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Lordship has founded your opinion. We certainly already appeared in the Museum, and it is not do not know of any proof that this state of matters necessary now to take up space with them. exists. But were even the fact proved to be as alleged, no benefit to education can be anticipated EXTRACTS from, or substance of, paragraphs in to arise from inverting the process, and neglecting Reports of H. M. Inspectors for 1864-65, the elder pupils for the younger, cramming into ferred to on page 459. · them reading, writing, and aritbmetic, in the Mr HOWARD.—“In the great body of schools, attempt to train their thinking powers, while the some have improved, and some have fallen of," – real education work with the elder would be in many cases due to reduced number of pupilabandoned. This is only a change in the direc- teachers, very often to the negleet of grammar and tion of our energies, and will not increase our geography, in order to make more progress in the power, or conduce to the welfare of our pupils. subjects required by the Code. - “Reading is some Our system has met, and still meets, the approval what improved, but still far from satisfactory. of the parents of our pupils and the managers of For often the aim of the teachers has been to bring our schools, and therefore it may be questioned their pupils up to the mark required by the Code, whether the Privy Council makeseither a courteous rather than to make them clear, distinct, and inor judicious use of the power it possesses, when it telligible readers." Regrets to find that in a large insists on a change neither demanded by any number of schools grammar and geography bare proved necessity nor by those who are at least not been attended to since the Revised Code came as much interested in procuring a good education into operation. The teachers plead the pressure for the young, as those who have devised the of the Code, and the necessity of meeting its reRevised Code.

quirements. The time spent on these subjects is We would further submit to your Lordship a positive gain. whether it is wise to persist in carrying out the Mr Rog.--"Rapid diminution of pupil-teachers." arrangements of that code in the face of the fact, Some schools have certainly suffered from the Rethat in all probability another change may be made vised Code, from excessive severity of weather, or when the Royal Commission shall have given in prevalence of sickness on the date of examinaits report.

tion... We beg to assure your Lordship that we do not Mr MITCHELL.—Two points demand attentionmove in this matter in a factious spirit, but because falling off of places applying for pupil-teachers, we are convinced that the Code cannot be carried and absence of candidates. Number of candidates out honestly consistently with the well-being of in 1864 less than half of former years. Inspection those entrusted to our care, and that if carried out not now so satisfactory. The effect has been to at all it will be to the detriment of education. lower education. The teachers bear the loss of

On consideration, we trust your Lordship may augmentation with exemplary patience. Schools see fit to grant our first request, and completely are receding from their former position. The suspend the operation of the Revised Code in tendency is now only to look to the grant. Scotland.—We have the honour to be, your Lord- Mr Nutt acknowledges that grammar, geoship’s most obedient servant,

graphy, and history, have entirely dropped out of Thos. NEILL, Chairman. the course of instruction. W. M, MILLER, Secretary. Mr SANDFORD.-Is sorry to find young and in

efficient monitors in many cases taking the place NOTES AND APPENDICES.

of pupil teachers. The minutes referred to on page 457 are familiar Mr Stewart.—Decline in the activity of the to all the readers of the Museum, as they consist promoters of elementary education has been apof the instructions to inspectors in 1864, regard. parent during the last eighteen months—managers ing the suspension of payments but continuance will not undertake greater liabilities than they of examinations under the Revised Code, and the previously were under. Losses of income bare reiteration of the same in 1865 in answer to the been felt severely,—22 teachers in this district inquiry of S. Laurie, Esq.

have thrown up their situations. What were The reference on page 459 is to the last three difficulties under the old Code are impossibilities pages of the Report of the Privy Council Com under the new. Apprentices shew unwillingness mittee for 1864, containing the apparent fact, that to enter Normal Schools, New ones are inferior in writing and arithmetic, Scotland has been to old. beaten by England, and also giving copious ex. (The following paragraphs, taken from the same tracts from Mr Middleton's report. These have report, are in many respects valuable, but especially as being directly opposed to Mr Middletoni's Mr BowsTEAD-Regrets that the number of views.)

pupil-teachers has fallen off considerably within “I have not made any calculation of the per- the last two years. No hopes of fewer failures at centage of children presented or passed under the examinations in future-most of the schools have different standards prescribed by the Code, because done worse the second year than the first. Canthe value of such returns appears to be extremely not pretend to give a reliable opinion on teaching questionable.

of grammar, geography, or history, mental or slate “Whatever may be the value or necessity of arithmetic, in the past year. Impression is that examination, there is a tendency to give it a power they have been much less taught than heretofore. which it does not and cannot possess.

