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county to county, and we get a country. The should be well read in the history of sciences, in child then advances from country to country until the history of the world, in books of travels, and he have something like a notion of the whole in fact in every kind of knowledge that may world. He may then return from his more general create life and interest in his class. survey, and become more thoroughly acquainted Above everything the teacher must be patient, with certain countries, and certain peculiarities persevering, and gentle. We detailed in a recent of the earth's surface and configuration. article the classification of impressions which
The last law which we shall notice, is one Beneke has given in his Psychology. They were which we deem of considerable importance, es- satisfactory impressions, pleasure impressions, pecially for giving interest to a class lesson. A weak impressions, disgust impressions, and pain large portion of the knowledge which we have to impressions. Only the two first strengthen the communicate to our pupils is not the result of our mind. The three kinds of detrimental imprespersonal observation, or of our personal experience. sions are often produced by the impatience and It is the accumulated results of the personal ex- injustice of teachers, and thus fatal injury is done periences of a great variety of men, living at to the intellectual life of the pupil, as well as to different periods, and in different countries. Our his moral. Every teacher should have engraven knowledge has grown, and is growing. In giving on his heart the noble lines of Coleridge with this accumulated knowledge to pupils, we should which we conclude this article :ever keep in mind how the knowledge was acquired originally, what motives led people to
LOVE, HOPE, AND PATIENCE IN EDUCATION. seek for the knowledge at first, and what motives O'er wayward childhood would'st thou hold firm rule, would lead people to seek for it now. For instance, And sun thee in the light of happy faces ; if I am to give a lesson on Canada, I am to ask Love, Hope, and Patience, these must be thy graces, myself
, "Why should I care myself to know about And in thine own heart let them first keep school. Canada ?" And how did civilised nations become For as old Atlas on his broad neck places acquainted with it? Or again, in an historical Heaven's starry globe, and there sustains it,-so lesson, I mnst summon up before my eyes the Do these upbear the little world below great actors in the history, try to feel as an eye
Of Education,-Patience, Love, and Hope. witness of their deeds would have felt, and try to Methinks, I see them grouped, in seemly show, present it to my pupils in such a way that they
The straightened arms upraised, the palms aslope, also may realise the feelings of eye-witnesses. In And robes that, touching as adown they flow, this
Distinctly blend, like snow embossed in snow. the pupil naturally enters with interest
Oh part them never! If Hope prostrate lie, into the lesson. He is not merely supplied with
Love too will sink and die. material for thought, but he is supplied also with But Love is subtle, and doth proof derive a motive. And in all cases a teacher should en- From her own life that Hope is yet alive; deavour to give the motive as well as the informa- And bending o'er with soul-transfusing eyes, tion; should continually help the child to realise And the soft murmurs of the mother dove, the use of the lessons which he is learning, and Woos back the fleeting spirit, and half supplies ;should invest every task with the interest which Thus Love repays to Hope what Hope first gave to inherently belongs to it. Hence, the teachers Love.
Yet haply there will come a weary day, * There is an extremely interesting discussion on the method of giving to pupils right geographical conceptions in Dr Fried
When overtasked at length rich Ueberweg's Die Entwicklung des Bewusstseins durch den Both Love and Hope beneath the load give way. Lehrer und Erzieher.
Eine Reihe pädagogisch-didaktischer Then with a statue's smile, a statue's strength, Anwendungen der Beneke’schen Bewusstseinstheorie, beson- Stands the mute sister, Patience, nothing loth, ders auf den Unterricht an Gymnasien und Realschulen. Eine
And both supporting does the work of both.
ekrönte Preisschrift. 1853.
