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St. Louis.-Salaries of male Principals, $1,400 to $1,500; salaries of female Principals, $800 to $900 ; salaries of female Assistants, $450 to $800. Number of pup Is to each school, 200 to 800. Number of pupils per teacher, 42.
Cincinnati.-Salaries of male Principals. $1,500 ; salaries of two male Assistants to each school, $1,000; salary of female Assistant, $600 ; salaries of other female Assistants, $240 to $420. Number of pupils to each school, 600 to 1,300. Number of pupils per Teacher, 50.
Chicago.-Salaries of Principals, $1,400 ; salaries of female Head Assistants, $500; salaries of female Assistants, $400 to $500. Number of pupils to each school, 700 to 1,900. Number of pupils per Teacher, 63.”
The Committee also present a table showing the cost of tuition in the same cities. Though this item is not made out upon precisely the same basis by different Boards of Education, the table will be found sufficiently correct to give a general idea of comparative expense :
“ New York.-Free Academy, per pupil, $88 13; Grammar, Intermediate and Primary, $16 60 ; all pupils, $17 29.
Boston.- English High Schoo!, per pupil, $74 30; Latin High School, $60 93; Girls' High and Normal, $39 88; Grammar Schools, $17 29 ; Primary Schools, $12 04 ; all pupils, $15 71.
Philadelphia.-Boys' High School, per pupil, $52 42 ; Girls' High and Normal School, $52 56 ; Grammar and Primary, $8 79; all pupils, $9 38.
St. Louis.- Normal School, per pupil, $71 88; High School, $54 45; District Schools, $10 22 to $15 52.
Cincinnati.—High School, per pupil, $48 86; Intermediate Schools, $14 31 ; District Schools, $10 07.
Chicago.—High School, per pupil, $40 66 ; District Schools, $9 15; all pupils, $9 85.
"In view of all these facts, your Committee, having patiently and carefully considered the matter in all its aspects, are firmly convinced that a continuance of the present system of low salaries is highly prejudicial to the efficiency of our schools, unjust to the faithful men and women engaged by the Board, and disgraceful to the fair name of our city; that parsimonivusness in the education of our children is the poorest kind of economy, and that the best mode of making our schools a credit to the city and an honor to all concerned is to attract and encourage the highest talent by offering teachers a fair remuneration for their services.
“ Your Committee therefore recommend that hereafter the rates of salaries shall be as follows:
• Principals of District Schools. First year of service, $1,500; second year, $1,600 ; third year and thereafter, $1,700.
“ Female Assistants.–First fourteen weeks, at the rate of $400 per annum ; first year thereafter, $450 ; second year, $500; third year, and thereafter, $600 per year.
“ High School.-Principal, $2,000 per annum ; Principal Normal Department, $1,900 per annum; other male Assistants to be graded and paid the same as Principals of District Schools ; female assistants to be graded and paid the same as Head Assistants of District Schools.”
Concerning the importance of the position at the head of a large school and the character and spirit of the Principal, the Committee use the following language :
" Objection has been urged that we have some Principals at present whose services are not worth $1,700 per annum. This your Committee neither affirm nor deny; but if we have any such in charge of our schools, it is the duty of the Board to fill their places with competent men as speedily as possible ; for the probability is, if they are not worth the salaries recommended, they are not worth anything. Furthermore, your Committee are of the opinion that it is necessary that this Board have at the head of their District Schools men of character and influence as educators — who are willing to make teaching a profession, and to devote their time and energies to it - not to make it a mere stepping stone to the pulpit, the bar, the press, or some other occupation. But unless higher salaries are paid, this end cannot be attained. The Principal of a district school has no perquisites – he is even prohibited from receiving presents from pupils or their parents. He ought to occupy a respectable position in society, maintain his family comfortably, and keep himself fully posted in all that transpires in literature, science, and the arts. Of course, this Board need not be informed that it is out of the question to expect this, in a city such as Chicago, on a salary of $1,400 per annum.”
The almost unanimous adoption of such a report by the Board of Education of Chicago - a body hitherto considered unwisely conservative — will have an important and most salutary influence, not only upon the educational interests of the city, but also upon the progress of education throughout the whole Northwest. It is a fact that all human organizations are susceptible to influence by other similar bodies. Witness the influence which a single person may exert in shaping the customs and institutions of society. What is true in case of individuals is also true when applied to organized bodies. On account of her position and power, Chicago does much toward developing and moulding the political, commercial and business character of the vast area of country of which she is the centre. And so she does educationally. Whatever policy she adopts in the management of her schools, Boards of Education in other cities in the West will imitate. If she is liberally inclined, the influence of her example will encourage the friends of education elsewhere in their attempts to improve the condition of society; if she is penurious in her policy, the same element - generally the predominant one - in the school-management of other cities will be quick to cite her example, and its influence will sadly check all efforts at a muchneeded progress.
