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Whether or no the views of St. Jerome and other ancient Fathers concerning Inspiration are, as has been affirmed, something far deeper and higher than we, in our inferiour state of spirituality, can conceive, I do not presume to decide; but yet I would suggest, that high and spiritual views in general are capable of being set forth in words, and of gradually raising men up to some apprehension of them. They do not remain a light to lighten the possessor and mere darkness, or a light that closely resembles a shade, to the rest of the world. Things that pertain to reason and the spirit appeal to the rational and spiritual in mankind at large; they tend to elicit the reason and expand the understandings of men; deep calleth unto deep; and if the teaching of Paul and John is now in a wonderful manner apprehended by peasants and children, who hear the Gospel habitually, St. Jerome's notions of Inspiration, if truly divine and evangelical, would by this time be generally apprehended by Christians in the same way, and by the wise and learned would be comprehended more intellectually and systematically. Whereas, can it be denied, that no consistent scheme of Inspiration has ever been gathered from the teaching of those ancient Fathers? They who believe that such a scheme is contained in their writings, explicitly or implicitly, will do well to unfold it. Merely to talk about such a thing in a style of indefinite grandeur is but to conjure up a mist, by the spell of solemn sounding words, to mock the eyes of men with a cloud castle for a season—a very little season it is during which any such piece of mistmagnificence can remain undispersed in times like the present, except for those who had rather gaze on painted vapours than on realities of a hue to which their eyes are unaccustomed.

I have not been able to obtain any exact account of all my Father's courses of lectures, given after his visit to Germany, but find, from letters and other sources of information, that he lectured in London, before going to Malta, in 1804; on his return from Malta, in 1807; again in 1808; in 1811; in 1814, in which year he also lectured at Bristol ; in 1817; and, for the last time, I believe, in 1819. His

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early lectures at Bristol are mentioned in the biographical sketch.

de The poetic or imitative art, an ancient critic has observed, must needs describe persons either better than they are, at the present time, or worse, or as they are exactly. The fact is, however, that in literary fiction individuals can seldom be exhibited exactly such as they are, the subtle interminglings of good and evil, the finely balanced qualities that exist in the actual characters of men, even those in whom the colours are deepest and the lines most strongly traced, being too fine and subtle for dramatic effect. Indeed it is scarcely possible to present a man as he truly is except in plain narrative; his mind cannot be properly manifested save in and through the very events and circumstances which gave utterance to his individual being and which his peculiar character helped to mould and produce. When taken out of these and placed in the alien framework of the novelist or dramatist it becomes another thing; the representation may convey truth of human nature in a broad way, and seem drawn to the life, if the writer have a lively wit, but as a portrait of a particuperson it is often the more a falsehood the more natural it appears.


To poetic descriptions these remarks do not apply. They are, for the most part, mere views of a character in its elevated and poetic aspects-tributes of admiration to its beautiful qualities. Such are the fine stanzas, already quoted, in which the poet Coleridge is described by the great Poet, his Friend and such are some less known, composed by a poet of a later generation, who never saw my Father face to face. Of these the last four will serve for a conclusion to this sketch. I give them here for the sake of their poetic truth and the earnest sympathy they manifest with the studious poet

Philosopher contemning wealth and death,

Yet docile, childlike full of life and love,—

though they are not among the very finest parts of their au`hor's thoughtful and beautiful poetry.

No loftier, purer soul than his hath ever
With awe revolved the planetary page
(From infancy to age)

Of knowledge: sedulous and proud to give her
The whole of his great heart for her own sake;

For what she is; not what she does, or what can make.14

And mighty voices from afar came to him;
Converse of trumpets held by cloudy forms,
And speech of choral storms.

Spirits of night and noontide bent to woo him-
He stood the while, lonely and desolate

As Adam when he ruled a world, yet found no mate.

His loftiest Thoughts were but like palms uplifted;
Aspiring, yet in supplicating guise—

His sweetest songs were sighs.

Adown Lethean streams his spirit drifted,
Under Elysian shades from poppied bank

With Amaranths massed in dark luxuriance dank.