ON LATIN ORTHOGRAPHY.*
INCE many special questions of ortho- | for caelum cena maereo silca cetera in order to de
graphy are noticed as they occur in the rive them preposterously from Greek words.
that in essential points I follow Lach- systematic was that of Ph. Wagner in his orthomann, if it were not for the apparent unwillingness graphia Vergili ina, published in 1841. With adof scholars in this country to accept even the small- mirable industry he amassed all the evidence est change in what they look upon as the usual or afforded by the medicean and, so far as it was conventional rules of spelling. The notion of any accessible to him, of the other ancient MSS. of uniform conventional spelling is quite a chimera : Virgil. As these, like other old MSS. are as a I never find two English editors following any rule very tenacious of the true spelling in those uniform system ; nay, the same editor will often cases where there is only one right method, he differ in different parts of the same book. But performed this part of his work with eminent whence comes this “conventional” system, so far success, and still remains one of the best authoas it does exist ? From the meritorious and consi- rities on the subject. In those other cases however dering their position most successful endeavours alluded to above, in which variety is the rule of of the Italian scholars in the fifteenth century to the ancients, and which include a great multitude get rid of the frightful mass of barbarisms which of particular instances, he has chosen to abandon the four or five preceding centuries had accumu- the safe ground of evidence and experience, and lated. They sought indeed to introduce rigorous has made Virgil write what he decided on a priori uniformity in cases where variety was the rule of principles he must have written. This seems to the ancients ; and though these cases embraced me the reason why his system was not more geneonly a few general heads, they yet comprised a rally followed. Still less satisfactory was Madvig's great multiplicity of particular instances, because spelling in his du finibus, published in 1839 : it involving the terminations of cases, the assimila- was utterly unlike that of the MSS. and yet in tion of prepositions in compound verbs and the many points it was not what Cicero used : in still like. But where there was only one right course, more you could not be sure whether it was what they generally chose it; yet from the utter con- he used or not. Here too Lachmann, brin ing fusion into which the use of the aspirate had into play his extraordinary “power of asking the fallen, their own language having entirely lost it right question,” and joining with it a minute in sound, but at this time retained it in spelling; knowledge of the whole evidence upon
the subject, from the almost complete identity both in sound saw at once what could be attained and what could and writing of c and t, and the like, they never not, and shaped his course accordingly. The could tell whether humor or umor, humerus or Leyden MSS. of Lucretius, imperfect in many reumerus, spatium or spacium, species or speties was spects, are on the whole admirable in their orthocorrect; and consequently as a rule chose the graphy, at least equal to any of the MSS. of wrong
Their general principles, however, were Virgil, confirming them in what is true and connot accepted by the most thoughtful scholars in any firmed by them in turn : in some nice points, such age, so far at least as concerned the text of ancient as the frequent retention of the enclitic st, they authors, unless it be during a part of the present far surpass them. With their aid he was able to century; neither by an Avancius in the 15th nor confirm those improvements in spelling which by a Lambinus or Scaliger in the 16th, nor by a Wagner had so well established in opposition to Gronovius in the 17th, nor by a Bentley in the the system in common use. But in regard to the 18th. Yet this system gradually established itself, other class of words in which the usage of the because it came to be used by scholars in their ancients varied in different ages or even in the own writings, some of the barbarisms being gradu- same age, he did not dogmatically determine what ally eliminated ; new ones, however, being intro- his author wrote, and thus close the door to all duced, such as coelum coena moereo sylva caetera future change; but knowing that certainty was * Extracted from the admirable edition of Lucretius, by Mr not here attainable, he carefully sifted the evidence
offered by his MSS. and made the best approxiTranslation and Notes by H. A. J. Munro, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Cambridge : Deighton, Bell, & mation he could to what his author might have
London : Bell and Daldy. 1864." The adoption of the written, always taking the most ancient form for new orthography by Mr Munro, may have important bearings which his authorities supplied any testimony on the teaching of Latin in English schools.
