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place, however, rendered it practically a new base, for the time, and more especially since the enemy had been almost entirely driven out from East Tennessee.

While the several movements on the left and center, just indicated, were taking place, McPherson, with the Army of the Tennessee, moving by the road to Lafayette, on the extreme right, had passed through Snake Creek Gap, turning the Rebel position. Hooker's corps, moving south about twelve miles from its location in front of the enemy's lines, where it had remained since crossing Taylor's Ridge, on the 7th, passed through Snake Creek Gap on the 10th and 11th, effecting a junction with McPherson. On discovering this completely successful flanking movement in heavy force, the Rebel general ordered a retreat to Resacca, which commenced on the 10th. Sherman occupied Dalton on the 12th, having at once secured an important point, and dislodged the enemy from a position of great strength, without any more serious engagement than had attended his steady pressure on the front of the enemy's position north of Dalton.

Resacca is an important railroad station, about fifteen miles south of Dalton, and some distance north of the Oostenaula river. The new position taken by the enemy near this point was on a commanding ridge, densely covered with woods and thickets, and both naturally and artificially of great strength. On the 13th, Hooker's corps moved toward the front of the enemy's position, and skirmishers were thrown out, who became partially engaged with the opposing skirmish line, without bringing on any serious fighting. On the same day, McPherson's command advanced, a force sent out by him striking the railroad and capturing nine trains with supplies, retiring from Dalton. On the 14th, Howard's corps (the Fourth), now on the left of Hooker, became heavily engaged with the enemy at Resacca, and in the afternoon was forced back for some distance, when the First and Second Divisions of the Twentieth Corps were moved up in support. These reenforcements arrived at nightfall, and the enemy's column was checked and forced back, the Union forces sleeping on their arms. Early in the morning, a reconnoissance was sent out to

discover the enemy's position, and soon after noon, the Third Division of Hooker's corps having in the meantime been brought up, a combined attack, in which the latter division led the way, was made upon the enemy's works, which forced him to abandon his outer line. Wood's brigade, of Butterfield's division, also captured one of the inner forts, with a battery of five guns, but being exposed to a concentrated fire, was obliged to withdraw. Still strong in his inner intrenchments, the enemy made three successive sallies, in heavy masses, but was repulsed each time with severe loss. Darkness closing upon the field, our men again lay down in line of battle, with their arms at their side. Before daylight on the next morning, our skirmishers discovered that Johnston had hastily retreated, leaving his dead unburied, and his wounded on the field. Thus terminated the battle of Resacca, the first heavy engagement of the campaign. The losses were considerable on each side, those of the Union forces being somewhat the most severe in killed and wounded (estimated at 3,600). Gens. Hooker, Willich, Kilpatrick and Manson were wounded; the three latter seriously. The Rebel corps of Polk and Hardee lost several hundred prisoners, and the killed and wounded on that side were estimated at 2,000. Seven pieces of artillery were captured from the enemy, and three of his general officers were reported killed.

Pursuit was commenced on the morning of the 16th, Howard leading the advance in the center, but the main army of Johnston was not overtaken during the next three days. If we except a little unimportant skirmishing with his rear guard, near the close of that day, some fighting at Adairsville on the railroad, about ten miles north of Kingston, and a brief engagement with Newton's division of the Fourth Corps, on the 17th, three miles beyond Calhoun, the enemy made no stand until he had reached Cassville. Near this place, toward night, on the 19th of May, an attack on Hooker's foremost division, advancing on the right center, was made by Hardee's corps, and some skirmishing followed, but a general engagement was avoided, the remainder of Hooker's corps not having come up. Our advanced forces intrenched themselves in front

of the enemy's lines at Cassville, but the morning of the 20th again found Johnston's army gone. Here, as before Dalton, a retreat without giving earnest battle had been compelled by a rapid advance of McPherson on the right, threatening Johnston's left flank. Cassville, not far from the Etowah river, is a few miles beyond Kingston, the point from which a branch railroad diverges westward to the important manufacturing town of Rome, at the junction of the Oostenaula and Etowah, forming the Coosa river. Kingston and Rome were occupied on the 20th of May, Howard's corps first entering the former town, while the Twentieth and the Twenty-third Corps, moving forward on the left, entered Cassville the same day. A large portion of the army remained encamped at these places for the three days following, while McPherson demolished the Rebel manufactories at Rome, and prepared to continue his effective movements southward-steadily threatening the enemy's flank, and pressing on with all convenient speed toward the Chattahoochee. The railroad was, meanwhile, put in running order to Cassville, and the telegraph lines were extended with Sherman's advance.

