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spurious conglomerate: there is combination with surely, are anomalies enough to justify inquiry. out amalgamation. The Committee consists of eight Indeed they are not mere anomalies,-mere anomembers. Of these, the Lord President of the malies are tolerable,—they are glaring abuses and Privy Council is the head; and he is such simply absurdities. because he is president of the Council, not because As a consequence of this anomalous constituhe has any special fitness for superintending tion of the Committee, its mode of procedure is the education department. Similarly, other six still more open to criticism. The Committee has members of the Committee are cabinet ministers, not merely the power of suggesting changes ;

it and are on the committee ex officiis. They are

has what Lord Robert Cecil well called a "quasi not only appointed without reference to any legislative power.” It sends forth its edicts in special qualifications for dealing with public in the form of minutes, which in the quietest way struction ; they may be specially unfit. A man often produce great changes, and sometimes fall may be an excellent First Lord of the Admiralty, with sudden cruelty upon the dependents of the yet have no single qualification for an educa- system. "No doubt,” said Sir R. Cecil, " the

, tional minister. A man may be an admirable minutes of the Committee of Council must be foreign secretary, yet he may hold peculiar views placed on the table of this House;" but this is about orthography, which positively disqualify practically of little use, for, as he pointed out, “is him for administering the Revised Code. Indeed, within one month any honourable member can the Committee seems to be constituted on the secure an opportunity of calling attention to the principle that education is a subject which any- subject, without being counted out, or beaten in body can understand and legislate upon; yet Mr

an accidental division, it is possible, not to reverse Lowe himself tells us that “such is the extra- a particular minute, but to induce the Committee ordinary difficulty and complexity of the regula- of Council to lay on the table another minute, tions (of the department), that you cannot expect differing from the former by some illusory alteraany statesman who is not practically acquainted tions.” No wonder that Sir Robert characterised and connected with the department to master such procedure as a device for “

juggling the them.” And he urges this as a reason for the House of Commons out of its authority." There department being represented in the House of is nothing to justify or excuse the extraorCommons,—not by the Chancellor of the Ex- dinary method pursued. There is neither nechequer, or any other cabinet minister who are cessity nor expediency to warrant it. There is members of the committee,—but by the Vice- really no reason why Minutes of Council should President. That functionary is indeed the only not go through the same stages and process us member of the Committee who is appointed on ordinary bills; nay, it is becoming plainer every special grounds of fitness; and as such, it is only year that there are very strong reasons why they natural and reasonable that we should regard him should. It is indeed difficult to understand why as specially the educational minister. And such the House of Commons, usually so jealous of its practically he is, and has always been understood rights, has tolerated this palpable interference to be. Yet, pro forn,â, he is a subaltern; and with them so tamely and so long. It appears when brought to book for the misdeeds of his now, however, that it is becoming alive to the department, he may refer to his principal, the real state of the case, and there are hopeful indipresident, who has probably as much to do with cations that it is prepared to assert its rights. them as the Queen has to do with an inter- This debate, therefore, has gone to the real heart national treaty; in a kind of royal manner he of the matter, in proposing to deal with the fundagives his “consent.” So true is it that the Vice-mental question, whether the constitution of the President is the real minister, that we always find Committee is such as to fit it for its duties. Sir the distinctive policy of the department, pro tem- John Pakington has left no doubt as to the pore, to be the distinctive policy of the Vice-objects of his movement. He declares them to President. It is he and his views that give the be, first, the re-organization of the Department; tone for the time to its plans and proceedings. A second, the extension of its benefits to the whole change in the Vice-Presidentship never fails to of England. And Mr Lowe appreciates it at its bring about a change in the whole procedure of proper value, when he sees in it “ the commencethe department --of which we have a striking ment of the undoing of the work that has recently example at present: a fact which of itself proves been accomplished." that the subordinate is practically the chief. Here,



