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from time to time. But the corrections were made chiefly in the phrafeology. The alteration of the English language made it neceffary, in every revifal of the tranflation, to fubftitute modern words and phrases, in place of those which were becoming obfolete. But few alterations were made in the fenfe, except in the paffages which had a relation to the popish controversy, which, on that account, were confidered with more care. Wherefore, each new edition being little different from the preceding one, none of them were efteemed new tranflations, as is plain from the public acts prohibiting the ufe of the English bibles. For, in these acts, they are all called Tyndal and Coverdale's tranflation.
To conclude: If Tyndal and Coverdale's tranflation was made from the vulgate Latin, and if the fubfequent English tranflations, as they have been called, were only corrected editions of their verfion, and if the corrections made from time to time in the different editions, refpected the language more than the fenfe, is it to be thought strange, that many of the errors of that tranflation, especially those copied from the vulgate, have been continued ever fince, in all the editions of the English bible? Even that which is called the king's tranflation, though, in general, much better than the reft, being radically the fame, is not a little faulty, às it was not thoroughly and impartially corrected by the revifers. It is therefore, by no means, fuch a just representation of the inspired originals, as merits to be implicitly relied on, for determining the controverted articles of the Christian faith, and for quieting the diffenfions which have rent the church.
Sect. III. Of the principles on which the tranflation now offered to the public is formed.
The hiftory of the ancient and modern verfions of the fcriptures, given in the preceding fections, must have convinced every unprejudiced reader, that a tranflation of the facred writings, more agreeable to the original, and more intelligible and unambiguous, than any hitherto extant, is much wanted. In this perfuafion, the author formed the defign of tranflating the apostolical epistles, although he was fenfible the attempt would be attended with great difficulties, and be liable to many objections. But objections were made to Jerome's corrections of the Italic
verfion of the new teftament. And in an age much more enlightened, when the correction of the bishops bible was proposed, there were fome who did not approve of the defign, fearing bad confequences would follow the alteration of, a book rendered facred in the eyes of the people by long ufe. On both occafions, however, these objections were justly disregarded, for the fake of the advantages expected from a tranflation of the inspired writings, more confonant to the original. Wherefore, that the reader may be enabled to conjecture, whether, in the following verfion of the apoftolical epiftles, the alterations that are made in the tranflation, be of fufficient importance to justify the author in publishing it, he will now explain the principles on which it is formed, in fuch a manner as to give a general idea of the number and nature of these alterations. At the fame time, to remove fuch prejudices as may remain in the minds of the serious, against altering the common tranflation, he will mention a few of the many advantages which will be derived from a new translation of the fcriptures, skilfully and faithfully executed.
Senfible that the former tranflators have been mifled, by copy ing those who went before them, the author, to avoid the errors which that method leads to, hath made his tranflation from the original itself. And that it might be a true image of the original, he hath, in making it, observed the following rules: 1. He hath translated the Greek text as literally as the genius of the two languages would permit. And because the fenfe of particular paffages fometimes depends on the order of the words in the original, the author, in his tranflation, hath placed the English words and clauses, where it could be done to advantage, in the order which the correfponding words and claufes hold in the original. By thus ftrictly adhering to the Greek text, where it could be done confiftently with perfpicuity, the emphasis of the facred phrafeology is preserved, and the meaning of the inspired penmen is better represented, than it can be in a free translation, (See p. 34. note.) To these advantages, add, that in this literal method, the difficult paffages being exhibited in their genuine form, the unlearned have thereby an opportunity of exercising their own ingenuity in finding out their meaning. Whereas, in a free tranflation, the words of the inspired writer being concealed, no fubject of examination is prefented to the unlearned, but
the translator's sense of the paffage, which may be very different from its true meaning.
2. As the Greek language admits an artificial order of the words of a sentence, or period, which the English language does not allow, in tranflating many paffages of the apoftolical epistles, it is neceffary to place the words in their proper connection, without regarding the order in which they stand in the original. This method the author hath followed in his tranflation, where it was neceffary, and thereby hath obtained a better sense of many paffages*, than that given in our English version, where the tranflators have followed the order of the Greek words, or have construed them improperly.
3. With respect to the Hebraifms+ found in the scriptures, it
*The following are examples of the propriety of tranflating fome paffages according to a juft, though not an obvious conftruction of the original words: Mat. xix. 4. That he which made them at the beginning, made them male and female. In this tranflation, our Lord's argument does not appear. But the original, ὅτι ὁ ποιησας απ' αρχής αςσεν και θηλυ εποίησεν αυτ8ς, rightly conttrued, fands thus: ὅτι ὁ ποιησας αυτός, απ' as won agos nas Inλu, which literally tranflated, gives this meaning: That he who made them, at the beginning made a male and a female. According to this tranfla-tion, our Lord's reafoning is clear and conclufive. At the beginning, God made only one male and one female, of the human fpecies, to fhew, that adultery and polygamy are contrary to his intention, in creating man. See Mal. ii. 14, 15.-Mat. xxvii. 66. οι δε πορευθέντες ασφαλισαντο τον ταφον, σφραγισαντες τον λίθον, μετα της κατωδίας: So they going away, made the fepulchre fure with the watch, having fealed the ftone. I Cor. xvi. 2. Κατα μιαν σαββάτων έκας-Θ- ύμων παρ ἑαυτῷ τιθετω θησαύριζων ὁ τι αν ευοδωται, conftrued, will âtand thus: Κατα μιαν σαββάτων εκατό ύμων τίθε τω τι παρ' ἑαυτῷ, (fup. καθ ̓) ὁ ευοδωλαιαν, θησαυρίζων. On the firft day of every week, let each of you lay fomewhat by itself, according as he may have profpered, putting it into the treasury, that when I come there may be no collections.-Heb. xi. 3. So that things which are feen were not made of things which do appear. Here our tranflators have followed Beza. But the original, rightly construed, ftands thus: To Ta Bhewoμevz, Veyoveras ex un Payoμevwv. So that the things which are feen, were made of things which did not appear: that is, were made of nothing. See more examples, page 11.