Continuing the march on the 23d of May, Hooker crossed the Etowah river, his entire corps encamping at night on the south side of that stream. On the 24th and 25th, his corps was crossing over the Allatoona Mountains, while Sherman's center occupied Dallas. This movement to turn Allatoona drew out the enemy, who attacked Hooker's First Division near Pumpkin Vine Creek, about three miles from Dallas, on the 25th. A general action ensued, sometimes designated as the battle of New Hope Church. The enemy was driven back three miles, and at nightfall had been forced within his inner line of intrenchments. The new position taken up by Johnston was a strong one at the fork of the roads to Marietta and Atlanta, in a thickly wooded and broken country, with scarcely any roads, among the Etowah mountains. The center of Sherman's army was now about three miles north of Dallas, his right being at that place. This situation, with occasional sharp conflicts, was maintained for several days.

McPherson's flanking column, meanwhile, moving forward

from Rome, by a wide circuit to the right, had passed beyond Dallas, toward the Chattahoochee river. At Powder Spring, a dozen miles north of Sandtown, on the Chattahoochee, McPherson encountered a considerable force of the enemy, a sharp engagement following, in which the Rebels were driven toward Marietta, with the loss of 2,500 killed and wounded left on the field, and about 300 prisoners. The total Union loss did not exceed 300, as officially stated. After this victory, it appears that a cavalry force advanced to the Chattahoochee, at Sandtown, but was subsequently withdrawn.

On the 1st of June, a movement was commenced by the Army of the Tennessee toward the left, Sherman concentrating his forces for the purpose of flanking, by a general advance to the left, the enemy's position, from which he could, with great difficulty, be dislodged. His works were firmly held during several days, in which more or less fighting occurred. The approaches to the Chattahoochee by our right were especially guarded against, and McPherson's advance in that direction was suspended. On the 5th, the enemy was again found to have withdrawn, to avoid the new menace, now on their right, toward the railroad, and Sherman advanced his army to Acworth, on the railroad, north of the Kenesaw Mountain, about fifteen miles from Marietta. Headquarters remained at this place during the next five days, while supplies were brought up, and preparations made for a further advance. On the morning of the 11th, Big Shanty was occupied, the Army of the Tennessee proceeding southward on the railroad, until within sight of the enemy's lines at a point called the Peach Orchard, when our forces formed in line of battle, throwing up intrenchments at the edge of an open field. The enemy's left now rested on Lost Mountain, and his right on Kenesaw. From this point the army gradually advanced by the usual slow approaches toward the opposing intrenchments, with some losses, until the 19th, when Johnston was found to have fallen back. During this period (on the 14th of June) Gen. Polk was killed. Sherman at once ordered an advance toward Marietta, in the hope of occupying that place without further serious opposition.

The enemy had now also put in motion a cavalry column tc strike the railroad northward, and to break Sherman's communications with his base. Wheeler made his appearance at Calhoun on the 10th of June, cut the railroad and seized a train of cars laden with grain, which was on its way to the army. A train going northward was telegraphed and stopped at Adairsville, about twelve miles below, when Gen. Hovey, who was on board, collected a battalion of two hundred convalescent soldiers, who proceeded with the train, moving cautiously on. About half way to Calhoun, a torpedo exploded under the train, throwing the locomotive from the track, and demolishing four cars-no person on board being seriously injured. On reaching Calhoun, the enemy was found to have retreated, and the train passed on uninterruptedly to Resacca. Wheeler appeared again the same evening, destroying the track below Calhoun. This raid, however, only delayed the trains for two or three days. Meanwhile, there were reports of a much more formidable expedition under Forrest, aiming at the communications farther north, and, perhaps, across the Tennessee. Early in the month of June a large cavalry force, under Gen. Grierson, had set out eastward from Memphis, with the evident purpose of watching Forrest and keeping him in check.

A campaign, undertaken by the Rebel Gen. Pillow, with all the confidence of a Burgoyne, to force Sherman into hasty retreat, prematurely ended in his mortifying repulse, with severe loss, before Lafayette, on the 24th of June.

Instead of continuing his retreat, on the 19th, Johnston had established his lines in a position of great strength upon the crest of Kenesaw, defying assault and arresting a further advance. Sherman intrenched again, and remained in this position, with only occasional skirmishing, until the 27th of June, when an attempt was made to carry the enemy's lines by assault. The battle of this day, in which our losses were somewhat severe, resulted in a repulse at all the intrenched points attacked. Schofield, however, with the Army of the Ohio, succeeded in flanking the enemy, driving a column of Rebel cavalry before him. On the 3d of July, Johnston's forces evacuated their works on Kenesaw Mountain, and fell back to

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