English Journal
Journal of Education




HE public must expect to hear a good been referred to a Royal Commission. It will

deal about Middle-class Education therefore, we may venture to hope, undergo as during the next few years. The sub- thorough an investigation as it deserves. Subject has long been trying to force its commissioners will travel and examine, and take

claims on their attention, and hither- notes, and accumulate statistics. Witnesses of to, it must be confessed, with a success very far more or less ability and experience will volunteer from adequate to its importance or its merits. their testimony as to the condition, the shortNow, however, there seems to be a chance of comings, and the requirements of middle-class something being done. The expediency of doing education. The projectors of ingenious educasomething is at all events very generally admitted. tional schemes will have a hearing, and the inThat the education of the middle classes is, com- terests, the peculiarities, and the prejudices of paratively speaking, in a very unsatisfactory state; every section and grade, and of every party in the that

, while advanced education and elementary | Church, and out of it, will be respectfully coneducation have been liberally fostered and assisted, sidered and fairly dealt with. And what will the education of those who occupy an intermediate come out of it? Will the Commission and its reposition has been left to shift for itself; are posi- port only supply material for essays and leading tions that have of late been so frequently asserted, articles, for talk on the platform and at the dinand so universally acknowledged, that they have ner table, and then pass away into the limbo of by this time arrived at the dignity of truisms. forgotten verities, of antiquated and old-world The subject has indeed been amply discussed in matters? May the sense, spirit, and patriotism papers and periodicals, at public meetings and of the nation prevent such a result. Unless we scientific congresses. A variety of propositions are very much mistaken in our impressions, or has been made, and a multitude of schemes ven- unless the Commission does its work much less tilated for the benefit of the class in question. efficiently than we think it will, there will be Oxford and Cambridge local examinations, So- made such a discovery of shortcomings, such a ciety of Arts certificates, inspection, the establish. demonstration of the necessity for some kind of ment of district or county middle-class colleges, action, that Government will be compelled in the appropriation of charitable endowments, the some way to take the initiative in a movement on conversion of a certain number of the old gram- behalf of the education of the middle classes. mar schools, are all included in the programme What the Commissioners will discover we can which has been at one time or another put for- partly, perhaps, guess; what they will recomward for consideration. And now the subject has mend is at present beyond the reach of conjecture.




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They have a difficult and a delicate task to dis- Now, in proposing a scheme of education for charge; they will encounter many prejudices and this class, we ought to keep chiefly in view the provoke not a few jealousies, and they may pos. lower sections of it, because it is there that the sibly find themselves restricted to recommenda- typical middle-class character will chiefly be found, tions of a very limited and qualified sort. Still and there also is the most obvious deficiency and we look forward to their report as directly or in the least ability for self-help in the matter. The directly leading to important reforms in the ex- sons of farmers, shopkeepers, small merchants and ternal conditions, the organisation, and machinery manufacturers, various classes of business men, of middle class education." Meanwhile it must be clerks in offices, and persons of a similar grade, borne in mind that there is another element in constitute, therefore, the raw material to which the question whichi hitherto has not been very our plans and processes of instruction are to be carefully considered-How to make provision for applied. We must keep in view, then, what they the education of the middle classes ; how to estab- are likely to be in manner, habits, temper, and lish an adequate number of good schools ; how to aptitudes, when they first come under the influmake these schools at once efficient and economi-ence of the educator, and what position they are cal; how to protect those immediately interested to occupy when they leave his hands. from the hollow pretensions and flagrant incom- What is to be made of them ? is indeed the very petency of scholastic charlatans : these are the first point that an instructor must settle in his points to which public attention has so far been own mind, if his teaching is to be anything better mainly invited ; and they are points that deserve than an aimless and mechanical process of intelall the attention that can be bestowed upon them. lectual grinding.

