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8. What must be asked for goods which cost $100 that 20 per cent. may be gained on the cost, and yet a reduction of 10 per cent. may be made from the asking price? .
9. A merchant received $1648, to purchase flour. He is paid 3 per cent. on the money expended. How many bbls. of flour could he purchase at $8 a barrel ?
10. In a triangle the hypothenuse is 5 inches longer than the base, and the perpendicular is twice the difference between the base and hypothenuse. What is the length of the hypothenuse ?
GRAMMAR. 1. Write the plural of grotto, octavo, money, glory, genius, basis, focus, stratum, stamen, and B.
2. Write the possessive case of Adams, Charles, James, Spence, Miss.
3. Give the rules for the comparison of adjectives, and compare evil, much, late, fore, old.
4. State the difference between a transitive and intransitive verb. • 5. Write the principal parts of the following verbs: bid, chide, cling, clothe, drink, heave, lade (to load), shrink, strike, work.
6. Correct the following sentence and parse the words in italics : Those which seek wisdom will certainly find her.
7. Parse the words in italics : The school is about to begin; and as a pupil I must obey my teacher.
8. Analyze the following sentence, and parse the words in italics : Most men know what they hate; few, what they love. 9. Correct the following sentences, and parse the words in italics :
What is the reason of the teacher dismissing school so early?
He that is diligent you should commend. 10. Whom do men say that I am ?
Who was the money paid to ?
GEOGRAPHY, 1. Name the principal rivers that flow into the Pacific Ocean. 2. Name the bays on the Atlantic, beginning on the north. 3. Name the western branches of the Mississippi river, beginning on the south. 4. Name and describe the rivers of France. 5. Name the principal rivers of South America. 6. What mountains in South America ? 7. What rivers flow into the White Sea ? 8. What rivers flow into the Black Sea ? 9. What are the principal rivers in Africa ? 10. Locate and describe Atlanta, Raleigh, Marseilles, Calcutta, Amsterdam, Dantzic. HISTORY. 1. Give an account of the discoveries of DeSoto. 2. Name the principal events in the history of the Puritans. 3. Give an account of King Philip's War, and the causes which led to it. 4. Give an account of the settlement of New York.
5. Give an account of the settlement of Pennsylvania, and a brief notice of William Penn.
6. Describe the battle of Quebec, between Wolf and Montcalm. 7. Describe the battle of White Plain. 8. Give an account of the retreat of Washington through New Jersey. 9. Name the principal events in 1777 and 1778. 10. Name the principal events in 1781, and give an account of the surrender of Cornwallis.
WORDS FOR SPELLING. Accede, supersede, prejudice, mortise, franchise, authorize, advertise, theorize, parole, moralize, rueful, obtuse, traduce, expanse, noticeable, receptacle, conventicle, follicle, physical, autocracy, hypocrisy, malmsey, perfidy, dissociate, licentiate, rarefy, clarify, tranquillity, inflammable, cylinder, syllable, rhubarb, archetype, chrysolite, scintillate, cynosure, inelegant, cartilage, ineligible, ipecacuanha, syzygy, feud, newt, mimicking, verdigris, ferret, murrain, phylactery.-50.
PERCENTAGE OF CORRECT ANSWERS. The number of pupils examined for the High School was one hundred and twenty, all of whom were admitted. The average percentage of all the pupils examined on the above questions was as follows: Grammar.................10.
..........73.8 per cent. History ................... 70.5 per cent. Mental Arithmetic ........80.2 " " Spelling....
..................88.5 Written Arithmetic.... ...80,7 " "
| Geography ................ 78.5 “ “ Total averge in all of the studies..
...........78.7 per cent.
QUESTIONS ON THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TEACHING.
[Continued from page 117, May number.]
RECITATIONS — continued. What are some of the objections to the common metħod of permitting pupils to recite consecutively or by turn? In what recitations may this method be somtimes used to advantage? What is your opinion of the system of place-taking or “ going up” in classes ?