Munro. "Titi Lucreti Cari de Rerum Natura Libri Sex, With a
direct or indirect. Thus the question was not In following Lachmann then I am sure that I foreclosed; nor were we left to vague generalities, have authority on my side ; I believe that I have but a firm historical groundwork was gained upon reason as well. In those cases indeed to which I which future improvements might be built, if have already alluded, where the universal testibetterevidence hereafter offered itself. Lachmann mony of inscriptions and of MSS. beyond a certain then in this, as in so many other departments of age prove that there is only one right way and philology, seems at once to have produced con about which the best scholars are all now agreed, viction in the minds of the majority of the most there cannot be any doubt what course should be thoughtful scholars, in Germany I mean ; for in taken: we must write querella loquella luella solour own country most seem to scout the question, lers sollemnis sollicito Tuppiter littera quattuor as unworthy of serious attention : a great mistake; stuppa lammina bracchium; on the other hand, for Latin orthography is a most interesting and milia conecto conexus coniti conicus coniveo conuvaluable study to those who care to examine it, bium belua baca sucus litus and the like; condicio and touches in a thousand points the history solacium, setius artus (adj.) autumnus suboles : in grammar and pronunciation of the language. Let many of them an important principle is involved : me give two examples of the effect at once pro- obeying the almost unanimous testimony of our duced by Lachmann. Otto Jahn, in 1843, pub- own and other good MSS., we cannot but give lished his elaborate edition of Persius, in which umerus umor and the like ; also hiemps. I have he adopted throughout the spelling then in com- heard it asked, What then is the genitive of hiemps: mon use, though he had so many excellent MSS. to which the best reply perhaps would be what is to guide him to a better course : in 1851, the year the perfect of sumo or supine of emo. The Latins after Lachmann's work came out, he published wrote hiemps, as they wrote emptum sumpsi sumpthe text of his Juvenal and followed in it most tum and a hundred such forms, because they disminutely the principles of Lachmann; and fortu- liked m and s or t to come together without the nately he had a most excellent authority in the intervention of a p sound; and our MSS. all attest codex Pithoeanus ; so that the spelling is probably this : tempto likewise is the only true form, which not very far removed from the author's own. In the Italians in the 15th century replaced by tento. the years just preceding Lachmann, Halm pub- Then MSS. and inscriptions prove that d took an lished several orations of Cicero with elaborate n before it, tandem quendam eundem and the like, critical Latin notes ; and yet, though his spelling with the sole exception of circumdo, in which the Was somewhat better than that of Jahn’s Persius, MSS. both of Lucr. and Virgil always retain the it is still essentially “conventional” and arbitrary : m: and generally, though not invariably, m on in the years following Lachmann he published a the other hand remained before q: quemquam series of school editions of Cicero's orations, with tamquam and so on. Then always quicque quicbrief German notes, and yet in these the spelling quam quicquid (indef.), but generally quidquid Was wholly modelled on the system pursued by | (relative); always peremo interemno &c., &c. Above Lachmann. The same system too he has carried all we must scout such barbarisms as coelum out in those volumes of the elaborate edition of moestus sylva caetera nequicquam. In these points Cicero edited by him and Baiter, which came out Wagner is as good a guide as Lachmann ; but in after Lachmann's Lucretius. Stimulated by the regard to the cases in which ancient usage varied, examples of Madvig Ritschl and Lachmann, the shall we follow the former, who deserts the paths rising generation of German scholars has pursued for preconceived general rules, or Lachmann, who the critical study of Latin with eminent success; here also is content to obey the best evidence he and nearly all of them follow in orthography the can get? I have unhesitatingly come over to the guidance of Lachmann. This system then may views of the latter : "hypotheses non fingo” fairly, I think, be now regarded as the true “con should be the rule in this as in other matters. ventional” system ; for surely the school of Lach- As said above, all these uncertain spellings fall mann and Ritschl in the nineteenth century has under a very few general heads. One of these is a better right to dictate to us in the present day the assimilation or non-assimilation of preposiwhat shall be accepted as “conventional" than the tions : inpero represents the etymology, impero Poggios and Vallas of the fifteenth. Ribbeck in his the pronunciation of the word. From the most Virgil shews himself a most devoted pupil of Lach- ancient period of which we have any record, cenmann, and generally he takes the same direction; turies before Cicero or Lucretius, a compromise
some defect of taste and judgment makes was made between these opposing interests: words him not unfrequently misuse his glorious opportu- in common use soon began to change the consonnities and push the matter to the verge of caricature. ant, those in less common use retained it longer.
