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Halawa, that are used as landing places for small boats. These latter two are named Honoulimaloo and Honouliwai.
Pauwalu Harbor is an indentation in the reef about 5 miles southwest of Cape Halawa.
Pukoo Harbor, 784 miles southwestward of Cape Halawa, is a pocket, 500 yards long, with a clear width of 150 yards at the entrance and somewhat wider inside, in the reef and open southeastward. The harbor is an anchorage for small craft only on account of the limited swinging room; depth of 3 to 4 fathoms can be carried well in the harbor. The harbor is smooth during the trades, although the wind sweeps across it with full force. Pukoo consists of a few houses on the lowland near the beach in front of a deep gorge which has steep sides. A steamer from Honolulu calls weekly. A private range and buoy are maintained to guide this steamer to the anchorage. The reef extends almost a mile offshore here.
Kalaeloa Harbor, 3 miles west of Pukoo Harbor, is reported to be deep at its inner end, but that there is a 7-foot bar at its mouth.
Kamalo Harbor, about 5 miles west-southwestward of Pukoo Harbor, is a pocket in the reef, open southward, consisting of two arms, each about Y2 milelong and 150 yards wide. The entrance depths are limited by a bar with depths of 9 to 12 feet over it, outside of which an anchorage can be found, but there is no shelter from the trade winds or sea. The entrance to the harbor is marked by Kamalo Point Reef gas buoy, which lies about 38 mile southeastward of the bar. There is a wharf at the head of the easterly arm, with a depth of 6 feet at its end. private buoy and two private beacons mark the edge of the reef on the easterly side. A gasoline schooner from Honolulu calls irregularly.
Kaunakakai Harbor, 9 miles westward of Kamalo Harbor, is a pocket, 600 yards long and 200 yards wide, in the reef and
southward. It is an anchorage for small craft only on account of the limited swinging room, and the local steamers using the harbor go to the wharf. The latter extends 42 mile off from the village of Kaunakakai to the easterly side of the harbor. The harbor is reported to be shoaling, but 10 feet can be taken to the westerly side of the end of the wharf. Kaunakakai consists of a few houses showing through the algaroba trees near the mouth of the largest gulch in the vicinity. Some cattle are shipped. A tall wireless-telegraph pole stands about 200 yards eastward of the inshore end of the wharf; the latter is also prominent. A church west of the pole is very prominent. Gasoline and some provisions can be obtained here in limited quantities.
Approaching Kaunakakai Harbor from either direction keep well outside of the reef which fringes the coast to a distance of about 1 mile until off the entrance. Vessels can anchor temporarily just outside the entrance, in about 15 fathoms, but there is no shelter from the trade winds and sea; or steer 35o true (NNE 14 E mag.) on the line of Kaunakakai range lights, and leave the buoys on the sides indicated by their color. Between Kaunakakai and Laau Point the country is bare and rocky and much cut up by small gulches. The beach is sandy, with an occasional algarobă grove here and there. There are no prominent landmarks or signs of habitation along this section of the coast.
Laau Point, the southwesterly point of Molokai, is comparatively low and is marked by a light. An extensive reef makes off shore for about 38 mile, and vessels should give the point a berth of about 1 mile. Penguin Bank, an extensive shelf, makes out from the western end of Molokai, in a general west-southwesterly direction for a distance of 26 miles from Laau Point. The bottom on the bank is fairly flat and consists of sand and coral, with soundings of 24 to 30 fathoms. There is a reported sounding of 7 fathoms, 1712 miles westerly from Laau Point, but its existence has never been verified. Along its northern, western, and southern edges it drops off very abruptly into over 100 fathoms. In the vicinity of Laau Point there is a continuous westerly current flowing along the south shore of Molokai and turning sharply to the north as it rounds the point. There is a strong tide rip west and north of the point forming breakers when the wind is northerly. There is a strong northeast set over the entire bank, which joins the northerly current along the west coast of Molokai. This current is not felt in the deep water west of Penguin Bank, but is apparent at the edge of the bank, when passing inside of the 100fathom curve. There is no apparent connection between this current and the tides, and the trade winds appear to have little effect upon it, although it appears to be stronger or weaker according as there is a barometric depression north or south of the islands. Between Laau Point and Ilio Point, a distance of about 8 miles, the west coast of Molokai is bare, low, and rolling, cut up by a few small gulches, and rises gently from the beach, the latter being marked by low bluffs. and short stretches of sand beaches.
Ilio Point, the northwesterly point of Molokai, is a low peninsula about 1 mile long and 34 mile wide and rounded at its outer end. From Ilio Point to Cape Halawa, a distance of about 32 miles, the north coast of Molokai has a general easterly trend. It is not surveyed, but is generally bold. There are no harbors or anchorages on this coast affording shelter in all winds. There are a few ports where the local steamer calls, but with this exception there is practically no traffic along this coast, and no reason for deep-draft vessels to stand close to shore.