Teaching staff has been seriously diminished. "My own experience of school work leads me Mr Fitch.--Remarks that the general state of to think that it is scarcely possible to devise any instruction was very satisfactory, while, at the form of limited examination of individual children saine time, only half the scholars were presented which will test all the really importunt points for examination. Failures occur in lowest stanwhich a good teacher has in view, and in which dard. New Code formalizing work, making it "in the efficiency of every school more or less de- some degree lifeless, inelastic, and mechanical." pends.

Teaching of history, grammar, and geography dis“Even in respect of those subjects of elementary couraged. Difficulty of getting pupil-teachers instruction to which tabulation is applicable, there sensibly increasing. Revised Code has not inare practical difficulties from which I see no creased voluntary contributions. escape.

Dr MORELL.-Effort to train thinking powers “ I have more than once attempted to place in abandoned to a large extent, and amount of actual the order of their efficiency all the schools visited information greatly decreased. Teachers' enin an official year, by adopting in each case the thusiasm has died away--they have "lost heart." same or a similar combination of inspection and Many have resigned, commenced private establishindividual examination; but I have only succeeded ments, or taken to other employments. Teaching in convincing myself that each case must be judged power of the school has largely diminished. on its own merits, unless the standard adopted is Mr WADDINGTON.–Found 266 pupil-teachers 80 low as to be valueless."

instead of 347, as in previous year. Difficulty in Mr TINLING—States that geography, grammar, finding candidates. Grammar, geography, and and history, bave almost ceased to form a part of history neglected. Illness at examination time a teaching in many schools.

hardship on managers.

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Notices of Books.


The Tragedies of Sophocles. A new translation, with as a matter of fact, I have the scantiest possible ac

Biographical Essay. By E. H. PLUMPTRE. Alex- quaintance with them. ' I entered on my task, not ander Strahan, London. 1865.

as seeking to supply a want, still less as challenging

comparison with others, but because I found in it a When a new translation of a classical work is pre- refreshment after labours of a graver character that sented to the world, we naturally suppose that the had pressed more heavily than usual. It has gone translator thinks that there exists no good transla- on side by side with those labours for some months. tion of it, or at least, that there is a hope of making Such as it is, seeing that the ground is clear, I have a better than any existing one. But Mr Plumptre been led to publish it. Be it a nearer approach to has set to his task with no such idea, After men- an adequate rendering than what has been done by tioning the translations of Sophocles in English others, or a greater failure, I shall never tempt Neme. with which he is acquainted, he goes on to say, "Of sis hy censuring, nor propitiate her by praising them." these, the three complete translations have been for Of course Mr Plumptre may pursue any course he some years, I believe, out of print. It forms no likes in such a matter, but we question whether the part of my purpose to sit in judgment on them. course he has pursued was wise. It seems to us In nine cases out of ten, such criticism is but that, before publishing his translation, he should an ungracious and hazardous preface to what may have examined most carefully all the versions which itself present many points open to attack, and I he could procure, and either be should have refrained

And weigh this also, --Nature formed us women,
Weak and unfit to cope with mightier man;
Since, therefore, we are swayed by stronger lords,
Submit we meekly, though to keener wrongs.
First will I ask forgiveness of the dead,
That force constrains me to obey the mighty:
Then bow to those who hold the sovereign sway.
To dare a deed so far beyond our strength,
What is it but distraction ?".

