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West Point railroad, and striking the Macon road some distance south of Atlanta.

As the movement was about to have begun on the 18th of August, information was received that Hood had dispatched a cavalry expedition, numbering from 6,000 to 10,000 men, under Wheeler, to cut Gen. Sherman's communications by the single railroad northward to Chattanooga. This force had struck Adairsville, capturing 900 beef cattle, and had torn up the railroad track near Calhoun. Nothing could have happened more opportunely for Sherman's purpose. Gen. Kilpatrick, with 5,000 cavalry, advanced to the right on the night of the 18th, thoroughly broke the West Point railroad, near Fairborn, and then struck the Macon road near Jonesboro, engaging and defeating a cavalry force under Ross, and holding the road for five hours, doing such damage to it as he was able. He was, however, compelled to retire-an overwhelming force of infantry and cavalry assailing him—and, making a circuit, again came upon the railroad near Lovejoy's Station, but was again so heavily menaced that, after a charge upon the Rebel cavalry, capturing a number of prisoners, and four guns, he withdrew to Decatur, arriving on the 22d of August. Gen. Sherman, hoping that Kilpatrick's raid would accomplish his purpose, without the aid of the main army, had postponed the general movement ordered for the 18th. It now became manifest that the Macon road had not been sufficiently broken to interrupt the trains for many days, and the original plan of "taking the field with our main force, and using it against the communications of Atlanta, instead of against its intrenchments," was resumed.

On the night of the 25th, the Fourth Corps (Stanley's) withdrew from the extreme left, and marched below Proctor's Creek, on the right. The Twentieth Corps (temporarily commanded by Gen. Williams) at the same time moved back to the Chattahoochee river. On the night of the 26th, the armies of the Tennessee and the Cumberland drew out of their lines and moved on to the right, the former army advancing circui tously, and approaching Sandtown. The next move brought Howard's army upon the West Point railroad, above Fairborn

and Thomas's army near Red Oak-Schofield, who had hitherto remained in his former position, now bringing up the rear. The entire day was spent, on the 28th, in destroying the West Point railroad, more than twelve miles of the track being thoroughly broken up. On the 29th, the armies moved eastward by several roads, Howard advancing, on the right, toward Jonesboro, Thomas, in the center, by Shoal Creek Church to Couch's, and Schofield, on the left, toward Morrow's Mills. The position thus aimed at was deemed so decidedly advantageous, that Gen. Sherman was anxious to secure it at the earliest moment. Thomas reached his assigned place early in the afternoon, without much opposition. Schofield moved in a circuit around East Point, which the enemy still tenaciously held, and came into the position intended, toward Rough-and-Ready Station. Gen. Howard had the greatest distance to move, and was more or less delayed by skirmishing with cavalry of the enemy, supported by artillery, at different points on the way. He continued his march, however, until within half a mile of Jonesboro, when darkness prevented his further advance, and he encamped for the night. In the morning (August 31st) he found a heavy Rebel force in his front, and made his disposi tions accordingly. Gen. Sherman, who was with the center, immediately gave directions for strengthening both Howard and Schofield, and ordered the latter at once to strike the Macon railroad near Rough-and-Ready. Meanwhile, the

enemy came out from his works at Jonesboro, and attacked Howard's forces, which were now in a good situation to receive their assailants. The assault was made by Hardee's and Lee's corps. The conflict lasted for more than two hours, when the enemy withdrew, leaving over 400 dead on the field, and having about 2,500 wounded. The Union losses were comparatively light. The movements ordered on the left and center were entirely successful, and the work of destruction was soon going on with vigor, all along the line. The troops were ordered, in the afternoon, to concentrate around Jonesboro, while Kilpatrick's cavalry was sent to attack or menace the railroad below that place. The various corps having closed in as ordered, Davis attacked the enemy's lines about 4 o'clock in

the afternoon of the 1st of September, charging across open fields, and carrying the works in a brilliant manner. The corps of Schofield and Stanley had been unable to get up until night on account of the difficult nature of the country to be traversed, and the enemy effected his escape southward. Pursuit was made next day as far as Lovejoy's Station, where the Rebel forces were found in a strongly intrenched position, covering the McDonough and Fayetteville road.

On the night of September 1st, Hood began the evacuation of Atlanta, blowing up seven trains of cars, and destroying other property. Gen. Slocum, who had now assumed command of the Twentieth Corps, left on the Chattahoochee, took possession of the place on the 2d of September. The work of destroying the railroad ceased when these facts became known to Gen. Sherman, and the entire forces south of Atlanta were gradually withdrawn to that place, the grand objective point of the campaign being now gained.