+ Modern critics contend, that in a translation of the fcriptures, the Hebraisms fhould not be rendered literally; but that words and phrafes, expreffive of their meaning, should be fubftituted in their places. This, it must be acknowledged, is a proper method of tranflating fuch Hebraifms as are not understood by the vulgar, if the learned are agreed as to their fignification. For example, because it is univerfally acknowledged, that Rev. ii. 23. I am he who fearcheth the reins and bearts, fignifies, I am be who fearcbeth the inward thoughts and difpofitions, the paffage may with propriety be fo tranflat. ed. But when the meaning of an Hebraifm is difputed, and its literal fenfe is made the foundation of a controverted doctrine, fuch as Rom. ix. 18. Whom he will, be barden#b; what the tranflator fuppofes to be the meaning of the expreffion, thould by no
is to be observed, first, That as the Greek language, in its claffical purity, did not furnish phrases fit to convey just ideas of fpiritual matters, thefe could only be expreffed intelligibly, in the language of the ancient revelation, dictated by the Spirit of God. Many, therefore, of thefe Hebrew forms of expreffion are retained in this tranflation, because they run with a peculiar grace in our language, and are more expreffive than if they were turned into modern phrase: befides, having long had a place in our bibles, they are well understood by the people.-Secondly, There are in fcripture fome Hebraifms, quite remote from the ideas and phrafeology of modern nations, which would not be understood, if literally tranflated. Of thefe, the meaning only is given in this verfion. Thirdly, There is a kind of Hebraifm, which confifts in the promiscuous ufe of the numbers of the nouns, and of the tenfes of the verbs. These the author hath tranflated in the number and tenfe which the fenfe of the paffages requires.Fourthly, The inspired writers being Jews, naturally used the Greek particles, in all the latitude of fignification, proper to the correfponding particles in their own language; for which reason, they are, in this tranflation, interpreted in the fame latitude. Of the two last mentioned kinds of Hebraism, many examples are given in Prel. E§. IV.
4. In St. Paul's epiftles there are many elliptical fentences, which the perfons to whom he wrote could easily supply; because they were familiar to them, and because the genders of the Greek words directed those who understood the language, to the particular word or words which are wanting to complete the sense. Wherefore, no tranflation of St. Paul's epiftles, into a language which does not mark the genders, by the termination of the words, will be understood by the unlearned, unless the elliptical fentences are completed. In this tranflation, therefore, the author hath completed the defective paffages; and the words which he hath added for that purpofe, he hath printed in a dif
means be fubftituted in the translation. For candour requires, that in fuch cafes, the tranflator should keep clofe to the words of the original, if they can be literally translated in an intelligible manner, and fhould leave it to theologians to fettle the meaning of the Hebraifm, by fair reafoning from the context, and from other paffages relative to the fame fubject; because, in this method, its meaning will at length be fuccessfully established.
ferent character *, that, from the sense of the paffages, the reader may judge whether they are rightly fupplied. On this head, it is proper to mention, that by a close attention to St. Paul's style, the author hath discovered that the words wanting to complete his sentences are commonly found, either in the clause which precedes, or which follows the elliptical expreffion. He hath, therefore, in his tranflation, for the most part, supplied the word, that are wanting, from the context itself †.
In tranflating the apoftolical epiftles, the author having carefully obferved the four rules above mentioned, he hopes his translation hath thereby become, not only more accurate, but more intelligible, than the common verfion, and that the unlearned, who read the epiftles in his tranflation, will understand them better, than by reading them in their ordinary bible. Farther, though he hath often deviated from the beaten road, the diverfity of his tranflation will not be offenfive, because, throughout the whole, he hath endeavoured to preferve that beautiful fimplicity of style for which the scriptures are so justly admired, together with those allufions to ancient manners and historical
Concerning the manner of printing the words that are fupplied, to complete the fentences, the reader is defired to take notice, that the words fupplied by our tranflain this, printed in. Roman capitals, to fhew that they belong to the version in common ufe. But if the words fupplied belong to the new tranflation, they are printed in capitals of the Italic form.-Farther, it is to be obferved, that all the words and clauses of the new tranflation, which are different from the common English verfion, are printed in Italic characters, that the reader may at once fee in what particulars the two tranflations agree, and in what they differ.
† Of the author's method of supplying the elliptical fentences in St. Paul's epistles, the following are a few examples, by which the reader may judge of the 'est-Rom. ii. 27. By supplying the words, though a Jew, from the beginning of ver. 28. the translation will run thus: Judge thee a tranfgreffor of the law, though a Jew by the literal circumcifion. 28. For he is not a few, who, &c.—Rom. iv. 13. By fupplying the word righteousness, from the end of the verse, the tranflation will be, Now not through a righteousness of law, was the promise to Abraham and to his feed. Rom. v. 16. By fup. plying the word fentence, from the fecond claufe of the verfe, the tranflation of the firft claufe will be, Aifo, not as the fentence, through the one who finned, is the free gift: for verily the fentence, &c.-Rom. vii. 24. O wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death? 25. I thank God, who delivers me, through Jesus Christ our Lord. James ii. 13. Judgment, without mercy, will be to him who fhewed no mercy: but mercy will exult over judgment. This latter claufe is evidently incomplete, and must be fupplied from the former, thus: But mercy will exult over judgment, to him who shewed mercy. In completing inconfequent fentences, the fenfe likewife directs a translator. See examples, Rom. v. 12. 2 Pet. ii. 4.-6.