecured goat and sheep skins.
Under a British protectorate it is hoped that the Arabian tribes will become more united, and that the several separate kingdoms will work in harmony. Railways, irrigation projects, and other forerunners of civilization will bring back much of the trade which in ancient days was carried on by caravan through the Yemen northward. The demand for oil, cloth, tools, and other manufactured goods will greatly increase commerce with Mesopotamia, India, Europe, and the United States. 1. Why is the carrying trade of Arabia its chief source of wealth? 2. Make a list of its chief imports and tell from what countries
they come. Will this trade increase? Give the reasons for
your answer. 3. Boys, find out all you can about the work of Colonel Thomas
Lawrence among the Arabs. (Reference: John Finley, A Pilgrim in Palestine, Asia, Vol, xix, No. 12; Vol. xx, Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6.)
EGYPT, THE GIFT OF THE NILE RIVER
ANCIENT Egypt, or Kem, occupied the rich flood plain and delta of the Nile River. This region even in olden times was a network of canals by which the flood waters of the Nile were controlled and used for irrigation.
A LAND OF BEGINNINGS
Egypt is a land of beginnings Here agriculture early attained a high degree of perfection. Copper was smelted more than B. C. 3000. The use of metal enabled the Egyptians to discard the rude stone implements then common and in their stead employ those of metal.
Near Thebes, which was the center of the first great civilization in Egypt, are ruins which tell of the use of the reaping hook in harvesting wheat B. C. 2500.
Important inventions.—The Egyptians devised the calendar, dividing the year into twelve months. They found their writing by pictures inadequate, so invented phonetic signs to supplement these. Thirty centuries before the Christian era they possessed an alphabet of twenty-four letters. They wrote upon thin strips of the river reed, papyrus, and later pasted these narrow pieces into larger sheets, thus giving to the word its first paper. They knew something of astronomy, and made a beginning in the art of medicine. They gave the world the beginnings of mathematics, chemistry, architecture, sculpture, and painting
Builders.—The early homes and tombs of these Egyptians, being made of sun-baked clay, with possibly some parts of wood, have all disappeared. About thirty centuries before Christ, however, they were building tombs of stone, among them great pyramids beautifully covered with limestone. There are in the Nile Valley remains of fifty or sixty of these mammoth structures, which were the tombs of kings.
The largest of the pyramids is Cheops, one of many near Gizeh. It was once 480 feet high and contained two and one third million blocks of limestone. Its base covers thirteen acres, and the platform at the top is large enough to serve as the foundation for a house. Herodotus tells us that it took one hundred
thousand men working in relays for twenty years to complete this structure. Ruins of the town which held the barracks for them may still be seen.
Egyptian religion.The religion of the Egyptians taught them that the departed soul returns frequently to the body, hence they embalmed their dead. This practice led to the study of anatomy and the properties of herbs and preservatives. The dead body was cleansed by the use of salt and wine, preserved with myrrh, cassia, or gums, and
wrapped in thousands of yards of narrow linen strips. Many of these "mummies” are found in a state of perfect preservation after many centuries. As they believed the spirit needed food and other comforts, the tombs were filled with the belongings of the dead and dishes of food and drink were placed in them.
Rulers and captives. The ruler was called Pharaoh. Even in Abraham's day, when many people lived in tents, the pharaoh had his palace and princes under him (Gen. 12. 15). The rulers
Courtesy of Mrs. W. L. Bradley.
RUINS OF ANCIENT EGYPT
needed these princes and many other officials, for there was no money in those days, and the taxes from a prosperous people had to be collected in produce. The treasury of the king was not one massive building, but many storehouses and granaries. The officers had to collect and care for all sorts of produce, even live animals, and buy and sell as great merchants do to-day. Joseph was one of these officers, for the Bible tells us (Gen. 41. 46) that he "stood before Pharaoh, king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went throughout all the land of Egypt,” and laid up food in the cities.
We learned in Lesson XXI of Joseph's high position in Egypt, the coming of his people from Canaan and their subsequent bondage. This bondage undoubtedly occurred during the reign of Pharaoh Rameses II, for the Bible story says (Exod. 1. II) the children of Israel "built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses." The site of the former was discovered in 1883.
Moses, who was the leader of the Hebrews in their flight from Egypt through Sinai, "was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians” (Acts 7. 22). Much of this knowledge he used in writing the laws and rules of living, which he gave to the chosen people during his forty years of leadership.
A country of many rulers.--As the population of the world increased, Egypt became the highway for the westward movement of peoples. Other nations advanced and waged destructive wars with it, until it was finally conquered by the Greeks under Alexander the Great.
The Greeks developed the resources of the country and made Alexandria one of the chief centers for commerce and learning in the world. Under the Rornans, who conquered the country during the reign of Augustus Cæsar, Alexandria rose to even greater importance.
In the first century A. D. the Christian religion became established in the Nile Valley. Monuments show that Christianity had a foothold in the hearts of the people there as early as the