What are the advantages of the method of calling upon pupils promiscuously or without reference to the order in which they stand to recite : Into what errors is a teacher liable to fall who uses this method ? How may each of these errors be avoided
What do you understand by the “ concert method” of reciting? What are the objections to this method ? When may it be used with advantage ?
What are the advantages and what the disadvantages of the method of propounding questions to the entire class, and requiring those who think they can answer correctly to raise the hand? When may this plan be used with advantage :
Which of the above methods of calling upon pupils to recite do you regard the most thorough and satisfactory? What is the advantage of using different methods ? What position do you prefer to have your pupils take when reciting? What is your method of calling out and dismissing your classes :
REVIEWS AND EXAMINATIONS. What are the advantages of always reviewing the preceding lesson? How would you conduct such a review? What is the advantage of dividing a text-book into parts, and reviewing thoroughly each part before advancing to the one next succeeding? Why should the results of such a review be tested by a thorough examination? What is the advantage of subjecting your own classes to frequent thorough examinations or tests? What is the most satisfactory method of examining advanced classes ? What would be your method of conducting an examination in reading ?
INCENTIVES TO STUDY. What is the usual argument in favor of the practice of offering prizes as an incentive to study? What are the usual objections urged against it? What is your opinion of the practice? Why are rewards bestowed without previous promise, less objectionable than prizes?
What are the usual arguments for and against the system of “merit-marks"? What is your opinion of this system?
What is your opinion of the practice of keeping an accurate record of the character of each pupil's recitations ? What system of marking recitations (if any) do you use, and what use do you make of the class-record ? State what you regard some of the abuses of class-records.
To what extent is it proper to cultivate a spirit of emulation among pupils ? What are some of the evil effects of an excessive appeal to this feeling?
When may the fear of punishment be made an incentive to study? Which is the less evil, lessons learned from fear of punishment, or lessons neglected? Why? Is it ever proper to resort to corporal punishment to secure the preparation of lessons ? Give a reason for your answer.
Why is it never proper for a teacher to resort to the open ridicule of a dull pupil ? What is the usual result of such treatment ? Under what circumstances do you think ridicule may be a proper incentive to study ?
What is the usual effect of commending a pupil who does not deserve it? What is the result of constantly praising and putting forward a few bright scholars ? Why should a teacher be quick to perceive and prompt to commend the faithful efforts of a dull pupil ?
Which of two classes of motives equally effective in securing study should the teacher use, the higher or the lower? Why? What do you regard the highest motives that can be successfully used as incentives to study? What is your opinion of the practice of detaining pupils after school to prepare or recite neglected lessons ?
SCHOOL GOVERNMENT. Why should self-government on the part of the pupil be tủe ultimate object of school government? Why is it important that all our youth form the habit of cheerful and prompt obedience to rightful authority? Which of two teachers is the better disciplinarian, the one that secures right conduct in the pupil by causing him freely to choose it, or the one that necessitates good conduct by outward restraint? Why may the outward control of the teacher be necessary as a means of securing self
control on the part of the pupil? Why are cheerful obedience and good order necessary in every school?
How do you explain the fact that some teachers govern easily without resorting to corporal punishment, while others depend largely upon such punishment to sustain their authority? Why may the same methods of school government be used by different teachers with opposite results? Which do you deem the more impor. tant, the teacher's personal character or the measures he uses?
Name some of the more important qualifications of a successful disciplinarian? Why is an accurate and thorough knowledge of the branches taught, an important aid in school government: Why does a slavish use of the text-book in hearing recitations increase the difficulty of securing good order : Why does skill in teach. ing render government less difficult? What relation does thorough instruction sustain to efficient discipline?
How do you explain the fact that the higher and more uniform the standard of school order, the easier it is to sustain it? Which is usually the more effective, the certainty of a mild correction for misconduct or the possibility of severe chastisement? What is your opinion of the practice of trying to govern a school by spasmodic efforts ?
Why is it important that the teacher be able to detect mischief in its incipient form? Why should this be done without evincing a suspicious disposition ? What qualifications on the part of the teacher does this require ?