In the new "corpus inscriptionum Latinarum,”the rexi (recsy) written sometimes recxi, rectum from most recent of which are as old as the age of rego: to judge from the best MSS., labsus and the Lucretius, most of them much older, imperator like became again much more common in the occurs twenty-six times, and is always spelt with silver age. m, proving that in a word, which must daily have Another question involving a multitude of debeen in everybody's mouth, etymology in remote tails is the use of -is or -es in the accus. plur. of times yielded as was natural to sound : imperium participles and adjectives and substantives whose again occurs three, inperium six times, being gen. plur. ends in ium, as well as of some other doubtless in somewhat less common use. Now in classes, doloris or dolores, maioris or maiores : Lucretius imperium impero or imperito occurs six here too Wagner involves himself in inextricable times, and the MSS. always spell it with m, and perplexities by his eclectic system, when his MSS. so Lucretius spelt it I have no doubt : indeed many were admirable guides, had he chosen to follow of these common words the silver age I believe them. The MSS. of Lucretius are no less admirable more frequently wrote with n, than did that of and probably represent very fairly the author's Cicero. Then Virgil uses imperium forty times; own usage : they offer -is five times out of siz; and Ribbeck's capital MSS. have m in every in- and -es is somewhat more common in substantives stance, except M which twice has inp., though one in very general use, as ignes vires aures. Inscripeven of these two cases is doubtful : for Æn. viii. tions quite bear out our MSS. ; and the sole relic 381, Fogginius prints imperiis. Yet in defiance of of Latin yet disinterred from Herculaneum conall this evidence Wagner gives us inperium, surely tains this v. Utraque sollemnis iterum revocaverat without reason on any view of the case ; for the orbes. Pertz recently printed in the Berlin foundation on which we must build is thus with transactions the few remaining leaves of a MS. drawn from under our feet. To take another com- of Virgil, which he assigns to the age of Augustus, mon instance, commuto occurs nine times in the and which may really be of the second or third corpus inscr. and always with m; twelve times in century: we there find the acc. plur. of adjectives Lucretius, and always with m. Other words are and participles ending eighteen times in -is, three more uncertain : we find in the MSS. impius and times in -es, pares felices amantes ; of substantives inpius, immortalis and inmortalis, conligere and we find sonoris, but four times vires, and artes colligere, compleo and conpleo ; and so with other messes crates classes aves, quite bearing out the prepositions ab, ob, sub, ad; all tending to prove testimony of our A and B. Varro de ling. Lat. that usage was in most words uncertain Again VIII. 67, says quid potest similius esse quam gens we have exsto exto, exsolvo, exulto expiro expecto mens dens ? quom horum casus patricus et accusacet., s being generally omitted ; and this agrees tivus in multitudine sint disparilis ; nam a primo with Quintilian, i. 74, who implies that it was a fit gentium et gentis, utrobique ut sit i; ab secundo learned affectation of some to write exspecto in mentium et mentes, ut in priore solo sit i; ab tertio order to distinguish ex and speclo from ex and dentum et dentes, ut in neutro sit i; well our pecto ; it agrees too with all other good evidence : MSS. six times have the acc. gentis, never gentes ; the MSS. of Virgil furnish precisely the same dentes four times, never dentis; mentes five times, testimony as those of Lucretius ; yet Wagner in once only, 11. 620, mentis. As for the nomin. all such cases writes exs ; surely we should keep plur. of such words, Varro 1. 1. 66, says sine reex where the MSS. keep it, exs where they have prehensione vulgo alii dicunt in singulari hac ori exs; and so with supter or subter, suprilis or et avi, alii hac ove et ave, in multitudinis hae subtilis. ab- or ap-, ob- or op-, sub- or sup-, succ- or puppis restis et hae puppes restes : the fragment susc and the like : we find haud and haut, and of Virgil just cited has the nomin. plur. putris and sometimes aliut aliquit quicquit, and the like, messis, though we saw it had messes in the accus.: sound and etymology carrying on an undecided in accordance then with these high authorities battle in the MSS. of Lucretius, as in inscriptions the MSS. of Lucr. not unfrequently retain this and elsewhere : cdque is sometimes but rarely nomin. in -is, which it would be monstrous to found, sound having here as might be expected extirpate : I have always therefore kept it. We gained the victory: Wagner cannot be right in see from the corpus inscr. that -eis -is -es were all always forcing adque on Virgil. Lucretius seems in use : it is probable that Lucr. occasionally emto have recognised only sed; he once has elabsa, ployed the termination -eis intermediate in sound and once praescribta : see notes 2 to vi. 92. In such between -es and -is; but, if so, his manuscripts forms sound must have at an early period pre- have left few or no traces, and it would be most vailed, and b dg gave way to ptc before s and t: perverse to follow Avancius Wakefield and others lapsus for labsus is the same principle as rex (recs) | in thrusting it into his verses in season and out of
season. His MSS. have however left not a few therefore uncertain, such as the termination of partraces expressed or implied of the ending -ei : see ticiples and words like lubet or libet, dissipat or n. to iii 97 oculei: these traces have of course dissupat, quadrupes or quadripes and many others, been carefully preserved.