The Board of Education of Chicago have probably considered their policy only as affecting their own schools ; but those outside of the city have some times felt sorely embarrassed by the influence of their example. Only a short time since the Superintendent of Schools in one of our interior cities complained to us of the mischief Chicago was making with all attempts at advancement in his place. But now it is a cause of sincere congratulation by all friends of education in the West that her policy has changed.— Illinois Teacher.
AMERICAN WONDERS.—The greatest cataract in the world is the Falls of Niagara, where the water from the great Upper Lakes forms a river of three quarters of a mile in width, and then being suddenly contracted, plunges over the rocks in two columns to the depth of 170 feet each.
The greatest cave in the world is the Mammoth Cave in Kentucky, where any one can make a voyage on the waters of a subterranean river, and catch fish without eyes.
The greatest river in the world is the Mississippi, 4100 miles in length.
The largest valley in the world is the Valley of the Mississippi. It contains 500,000 square miles, and is one of the most fertile and profitable regions of the globe,
The largest lake in the world is Lake Superior, which is truly an inland sea, being 430 miles long, and 1000 feet deep.
The greatest natural bridge in the world is the natural bridge over Cedar Creek in Virginia. It extends across a chasm 80 feet in width and 250 feet in depth, at the bottom of which the creek flows.
The greatest mass of solid iron in the world is the Iron Mountain of Missouri. It is 350 feet high and two miles in circuit.
The largest number of whale-ships in the world is sent out by Nantucket and New Bedford.
The greatest grain port in the world is Chicago.
The largest single volume ever published is Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, an American work — the best of the langage - containing as much matter as six Family Bibles.
The largest aqueduct in the world is the Croton Aqueduct in New York. Its length is forty miles and a half, and it cost twelve and a half millions of dollars.
The largest deposits of anthracite coal in the world are in Pennsylvania — the mines of which supply the market with millions of tons annually, and appear to be inexhaustible.
All these, it may be observed are American “institutions.” In contemplation of them, who will not acknowledge that ours is a “ great country.”
MINUTES OF THE AMERICAN NORMAL-SCHOOL ASSOCIATION.
HARRISBURG, Pa., Aug. 15, 1865. Association assembled at 11 o'clock. On motion of W. D. Henkle, W. F. Phelps, of Minnesota, was elected President to serve till the arrival of Richard Edwards, the regular President, who was known to be in the city.
Mr. Phelps expressed the desire that hereafter the Associoation would be able to meet regularly. Messrs. Henkle and Wickersham explained that informal meetings had been held in Connecticut, New Hampshire and Illinois since the meeting in Buffalo in 1860, at which Mr. Wickersham had been elected Secretary.
On motion of J. P. Wickersham, a committee was appointed to revise the constitution preparatory to a reorganization. The Chair appointed J. P. Wickersham, D. B. Hagar, and E. A. Sheldon.
Mr. Sheldon then alluded to the interest that he felt in this Association. It was his first attendance. They were about to reorganize the Training School in Oswego, and he desired to learn all he could here before completing the reorganization.
On motion of W. D. Henkle, the revision committee were appointed to prepare business for the remaining sessions of the Association.
Mr. Edwards having arrived, made some remarks approving the above action, and on motion of Wickersham, he and the temporary Chairman were added to the revision committee.
Wickersham moved that the first topic for discussion in the afternoon be a Course of Study for Normal Schools, and that E. A. Sheldon open the discussion. Adopted.
On motion of Henkle, adjourned to meet at 2 o'clock P. M.
AFTERNOON SESSION. Committee reported, through its chairman, the former Constitution with a few slight changes. The report was adopted with some verbal alterations suggested by Henkle and Edwards.
Order of Business reported by same committee : 1. Appointment of Nominating Committee.