Between Ilio Point and Makanalua Peninsula the country has very little vegetation. Beginning at Ilio Point, the bluff gradually becomes lower, and within 5 miles entirely disappears. At this point a low, precipitous cliff runs inland at right angles to the beach and forms the westerly boundary to the low plain that extends across the island. The seaward end of this cliff looks like a large white sand bank and is the most conspicuous landmark in the vicinity. From this cliff eastward the bluffs along the coast gradually increase in height until they become precipitous cliffs, in some places between 2,000 and 3,000 feet high, and continue to the northeast end of the island.
Makanalua Peninsula, 16 miles eastward of Ilio Point, is marked by Molokai light. The peninsula is low and extends out about 2 miles northward from the face of a high, precipitous cliff. The leper settlement of Kalaupapa occupies the peninsula. There is deep water close to the peninsula, except on the westerly side, where a reef about 34 mile long extends about 14 mile offshore, just northward of the landing at Kalaupapa. An indifferent anchorage can be found in 12 fathoms just off the landing, with the church bearing 100° true (E mag.), but a permit must be obtained, unless on Government business.
Between Makanalua Peninsula and Cape Halawa the country presents a very irregular and jagged appearance, and is more or less covered with vegetation. The precipitous cliffs along the coast are much cut up with deep gulches, bights, and headlands, and except for a few piles of débris at the foot of the cliffs and a few level spots in the mouths of the gulches, no landing can be made.
Between Makanalua Peninsula and Umelehi Point, 6 miles eastward of Molokai light, there are several detached rocks, some of which lie about 34 mile offshore. There may be submerged rocks in this locality, and strangers are cautioned to keep well offshore.
Kalawao, on the east side of the Makanalua Peninsula, is a leper settlement marked by large well-kept buildings,
Pelekunu Landing is on the westerly side of a deep gulch about 534 miles eastward of Molokai light. There is a small village here. Taro is raised here and the local steamer calls during the shipping
There are numerous waterfalls on the face of the cliffs between Pelekunu and Wailau.
Wailau Landing is on the westerly side of Lepau Point, about 8 miles eastward of Molokai light. There are a few houses here, and the local steamer calls occasionally. About 5 miles westward of Cape Halawa is a deep gulch, in which can be seen a waterfall that starts from an elevation of about 2,000 feet, and in one place has a perpendicular fall of about 500 feet.
Kaiwi Channel lies between Molokai and Oahu and is about 22 miles wide and clear of obstructions. The trade winds which follow the northerly and southerly shores of Molokai draw across the channel toward Makapuu Head. Little dependence can be placed on the currents in this channel, but in general they are apt to follow the trade winds, and when they cease the current is apt to set eastward.
the third in size of the islands, lies 22 miles westward of Molokai. It is about 40 miles long between Makapuu Head and Kaena Point and about 26 miles wide between Kahuku Point and Barbers Point. It includes two important mountain systems, and in general presents a more rough and jagged skyline than any of the other islands.
Koolau Range parallels the northeasterly coast for nearly its entire distance. The southeasterly part, between Makapuu Head and a. point abreast of Heeia on Kaneohe Bay, is marked on its seaward side by a sheer, rocky cliff, or pali, nearly 2,000 feet high in places. Northwestward of this point the cliffs give way to steep, rugged slopes. From offshore the northwesterly half of the range presents a long ridge sloping gradually downward and ending in low blutis near Kahuku Point. The crest of the ridge and about half the seaward slope is wooded. below which is it grass-covered. The entire range presents a very jagged appearance and is cut up on its inshore side by deep gorges and valleys. The greatest elevation found on this range is Mount Konahuanui, which is 3,105 feet high. This peak is back of Honolulu, on the east side of Nuuanu Valley, and overlooks the famous Nuuanu Pali at the head of the valley. On the easterly side of the range the land is low and rolling, cut up by a few sharp hills, and is under cultivation.
Waianae Mountains parallel the southwesterly coast for nearly the entire distance between Kaena Point and Barbers Point. Several spurs extend from the range toward the shore, forming short valleys. The range is much broken, and there are a number of high peaks. Mount Kaala, 4,030 feet high, has the greatest elevation. Between these two important ranges is a plain which extends from Pearl Harbor to Waialua. This plain is under cultivation, except in the middle, where it is high and rolling and somewhat cut up.
RIVERS.—There are numerous streams emptying into the sea, none of which are navigable except for small boats.
POPULATION.-By the census of 1920, Oahu had 123,496 inhabitants.
WINDS.—Between Diamond Head and Honolulu the wind comes offshore during the trades.