from publishing his own, if he thought it inferior, or made his own better by making all the use he could of his predecessors, in a fair and open way. Mr Plumptre might thus have produced the translation of Sophocles, but as it is, all that can be said is that bis translation is good, that it is sometimes superior to those of his predecessors, but that as often it is decidedly inferior. He excels in passages where quiet beauty is the characteristic, but he is deficient in force. Occasionally like most translators, he introduces epithets to fill up the line, a fair enough practice in certain circumstances, but these opithets have often the effect of altering the sense of the originalwords. In translations, a comparison with previous efforts is the surest criterion of its merits. We therefore select a passage from the Antigone, and we give for comparison Donaldson's and Dale's translations along with that of Mr Plumptre,

Ah me! consider, sister, how detested
And blasted with ill fame our father fell,
When for his self-detected sinfulness
He pierced his eyes with suicidal hand.
And then his mother-wife-a double name,
With twisted nooses made away her life.
Thirdly, our brothers both upon one day
Slain mutually, wretched pair! have wrought
A kindred death by one another's hands.
Now we are left alone, and oh! bethink thee
How much the worst of all our fate will be,.
- If we, the law defying, set at nought
The sovereign will and mandate of our ruler.
But it were well to bear in mind that we
Are women born, and must not fight with men.
And then that overruling power compels us
To hear both these and still more grievous

I then, beseeching my departed friend
To pardon me, as I have not my will,
Must yield obedience to authority.
For to attempt without the power to do,
Is but a poor significance of wisdom.”

O think, dear sister! think on our poor father,
How, by a doom inglorious and abhorred,
He fell ; and, maddened by detected crimes,
Tore out his eyes with self-avenging hand.
Think how his wife and mother too, she bore
That twofold name, by the suspended cord
Her course of suffering closed. Reflcct, once

How in one day our hapless brothers slain,
Each by the other's spear, received alike
From fratricidal hands their common doom,
We now are left unfriended and alone;
And oh, bethink thee, how we must incur
A doom more dark and fearful, if we dare
To spurn by force the mandate of our tyrant,

Plumptre. “Ah me! remember, sister, how our sire Perished, with hate o’erwhelmed and infamy, From evils that he brought upon himself, And with his own hand robbed himself of sight, And how his wife and mother, both in one, With twist and cordage, cast away her life ; And thirdly, how our brothers in one day In suicidal conflict wrought the doom, Each of the other. And we twain are left; And think, how much more wretchedly than all We twain shall perish, if, against the law, We brave our sovereign's edict and his power. For this we need remember, we were born Women ; as such, not made to strive with men. And next, that they who reign surpass in strength, And we must bow to this, and worse than this. I then, entreating those that dwell below, To judge me leniently, as forced to yield, Will hearken to our rulers. Over-zeal In act or word but little wisdom shews."

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In this passage,

“robbed himself of sight" is far too weak for a pážas o 4 us ; " with twist and cordage cast away her life," is not very intelligible ; " in suicidal conflict” is questionable, even though the Greek be αυτοκτονούντε; the omission of μένα from

we twain are left," is a poetical blemish; and "against the law” is not strong enough for meless Big. We need not go farther into the matter. We think Mr Plumptre might have with advantage consulted more carefully Donaldson and Dale.

Mr Plumptre does not use rhyme in the choral odes. If Mr Plumptre's object had been to give as accurate a version of the thoughts of Sophocles as possible, his rejection of rhyme might have been necessary. But as he intends his version to give an adequate idea of the poetry of Sophocles, we think he has done himself injustice in refusing to employ rhyme. The English reader will be sure to feel a want. Mere rhythm is not enough for him. In all his own lyric poetry he is accastomed to rhyme, and when lyric poetry is presented to hin without rhyme, his association is disturbed, the poem does not seem to have the full swell and body that it ought to have; and, in fact, he is apt to get tired of it. The difference between rhymed and unrhymed choral odes is more felt in reading 2 entire play at once ; for the rhymed choral odas


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come in as pleasant variations and reliefs; but even are dismissed. The writer speaks first of plants in when a choral ode is presented by itself, we think general, and then proceeds to discuss seeds, the the superiority of the rhymed will be apparent. We root, the 'stem, the leaf, the flower, and the fruit. take a small portion again from the Antigone, and Vivid interest is given to the accounts of these give along with Mr Plumptre's Donaldson's and parts, by lively description, by the introduction of Dean Milman's version :

all kinds of information derived from travel and Donaldson.