I have of course submitted to the guidance of our On another question, comprehending a multi- MSS. as well as in the adoption of e or o in vertere tude of particular instances, I have followed or vortere and the like : is naturally the more Lachmann and our MSS., which here too are on common, yet vorti vorsum divorsi vortitur conthe whole excellent guides : I speak of the vowel vortere vortex are all found. The MSS. too l have or consonant u followed by another u. The old always followed in reading reddunda gignundis Latins appear to have been unable to pronounce dicundum cernundi faciundum agundis cet. or the uu; and therefore the ancient o long kept its more usual agendum quaerendum cet. Do I then place after u; or for qu c or q was used : quom claim in all these doubtful cases to reproduce the qum or cum, never quum ; linquont linqunt or spelling of Lucretius or his first editor ? Certainly lincunt, sequontur, sequntur or secuntur, equos ' not; but in most of these cases Lucretius and his (nom.) equs or ecus ; volgus divos divom aevom, and contemporaries undoubtedly allowed themselves 80 on. They appear to have begun soonest to much latitude ; and I have not intentionally pertolerate un in terminations, when both were vowels, mitted anything to remain which might not have suus tuus and the like. Now the MSS. of Lucre- been found in one or other MS. before the death tius have retained in very many instances divom of Virgil. By adhering tenaciously to the MSS. volnus volgo vivont cet.; equos (nom.) and ecus where not demonstrably wrong, one gains a firm ecun, accum; relinquont relinqunt or relincunt resting-place from which to make further adoftener than relinquunt, so sequontur secuntur vances, if better evidence offer itself. However secutus locuntur locutus ; but with Lachmann I that may be, I cannot bring myself to accept the retain the uu, when the MSS. offer it, in order arbitrary and eclectic system of a Wagner, much not to get lost on a sea of conjectural uncertainty less the hideous barbarisms of a Wakefield ; por like Wagner and some others. The MSS. of on the other hand, after feasting on the generous Lucretius are also very pertinacious in retaining cereals of a Lachmann and a Ritschl can I the genuine old forms reicit eicit or eiecit cet. and stomach the “conventional" husks and acorns of never ofering reiicit eiicit and the like: Grai the Italians of the 15th century. At the same Grais, not Graii Graiis. But further details on time it will be seen that my spelling differs less the most interesting points of the ancient ortho- from this system, than does that of Wagner in his graphy will be found in various parts of our notes. standard text of 184), or even his subsequent Again
, in thoso many cases where the sound was modification of that text for common use which intermediate between u and i, and the spelling Prof. Conington has adopted in his Virgil.
THE BODY IN EDUCATION.
E will unquestionably do good service but too often regarded as separate and distinct in
in the cause of education who will their nature and interests, the one having ascribed set forth the body in its proper light, to it whatever is low, and grovelling, and vicious, and shew the important part which while the other is credited with all that is true,
it plays in the animal economy. Not and pure, and holy. In education, the one is cona few of the pernicious errors that prevail in the sidered as demanding and worthy of our highest present day on the subject of education are to be care and attention, the other, it is believed, may traced to mistaken ideas which are entertained be left to nature or chance, or if any attention be regarding the nature of the body. The time is bestowed upon it, it is to be directed mainly to now probably gone by when the body and mind checking and curbing its native energies. And of man were viewed as two antagonistic prin- yet with all our efforts at educating man's higher ciples, whose interests were diametrically opposed nature, we cease not to regard it as mysterious the one to the other, and when he was considered and incomprehensible in its character, subject to to be doing the greatest service to his mental laws, and directed by influences, of which we can nature who was most directly sinning against his form no conception, and to which we are but too physical constitution. Still, however, they are ready to ascribe the errors and defects that arise