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impossible to translate the scriptures into English ; others, that it was not lawful for the people to have them in their mother tongue; others, that it would make them all heretics. They were displeased, likewise, because Tyndal, like Wickliff, had, interpreted the sacred words, (see p. 10.) whose meaning they wished to hide from the people; because, having appropriated these words to themselves, as long as they were not understood, the clergy were at liberty to affix to them any sense they pleased, for aggrandising their own order. Wherefore, when they found that Tyndal, in his translation, had put the word senior for priest, congregation for church, love for charity, repentance for penance, &c. they were so enraged, that, by various conftitutions, they condemned the whole of his translation as heretical, forbade the people to read it, made strict search after the copies of it, and all that they found they burnt publicly. But the more Tyndal's translation was condemned, the more it was fought after and read; insomuch that the Dutch booksellers printed four editions of it, before Tyndal thought fit to reprint it. Concerning these Dutch editions, it is to be observed, that as the editors did not understand the English language themselves, and had no person skilled in it to correct their presses, three of their editions are extremely erroneous.

While the foreign booksellers were making gain of Tyndal's labours, he was employed in translating the five books. of Moses into English, with an intention to publish them likewise. In this part of his work he was assisted by Myles Coverdale; a native of Yorkshire, and one of the Austin friars in Cambridge, who, being suspected of heresy, had fled to the continent. Having finished his translation, Tyndal printed it at Malborrow (Marpurg), in the land of Heffe, in the year 1530. To each of the books of Moses he prefixed a prologue, and on the margin placed notes, and added ten wooden cuts, representing the ark, the candlestick, &c. About this time, likewise, he tranflated the prophesy of Jonah, and some other books of scrip

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In the year 1534, the Dutch booksellers having resolved to print a fourth edition of Tyndal's new testament, they hired one George Joye, (a Bedfordshire man, bred in Peterhouse, Cambridge,) to correct the press. But as Joye tells us in his pre


face, He not only corrected the errors of the press ; but when he came to fome dark sentences, having the Latin text by him, he made them plainer, and gave many words their native signification, which they had not before. This edition was printed at Antwerp, in August 1534

In November 1534, the papal dominion was abolished in England, and the king's supremacy established by act of parliament; so that a way was opened for the reformation of religion, to the unspeakable advantage of the English nation.

This year, Tyndal published his new testament a second time; because, in his former edition, as he acknowledges in the preface, There were many faults, which the lack of help, and oversight had occafioned. The title of this edition is, The Newe testament, diligently corrected, and printed in the year of our Lord 1534, in November. And at the end : Printed at Antwerp, by Marten Emperour. But the Dutch booksellers ' had made such hafte, that, as was just now mentioned, their edition was published in August, three months before Tyndal's.

It hath been commonly said, that Tyndal made his translation of the new testament from the Greek : but no such thing is said in the titles of any of the editions published by himself or by Joye. In the library of St. Paul's church, London, there is an edition with this title : The Newe testament, diligently corrected and compared wyth the Greke, by William Tyndal, and finished in the yere of our Lord God 1534, in the moneth of November.

If, as Lewis informis us, Tyndal translated an oration of Isocrates, he must have had some knowledge of the Greek : but as that language was very little studied in these days, it may be doubted whether he understood it to well as to be able to translate the new teftament from the Greek. The Hebrew being still less studied in England, it is generally believed, that peither he nor Coverdale understood that language. Be. fides, the short time they spent in finishing their translations of the books of the old tettament, renders it more than probable that they did not make their tranlations from the Hebrew, but from the Latin bible. Perhaps they compared their translations with the originals. For, with a very slender knowledge of the languages, they may have done what Olivetan says he did, when he made his French translation from the Hebrew. “ On meeting with any difficult tex', which he did not understand, or which he doubted of, he consulted the translations and commentaries of others, and took what he judged best.” (Simon, Crit. Hift. du V. T. L. ii. c. 24.) This, I suppose, is all that the learned men meant, who, in the title of the bible which they pailided in the year 1539, say, they translated it truely afier tbe vorite of ibe Hebrew and G:eek textes.

See page 20.

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But this edition was not published by Tyndal. For, in a later edition, mentioned by Lewis, which was printed in 1536, the title is, The Newe testament, j'et once agayne corrected by William Tindale. This, with other circumstances, to be mentioned afterwards, sheys, that Tyndal's translation was made from the vulgate Latin, as most of the vernacular translations of the new testament, made in that age, undoubtedly were.

· Before Tyndal finished the printing of his second edition, in 1534, he was imprisoned in the castle of Antwerp, where he remained till he was strangled and burnt as an heretic, in the year 1536. Hall tells us, that after the publication of the first edition of his new testament, Tyndal prosecuted his design of translating the old teftament, with such diligence, that before he was put to death, he had finished his translation, not only of the pentateuch, and of Jonah, but of all the other books to Nehemiah. These translations, according to Johnson, he made not from the Hebrew, but from the vulgate Latin ; or, as the popish writers affirm, from Luther's German translation.