The news of the fall of Atlanta gave exuberant joy to the friends of the Government every-where. It created a corre-. sponding depression among the adherents of the "Confederacy." It was a brilliant triumph, nobly earned by officers and men. It remained to be seen whether the place could be securely held, with a single line of communication so extended, to be maintained, and with an army of 100,000 men to be supported. But enough for the moment was the delight of victory. This was no time to doubt that our gallant generals and armies would take care of the rest, and turn the triumph to good account.

The raid of Wheeler's cavalry, on Sherman's line of railroad communication with Chattanooga, accomplished far less than might have been reasonably expected. Care had been taken, however, in guarding the road, and in garrisoning important points; and under the efficient and skillful direction of Col. Wright, in charge of construction and repairs, the temporary damage done at different points was so speedily repaired as to occasion no real inconvenience to the main army, which continued to be amply supplied. After breaking the road and destroying property at Adairsville and Calhoun, Wheeler, on

the 14th of August, appeared before Dalton, where there was a garrison of less than 500 men under Col. Laibold, and, after surrounding the place, demanded its surrender. The gallant officer laconically replied: "I have been placed here to defend this post, and not to surrender it." And he performed that duty, withstanding a severe and long-continued attack, in the hope of being reënforced in season to hold the place. This expectation was not disappointed. Gen. Steadman arrived next morning with fresh troops, and Wheeler was driven off. His next movement was into Tennessee, where he appears ultimately to have met Forrest, after his capture of Athens, part of the coöperating forces moving northward, crossing the Holston and the Clinch rivers, near Strawberry Plains and Clinton, and going around by the Sequatchee Valley, into middle Tennessee. Other raiders approached Nashville at Lebanon, Murfreesboro and Franklin. These parties, which were apparently aiming to effect a junction at Tullahoma, were driven toward Florence, and finally out of the State, by the forces under Generals Rousseau, Steadman and Granger. Near Murfreesboro, on the 1st of September, Rousseau had an engagement with the invading forces, driving them back three miles, and on the 3d, they were further chastised. On the 4th, the notorious John Morgan was surprised and killed by General Gillem, at Greenville, in East Tennessee, and his forces captured or dispersed. On the 8th, the Rebel Jessie and 100 of his men were captured at Ghent, in Kentucky. The attempts to create an invasion excitement like that which had formerly led Gen. Buell into hasty retreat were all foiled. Not a little

damage in several localities was done by guerrilla parties, and by the larger expeditions of Wheeler and Forrest, but on the general military situation, all these affairs combined had no perceptable effect.

After the loss of Atlanta, Hood withdrew to Macon. Here he was visited by his chief, Jefferson Davis, who, appalled at the disaster which had undoubtedly been hastened by his removal of Johnston, was eager to avert the further misfortunes impending in that quarter. The Governor of Georgia, on the other hand, had almost immediately recalled fifteen

thousand of the militia of that State, in undisguised rage at the central management of military affairs, and in manifest contempt for Hood. Consequent upon this visit of Davis to Macon, a new military scheme was entered upon, such as the situation in fact not unnaturally invited, for compelling Gen. Sherman to release his hold upon Georgia. This scheme was simply that of an aggressive movement, in mass, upon the communications of the Union commander, with an invasion of the territory in his rear. The raids of Wheeler, Forrest and other cavalry leaders had indeed foreshadowed this movement, but merely as an incident, not as the main purpose, of a campaign. And it was quite another matter to move the main army of infantry on so long an expedition, abandoning the country in front of the invading force.

Hood's main force was soon moved in a westward direction, turning Sherman's right, by a circuitous march. For some days following the 29th of September, telegraphic and other communication between Atlanta and Chattanooga was interrupted. The purpose of Hood was now fully disclosed, and he proceeded to execute it with his accustomed vigor. On the 3d of October, Gen. Sherman, leaving Gen. Slocum in command at Atlanta, with only the Twentieth Corps as a garrison, re-crossed the Chattahoochee with the main army, which was provided with fifteen days' rations. General Thomas was on the same day dispatched to Chattanooga. Hood gained possession of Big Shanty and Acworth on the 5th, and destroyed several miles of the railroad. On the 6th, he appeared before Alatoona, but was repulsed by its brave garrison with severe loss. The approach of Gen. Sherman caused him to retire from that vicinity on the 9th, when he fell back upon Cedartown, some distance west of Alatoona, and south of Rome. Sherman's forces moved up the railroad, which was rapidly repaired, and were concentrated about Rome on the 12th of the month. About the same time Hood, having moved in advance of Sherman on the left, struck the railroad again at Resacca, which place our forces reached on the 14th. Hood retired across Taylor's Bridge, obstructing Snake Creek Gap, which was quickly again made passable for the army and trains.

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