observation, and by the explanation of the nature “ See me, ye citizens of my fatherland,

and history of many of the common articles of food Treading the last of paths,—the latest sunlight,

or of clothing. Indeed, the last two or three chapBeholding now, and ne'er again. But Hades,

ters are devoted especially to palms, corn, sugar, and Who lays all men to rest, leads me still living

vines ; tea, coffee, and cocoa ; and flax, hemp, and To the banks of Acheron ;

cotton. It is the best book on the subject to put The Hymenæal strain denied me,

into the hand of a young person for private reading. Nor hath any bridal hymn Hymned me as yet; but Acheron will wed me." Youthful Diligence and Future Greatness. A Book Plumptre.

for the Young. By the late Rev. W. K. TWEEDIE,

D.D., Author of " Seed-Time and Harvest," &c. “Yes! O ye men of this my fatherland,

London: T. Nelson & Sons, Paternoster Row. Ye see me on my way,

Edinburgh and New York.'1866. Life's last long journey, gazing on the sun, His last rays watching now and nevermore ; This book is sure to become a great favourite. Alone He leads me, who has room for all,

The men whose lives are here sketched are for the Hades, the Lord of death,

most part not so well known to the young as they To Acheron's dark shore,

should be. They are Leonardo da Vinci, Blaise With neither part nor lot in marriage rites, Pascal, Alexander Pope, Benjamin West, Antonio No marriage hymn resounding in my ears, Canova, Alexander Wilson, Henry Kirke White, But Acheron shall claim me as his bride." Sir Joshua Reynolds, Sir Matthew Hale, James Milman.

Ferguson, and Jacques Lafitte. And yet the histories “ Come, fellow-citizens, and see

of all of them are likely to be deeply attractive to The desolate Antigone,

the young. They are given by Dr Tweedie with On the last path her steps shall tread,

power and beauty, and in a manner calculated to Set forth, the journey of the dead :

awaken a noble and high ambition. Watching, with vainly.lingering gaze, Her last, last sun's expiring rays;

Biographical Outlines of English Literature. By DAVID Never to see it, never more !

PRYDE, M.A., Lecturer on the English Language For down to Acheron's dread shore

and Literature in the School of Arts, &c. For the A living victim am I led

use of Schools, Second Edition. Edinburgh : To Hades' universal bed.

Bell & Bradfute. London: Simpkin, Marshall,

& Co. 1866.
To my dark lot no bridal joys
Belong, nor e'er the jocund noise
Of hymenoan chant shall sound for me;

This is a very able outline of a history of English But Death, cold Death, my only spouse shall be.” Literature. It does not profess to be more than a

school book, and therefore we are not entitled to Mr Plumptre has prefixed to his translation a biographical essay, This essay is worthy of all expect either philosophical discussion or original praise, beautifully written, exceedingly interesting, author has assigned to himself

, he has done his

investigation. But within the limits which the and containing a vivid picture of the poet and his work carefully and well

. The style is clear and times. Mr Plumptre does not seem to have known Professor D'Arcy Thompson's masterly translation The author selects the most prominent names in the

telling, the information is important and interesting. of the Ajax, for he speaks of Donaldson's Antigone as standing “almost alone as a version of a single biographical notices of each writer, narrating in few

History of English Literature. He gives short

words the facts which throw light on his literary The Plant World. By ELIZABETH TWINING, Author career, and he then mentions and characterises his of “ Illustrations of the Natural Orders of Plants."

works. If there is one defect, it is that he has not New Edition. London: T. Nelson & Sons, Pater-given large enough space to some of the most famous noster Row; Edinburgh and New York. 1866.

writers. Tennyson, Scott, and Jeffrey get nearly

as much space as Shakspeare or Milton. Mr Pryde This is a very skilful attempt to render botany defends himself on the principle that the amount of interesting to young minds. All technical terms matter given should not be in proportion to the



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greatness of the writer, but the interest of the mate- tions, viz. : theology, moral science, law, natural rial. But even on his own principle he seems to us science, or in mechanism and applied science. The to have acted wrong; for even the slightest fact Year-Book gives full particulars of what is expected connected with Shakspeare, himself, his family, and in each of these departments, and contains a list of the order and production of his plays, is deeply the text books which are recommended or laid down. interesting. Mr Pryde has also abstained from making extracts from the writers, with this advan- The St Andrews University Calendar, for the year tage, that his book is more compressed and full of 1865-66. Printed and Published for the Senatus facts ; but with this disadvantage, that there are no Academicus, by William Blackwood & Sons, reliefs to the narrative.