Tyndal's translation of the books of the old Testament, to Nehemiah, together with his translation of Jonah, and of the books of the new testament, make what is called Tyndals bible.

Coverdale'S BIBLE.-While Tyndal was in prison, the whole bible, translated into English, was finished at the press, in the year 1535, with a dedication to Henry VIII. subscribed by Myles Coverdale. In this dedication, Coverdale speaks with great bitterness against the bishop of Rome, and his usurpations, and tells the king, that he took upon him to set forth this special translation, not as a checker, reprover, or despiser of other men's translations, but lowly and faithfully following his interpreters, and that under correction. Of these, he said, he made use of five different ones, who had rendered the scriptures, not only into Latin, but also into Dutch. Here it is to be observed, that Coverdale does not pretend that he made his translation from the originals; he only followed his interpreters, that is, other translators. And by calling his, a special transction, he wished to have it confidered as different from Tyndal's. Yet it is well known, that he adopted all Tyndals translations, both of the old teftament and of the new, with some small alterations.' Only he omitted

Tyndal's Tyndal's prologues and notes, because they had given offence to the papists. That Coverdale adopted Tyndal's translations, ap pears likewise from his saying in his preface, that Tyndals kelpers and companions would finish what Tyndal had left unfinished, and publish it in a better manner than himself had now done ; referring to the books of the oid testament, and of the apocrypha, which Tyndal had rot translated, but which Coverdale had now published. These, therefore, are the only translations in this bible which are properly Coverdale's own, and joined with Tyndals translations, are what hath been commonly called Coverdale's bible, or rather, Tyndal and Coverdale's translation. Soon after the publication of this bible, Cromwell, as vicargeneral to the king in matters ecclesiastical, ordered a copy of it to be laid in the quire of each church, that every one, who pleased, might read it.

MATTHEW'S BIBLE.--In the year 1537, Richard Grafton and Edward Whytchurch, printers, published a second edition of Coverdale's bible, with Tyndal's prologues and notes. Be. cause this bible was printed with German types, and was superintended by John Rogers, pastor of a church at Marbeck, in the dutchy of Wittemberg, Lewis thinks it was printed at Marbeck.-Rogers was educated at Cambridge, where, in 1525, he took the degree of bachelor of arts: then removing to Oxford, he was made a junior canon of Cardinals college : after that, taking orders, he was appointed chaplain to the English factory at Antwerp; where, meeting with Tyndal, he was by him made sensible of the errors of popery. From Antwerp he went to Marbeck, and became pastor of a congregation there.

Before this edition of Coverdale's bible was finished, Tyndal was burnt as an heretic. Wherefore Rogers, fearing that the prefixing of Tyndal's name to it, might occasion its being ill received by the common people, he published it under the feigned name of Thomas Matthew, and dedicated it to Henry VIII. Bishop Bale says, Rogers translated the bible from the beginning to the end, having recourse to the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, English, and German copies. But Lewis says this is evidently a mistake. For the bible called Matthew's, is not a new translation, but, as Wanley observes, to the end of Chronicles it is VOL. I.



Tyndal's, and from that to the end of the apocrypha, it is coverdale's. He ought to have excepted Jonah, which is of Tyndals translation, having his prologue prefixed to it. The translation of the new testament is likewise Tyndal's, as are the prologues and notes. Farther, that the tranflation, which goes under the name of Matthew's, was not made from the originals, is evident from the title, which runs thus: The Bible, which is all the Holy Scripture, in which are conteyned the Olde and Newe teftament, truelye and purelye transated into Englys: By Thomas Matthewe. This, which is commonly called Matthew's bible, was begun and finished under the patronage of archbihop Cranmer; for it was presented by Grafton to him, and to the lord Cromwell; and Cromwell, at the archbishop's request, presented it to the king, who permitted it to be bought, and used by all persons without distinction.-Rogers returned to England in Edward VI.'s time, and was made a prebendary of St. Paul's. But when Mary came to the throne, he was apprehended and condemned, under the name of Rogers, alias Matthew, for having published this translation of the bible under the name of Matthew. He was the first martyr in that reign.

HOLLYBUSHE's NEW TESTAMENT.-It seems the papists, about this time, to discredit the English translations of the scriptures before mentioned, affirmed that they were contrary to the Latin bible, which was then used in the churches, and which, as the Rhemish translators afterwards exprefled it, was confidered as truer than the original itself; by which they meant the copies of the Greek testament then used. For in the year 1538, Coverdale, to shew that his translation of the new testament was not different from the common Latin bible, allowed one Johan Hollybuse, to print, in a column opposite to the vulgate Latin, the English translation of the new testament, which Coverdale had formerly set forth in his bible. This Hollybushe published, while Coverdale was abroad, with the following title: The Newe Testament, both in Latine and Englisbe, eche correspondent to the other, after the Vulgate text, communely called St. Jerome's, faithfully translated by Johan Hollybufe, anno 1538 *.

GREAT * To this edition Coverdale prefixed a dedication to Henry VIII. in which he takes notice of the reflections made on the translation of the bible in English, which he had publithed, as if be intended to pervert the scripture, and to condemn the commune transation

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