Coleridge, farewell! That great and grave transition
Which may not Priest or King or Conqueror spare,
And yet a Babe can bear,

Has come to thee. Through life a goodly vision
Was thine; and time it was thy rest to take.

Soft be the sound ordained thy sleep to break

When thou art waking, wake me, for thy Master's sake! 15

14 Here seems an allusion to an anti-utilitarian maxim of Bacon's, which is very expressive of my Father's turn of mind-Et tamen quemadmodum luci magnam habemus gratiam, quod per eam vias inire, artes exercere, legere, nos invicem dignoscere possimus, et nihilominus ipsa visio lucis res præstantior est et pulchrior, quam multiplex ejus usus; ita certe ipsa contemplatio rerum, prout sunt, sine superstitione aut impostura, errore aut confusione, in se ipsa magis digna est, quam universus inventorum fructus. Novum Organum, Part of Aph.


15 From a volume containing The Search after Proserpine. Recollections of Greece and other Poems by Aubrey de Vere, author of The Fall of Rora.







R. HALLAM and Mr. Leigh Hunt have both expressed dissent from my Father's remark in the Remains, I. pp. 93-4, that Spenser's descriptions are not in the true sense of the word picturesque; but are composed of a wondrous series of images, as in our dreams." Whether or "the true sense of the word picturesque" is what my Father meant, I do not pretend to determine, but I think that what he meant is true of Spenser, and indicates a characteristic difference between his painting and that of Dante, Pindar, and more or less of many other poets. Lessing gives the widest definition of the poetical picturesque; he says that a poet writes picturesquely, not when his words furnish matter for a material painting; many writers do this whose writing is not picturesque :—but when they have the same effect as a material painting in bringing a sensuous object vividly before the mind. Paradise Lost, as Martin's illustrations have proved, is not very picturable. Who can paint such universalities as he deals with in his world-poem? Who could shew on canvass how

or how

Vernal airs

Breathing the smell of field and grove attune
The trembling leaves, while Universal Pan,
Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance,
Led on th' eternal Spring,- ?

as earth, so he the world

Built on circumfluous waters calm, in wide
Crystalline Ocean, and the loud misrule
Of Chaos far removed-?


Yet no one will deny the truth of Milton's language, and that every sight, sound, and other sensation which he speaks of is faithfully imaged by his words? My Father, on the other hand, seems to have been speaking of the picturesque in the most restricted sense. He calls a poetic description properly such, when it presents a composite object of sight, containing neither more nor less than we might see at once with our eyes, the poet making this picture the emblem of a sentiment, instead of explaining the sentiment directly; or when he tells a story by means of it. This sort of picturedrawing belongs to rapid, vehement writers; it speeds on the representation; it has an oriental heat and intensity about it. There is a vivid one in Solomon's Song, if I may venture to speak of that part of the Canon in reference to poetry. It is in chap. v. verses 2-4. I do not say that this could be put on canvass; the capability of being actually painted is not the criterion of the poetical picturesque ;— many of Pindar's finest pictures could not be materially painted it is enough that our eye in thought can embrace the whole at once; the Beloved with his hand upon the lock, and his hair wet with the dews of night: the Spouse within upon her couch, her doffed raiment lying beside it. Instances of the same kind in Pindar are Jove's Eagle asleep on the sceptre, ruffling up his feathers in transport, while the dancers are moving to the sound of the Lyre; Mars lying in tranced slumber, and the other gods listening all around: Neptune appearing to Pelops by the sea-side in the darkness: Pallas appearing to Bellerophon at night, all gleaming in armour, darkly blue,-he leaping to his feet and seizing the golden bridle which she had laid beside him: Iamus calling to his Sire and Grandsire by night from the midst of the Alpheus. These three last would not make good material pictures, because of the darkness; even Rembrandt would not have managed them well had he tried to

1 "Adam bending over the sleeping Eve in the Paradise Lost (Bk. V. ver. 18,) and Dalilah approaching Samson, in the Agonistes (I. 710) are the only two proper pictures I remember in Milton."-Table Talk, p. 182.

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