2. Course of Study and Training best adapted to subserve the purposes of Normal Schools.
3. The Domestic Arrangements necessary for the Students of Normal Schoo!s.
The discussion on Course of Study was opened by Mr. Sheldon. He stated the difficulties experienced in Oswego from the fact that pupils enter without sufficient scholastic instruction. In remodelling their course of study, they had inserted more scholastic instruction. The great work is to prepare persons to teach in the common schools of the State. To meet the cases of those not sufficiently acquainted with the elementary studies, a Preparatory Elementary Course had been adopted. He read from the manuscript of a forthcoming circular for the Oswego Training School, the reason for adopting this course, as well as the studies included in it. He then dilated at length on the other courses of siudy, including the High-School Course, to be pursued at the Oswego Training School, and answered questions proposed to him by W. F. Phelps, John S. Hart, and S. R. Thompson. Some of the questions suggested that the questioners did not believe that the students could complete the courses in the time allotted to them.
Mr. Phelps spoke of the necessity that still exists of combining scholastic instruction with professional instruction. He said that the great question is to ascertain the minimum of scholastic instruction, and still accomplish the great work of Normal Schools. He thought Mr. Sheldon had laid down in his Preparatory Course too much to be accomplished in the time alloted, namely twenty-one weeks. He alluded to the schools of Minnesota, saying that it had been officially stated that many of the school-houses are unfit for man or beast.
Dr. Hart, of New Jersey, stated that he had found the same difficulty in reference to the want of scholastic instruction. In Normal Schools in large cities, a higher degree of scholastic knowledge can easily be required for admission.
Mr. Wickersham, of Pennsylvania, had not yet made up his mind about a course of study, although he had been engaged in a Normal School ten years and had given some attention to the subject previously. His ideal of a Normal School is one in which the instruction is entirely professional, but this ideal cannot be realized in this country, perhaps, for a long time to come. There is a great difference in learn. ing a thing to know it and learning a thing to teach it. He explained the course pursued at Millersville.
Mr. Edwards, of Illinois, did not consider the introduction of scholastic studies an unmixed evil. He did not mourn over the difficulty as some of his brethren. He then gave an account of the Normal University at Normal, a village near Bloomington, Ill.
Mr. Henkle said that the whole discussion had indicated that most of the gentle. men had misconceived the true character of a Normal School. He conceived that scholastic instruction was part and parcel of its mission; that the results would be greater if the Normal School had the training of the pupil from infancy until that pupil was sent out as a teacher.
The President announced Wickersham, Hager, Phelps, Hart, and Henkle as the committee on nominations.
On motion of Dr. Hart, the Association proceeded to the discussion of the second topic.
Mr. Phelps stated the difficulties of procuring accommodations for pupils on account of the high price of boarding.
Wickersham gave the practice at Millersville. The law in Pennsylvania requires that the Normal Schools shall each have a boarding house capable of accommodating three hundred boarders.
Dr. Hart gave the experience at Trenton; they are about to adopt the Millersville plan, and have already introduced it to some extent.
Mr. Henkle gave the plan adopted at Lebanon, O., and in answer to the statement made by Messrs. Wickersham and Hart, that pupils could be managed better in boarding houses belonging to the school than when allowed to board in private families, said that the more students are watched the more they need to be watched.
Dr. Hart alluded to the difference between villages and large cities, and especially state capitals.
On motion of E. A. Sheldon, the discussion was suspended.
After some remarks by Mr. Phelps, he moved that a committee of five be appointed to report at the next meeting on a Course of Study, and the necessary means of carrying it out,
It was moved by S. R. Thompson, of the State Normal School at Edinboro, Pa., that the committee publish their report in the School Journals three months before the next meeting, in order that members may be better prepared to discuss it. Adopted.
The committee reported as the subject of the evening's discussion : The expediency of memorializing the National Government on the propriety and importance of Congress making an appropriation for establishing State Normal Schools, and inaking grants for the same, as has been done in the case of agricultural colleges. Discussion to be opened by Dr. Hart.
Adjourned to meet at 73 o'clock in the Hall of Representatives.
Vice Presidents—D. N. Camp, State Normal School, New Britain, Conn., W, F. Phelps, State Normal School, Winona, Minn., J. S. Hart, State Normal School Trenton, N. J. E. A. Sheldon, Training School, Oswego, N. Y.
Secretary-D. B. Hager, State Normal School, Salem, Mass.
Dr. Hart said that the education of the South is now the great desideratum, but if Congress should make grants for Normal Schools, these grants would be made to all the States, and hence the Northern States would be benefited as well as the Southern States. He said the grant ought to be made in money rather than in land.
Camp said that if it were made in lands, it could be very soon converted into money, as had been done in Connecticut with the grant to agricultural colleges.
Zalmon Richards, of Washington, expressed his regret that General Howard was not present. The great conservative power in this nation is the educational power.