Why should the teacher never permit the faults of his pupils to create an unfriendly feeling toward them? What pupils, if any, should the teacher make his pets, those who are most lovable or those who most need his love? Why? Why should the teacher manifest confidence in his pupils ? Under what circumstances may such confidence be withheld ?
What is your method of regulating “whispering"? What do you think of the propriety of positively forbidding whispering, and prescribing a definite punishment for each offence ?
What course would you pursue to detect the author of a serious school offence ? What is your opinion of the propriety of requiring pupils to inform upon each other? What do you think of the practice of keeping a daily record of the communications and general conduct of your pupils : What is your opinion of the "self-reporting system"? What difference should be made in correcting offences owned by the pupil and those that are detected ?
Why should the teacher be careful not to transcend his authority in school government? What is the extent of the teacher's jurisdiction over his pupils in going to and from school?
PUNISHMENTS. What are the objects of punishment? In humane governments, the abuse of a privilege is followed by its forfeiture. How far can this same principle be carried out in school government? Why is such a natural punishment usually more efficacious than an arbitrary punishment? What would be a natural punishment for tardiness ? For injuries to school properties ? For profane or vulgar language upon the play-grounds ? For whispering with a seatmate? What is your opinion of the propriety of depriving idle or disorderly pupils of their recesses ?
Why is it not proper for a teacher to resort to such punishments as are designed to degrade a pupil : What is your opinion of " dunce caps” and “ dunce stools"? What is your opinion of the propriety of inflicting personal indignities upon a pupil by pulling his ears or hair, boxing his ears, snapping his forehead, etc.? Why should the head be exempted from penal violence? What is your opinion of a teacher who applies such epithets as "numskull,” « dunce,” block head," etc., to his pupils ? Why should a teacher never make a remark reflecting upon the parents of a pupil ?
Under what circumstances do you think it right to inflict corporal punishment? Should such punishment be inflicted privately or before the school? Why? Why, as a general rule, is it better to administer severe reproof privately than publicly? Why should whips not be kept in sight in the school-room? In what temper and spirit should the teacher inflict punishment?
MORAL TRAINING. What relation does proper moral instruction or training sustain to school government? How far is the teacher responsible for the moral training of his pupils ? What are some of the qualifications essential for success in moral training? What importance do you attach to the purity and integrity of the teacher's own life and conduct ?
What is the best method of imparting moral instruction in our schools? How may lessons illustrating and enforcing the duty of obedience, truthfulness, honesty, self-deniai, etc., best be given? How often should such lessons occur? What use should be made of the Bible in our schools ?
Why should the teacher in his entire treatment of his pupils be rigidly honest ? What is your opinion of the honesty of the practice of calling only upon the best pupils in public examinations, or of so assorting the questions that no failures may occur? How, in your opinion, may a public examination be honestly conducted ? To what extent do you think a teacher should expose publicly pupils detected in falsehood? What course do you take to cultivate truthfulness in your pupils ?
What is your opinion of the importance of instructing our youth in their duties and obligations as citizens How can such instruction best be imparted? How may a deeper reverence for law and rightful authority be cultivated ? Why should the sanctity of a civil oath be impressed upon all? How may the pupils in our common schools best be instructed in American history?
PRIMARY INSTRUCTION. What mental faculties are first developed? What is the natural order in which the other faculties are developed ? In what respect should primary methods of instruction differ from adult methods! Why should primary instruction deal largely with concrete knowledge? Why should we teach little children ideas before the words that represent them? Processes before rules ?
What do you understand by " object lessons"? How may a child be taught on the principles of object teaching to count and to add numbers! Why should the child's first lessons in geography be given orally rather than from books? Should these lessons relate to the world as a whole, or to facts within the child's observation ?
What book-lessons should, as a general rule, be assigned to children under eight years of age? Why should oral instruction be made prominent in teaching young pupils ? What lessons should be given orally? What slate exercises should be daily provided for? Why should drawing receive daily attention ?