RAINFALL.—The rainfall in Oahu varies greatly in different localities. The greatest amount is found on the southwesterly side of the Koolau Range opposite Punaluu.
ANCHORAGES are numerous, except on the northeasterly and northwesterly sides, the first requirement under ordinary conditions being shelter from the trade winds.
SUPPLIES.—Provisions, water, ice, lumber, coal, fuel oil, and ship chandlers' stores can be obtained at Honolulu.
REPAIRS.—There are machine shops at Honolulu where extensive repairs can be made. There is a floating dry dock, with a deadweight capacity of 4,500 tons, and divers may be obtained.
COMMUNICATION with the United States, British Columbia, Australia, and the Orient may be had by several regular lines of steamers. There is frequent communication by coasting steamers around the islands.
RAILROADS.—There is a railroad that runs westward from Honolulu along the southwesterly and northwesterly coast as far as Kahana, on the northeasterly coast. A branch of this railroad runs to Wahiawa, in the interior of the island.
HIGHWAYS.—There are good highways in many parts of the island, and transportation can be obtained at most of the towns.
TELEPHONE.—There is communication by telephone to all parts of Oahu, and by wireless telegraph to the other islands, United States, and the Orient. There is cable communication with San Francisco and also with Manila via Midway and Guam.
QUARANTINE.-National quarantine laws are enforced by officers of the United States Public Health Service.
MARINE HOSPITAL.-An assistant surgeon of the United States Public Health Service is stationed at Honolulu for the treatment of seamen.
CURRENTS.—The currents around Oahu are variable in strength and direction, but the general movement of the water along the coast is westward or northward, the direction being modified by the trend of the coast. From Makapuu Head to Barbers Point, a distance of about 28 miles, the coast has a general westerly trend. It is fringed with coral reefs, varying from 1 to 1 mile in width, for nearly the entire distance between Koko Head and Barbers Point.
HARBORS.--Honolulu is the only commercial harbor on the island affording protection in all winds.
Makapuu Head, the easternmost point of Oahu is a bold, barren, rocky headland, 642 feet high, on which is located Makapuu Point Lighthouse. The seaward side of this headland is a high, dark, sheer precipice, while the inshore side slopes rapidly to the valley which separates it from the mountain range. Makapuu Head is prominent and is generally the landfall for vessels bound from San Francisco to Honolulu. There is deep water close to the easterly end of the head, but between it and a position about abreast of Koko Crater a ledge makes offshore. The sea always breaks close to shore in this vicinity, and the 10-fathom curve is about 34 mile from shore. Vessels should give this section of the coast a berth of about 1 mile, taking care to keep in not less than 20 fathoms. Between Makapuu Head and Koko Crater the coast is low and made up of sand, rock, and shingle.
Koko Crater, about 2 miles southwestward of Makapuu Head is a sharp, brown cone, about 1,200 feet high, and is a prominent landmark for vessels approaching from eastward. A wireless pole marks the highest point. Between Koko Crater and Koko Head the coast is rocky and precipitous and somewhat irregular.
Hanauma Bay, just eastward of Koko Head, is about 14 mile wide and indents the coast about 38 mile. It affords good shelter for small craft, but during east-northeast or easterly winds it is very choppy off the entrance.
Koko Head, about 2 miles southwestward of Koko Crater, is a bold promontory 644 feet high. It has a flat top, with its seaward side precipitous and slopes off rapidly inshore. This headland is partly wooded on the lower slopes on the westerly side, but in general it presents a brown and barren appearance. There is deep water close to the point.
Maunalua Bay is an open bight on the westerly side of Koko Head. A coral reef fringes the shore, the water deepening gradually outside of the reef. Shoal water extends 34 mile from the head of the bay, but there are two openings in the reef, where a small boat may pass to the beach, at the head. Outside of the 3-fathom curve the bottom is regular, and vessels can anchor anywhere in smooth weather. The shore of the bay is low and wooded.
Diamond Head, about 6 miles westward of Koko Head, is an extinct crater, 761 feet high, on the southerly side of which is located Diamond Head Lighthouse. The slopes and the top of the crater are bare and brown, but at its base it is thickly wooded. The slopes are steep, and on the seaward side there is a narrow bench about 100 feet above the water, which shows a broken bluff line to seaward. Between Diamond Head and Honolulu the coast is low and thickly wooded. Numerous houses can be seen along the beach, the most prominont of which is a large building close to Diamond Head and the Moana Hotel.
is the most important port in the Hawaiian Islands, and is the only commercial harbor affording protection in all weather. It lies 15 miles westward of Makapuu Head and 13 miles eastward of Barbers Point. The entrance through a coral reef is a channel 58 mile long and 400 feet wide, and the harbor is 12 mile long and 1,000 to 1,200 feet wide, and both have been dredged to a depth of 35 feet; in 1922 the