Edinburgh. 1865.

We confess that we deserve blame in not having A Latin-English Dictionary, for the use of Junior noticed sooner this, the first issue of the St Andrews

Students. Abridged from the larger work of University Calendar. The Calendar is divided into White and Riddle, by Rev. John T. WHITE, M.A. two parts, the first containing detailed information of C. C. C. Oxford, London ; Longmans, Green, concerning the constitution, regulations, and bur& Co, 1866.

saries of the University; the second giving the This school dictionary deserves the highest praise office-bearers, prizemen, and regulations for the for its accuracy, its comparative fulness, its etymo. year. It is, as all that the Blackwoods do, exceed. logical information, and its general trustworthiness. ingly well got up; and we trust that this may prose Mr White has given special attention to the etymo. the first of a long series. logies of the words. He has consulted the best books on the subject of comparative philology, and Report of Education in the Parochial Schools of the the results are given very clearly. Mr White lays Counties of Aberdeen, Banff, and Moray. Addressed claim to being the first to print in such a way that to the Trustees of the Dick Bequest, by Simon S. the reader may see at a glance the process in the LAURIE, A, M., Visitor for the Dick Bequest Trusformation of a word, and the reason for the etymo- tees; Milne Bequest Inspector ; Secretary to the logical meaning assigned to it.

Education Committee of the Church of Scotland. Mr White includes proper names in his dictionary. Edinburgh : Printed by Thomas Constable, Prin

While Mr White has used well and carefully ter to the Queen, and to the University, 1865. Curtius's “Grundzüge," and Leo Meyer's “Com

We can do no more this month than call the parative Grammar," he seems to have neglected the attention of teachers to this report. The report is very able works of Corssen, and, in consequence, divided into two parts. In the second part the has set down some etymologies with greater cer

practical working and history of the Dick Bequest tainty than can be fairly attributed to them. Mr White would have also given greater value the function of the parochial schoolmaster. He es

are narrated. In the first part Mr Laurie discusses to his dictionary if he had stated more fully the government of the verbs and adjectives. He hus tions which the parochial schoolmaster must expect

plains the purpose of education, describes the limitadone this to some extent, and he may have thought to labour under, lays out the methods of teaching, that further information should be sought for in and states the practical value of the various subjects Grammars or in English-Latin Dictionaries.

taught. In fact, it is a treatise on the work of edu.

cation in parochial schools. It is a singularly able The Cambridge Year-Book and University Almanack and satisfactory work. Mr Laurie moves about with for 1866.

Edited by William White, Sub- firm step, evidently having made a thorough study Librarian of Trinity College. London : Riving of the subject in all its aspects. He deserves the tons, Waterloo Place ; High Street, Oxford ; highest praise for judiciousness, for true insight, Trinity Street, Cambridge.

and for clearness and vigour in stating his opinions. We give a hearty welcome to this the fifth issue The book will be invaluable to the parochial school. of the Cambridge Year-Book. The arrangement is master, and, indeed, to all who have to teach. We admirable, the information given is exactly what is do not know the exact nature of the terms on which wanted, and every care has been taken to render the Report of the Dick Bequest is published, but we the book as accurate as possible. This year's issue feel sure that the Trustees would act wisely for the contains the regulations for the new B.A. scheme, interests of education, if they were to send a copy which will be found to be of great interest to educa of their report to every teacher in Scotland, at any tionists. For the ordinary degree, a candidate has rate, to every parochial teacher. to pass a previous examination, a general examina- The work is so important, and there are so many tion, and a special examination. After having points that naturally fall to be discussed in such a passed the previous and general examinations, he magazine as this, that we shall return to the subject must pass in one of the following special examina- | next month.


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