But when they shall all have been provided for, We do not of course mean by this that the if we may hope to see that consummation, there educator need trouble himself very much about will still remain the question (and it is a vital the particular trade or business which each of his one), what is the true idea of middle-class educa- pupils may be destined to follow. On the contion; what ought we to teach, and how ought we to trary, any great effort at special preparation for teach it? "Il Poto 11

this will rather hinder than help the work which - To this question we wish in this paper to give he ought specially to accomplish. Our position some probable and satisfactory kind of answer. is that the teacher should realise in his mind, and Our aim is to do it, not according to any high, keep constantly before him, the conception of that abstract, or iinpossible theory of education, but in general character, and those common attributes, a simple and practical way, with proper regard to which are proper for the ideal member of the the circumstances and conditions of those whose middle class. Phidias never put chisel to marble interests we have in view. "'i't it?

till he had worked out in his mind the individuAnd obviously, we must, as a necessary step to ality, the proportions, the expression of the statue the solution of our question, begin by turning our which he proposed to elicit from the stone. What attention to the class with which we have to deal. then do we want to make of our middle-class We ought indeed, on the authority of Cicero, be- boys? The answer to that question will be best ing about to enter on a systematic inquiry, to set arrived at if we begin by putting another, What out with a definition. But it is not easy to define is the part allotted to the middle classes in the the middle class. Like the north, which, accord- life and economy of the nation?. ing to the stand point of the observer, may be at In the first place, the trade, and even the comBerwick, Orkney, Zembla, or some still remoter merce, of the nation, is in a great degree in their region, the constitution and limits of the middle hands On them, therefore, depends our material class vary according to the points of view in which prosperity.' Want of thrift, misappréhension as they are regarded. We desiderate some solution to the great principles that regulate supply and of our difficulty as simple, complete, and exhaus- demand, non-appreciation of the interdependence tive as that which made the keeping of a gig the of the various peoples and divisions of the civilised standard of respectability. But in default of this world, ignorance of the productions and capabiliit is possible to arrive at a sufficiently correct con- ties of different countries, and of the instruments ception of what the term middle-class practically and agencies which assist labour and advance involves. : For educational purposes we may in- trade,--all these things would not only be a disclude in it nearly all those whose calling in life advantage to themselves, but an injury and a loss connects them with trade, commerce, and manu- to the whole nation. So, again, the maintenance factures, and whose school-time therefore will not, of the national character and the national credit as a rule, extend beyond their sixteenth year.!!, devolves' very much upon them. They are con

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stantly oceupied in those affairs and negotiations intelligently versed in his country's institutions, which require promptness, business habits, and, able to appreciate her greatness, and worthy to be above all, integrity, Dispatch, accuracy, method, a partaker in it. Now this calls for a more generhonesty, are therefore indispensable qualifications. ous and elevated discipline. For this, the applica

Looking at them in another point of view, they tion of some severer and more abstract study is are in many respects the ruling element in the required; for this, it is necessary that the pupil country, the middle point on which the national should be brought in contact with the great constitution balances itself. Llence it is impor- thoughts of great thinkers, should become contant that they should be at once conservative and versant with leading truths and general principles. liberal in the true sense of those words; that they Guided by these considerations, we will proceed should be, as far as possible, emancipated from to set forth, in a sober and practical way, our class prejudices, from bigotry, from contracted views of what the middle class educational proviews of the great questions on which they, in gramme should be. But if we give to the term common with the rest of their countrymen, will education its full meaning, if we are careful to from time to time be called upon to reflect and recognise all that it involves, we must, if we would to take action. Now the merits of the middle treat our subject adequately, regard it under the classes of this country are neither few nor small. two separate heads of intellectual and of moral They are, as a rule, fair dealers and honest workers. training. To the former of these we shall in this They have a proper pride in thrift, industry, and paper confine ourselves. independence. They are attentive to the pro- And in entering on this branch of our subject, prieties of life, domestic in their habits, sociable we at once see that it also subdivides itself into in their temperament. They love their country, the matter to be taught, and the method of teaching it. and would gather manfully to the defence of the And after all perhaps it is this latter point which legitimate and constitutional throne of their sove- will make the greatest demand on our judgment reign. But, on the other hand, they are the sub- and discrimination. About many of the subjects, jects of a good many prejudices. They are ultra indeed, which must be taught in middle class British; generally destitute of all cosmopolitan schools, there can be no question or controversy. feeling. They are religiously disposed, but their Such, for instance, are arithmetic, geography, hisreligion is of a very sectarian type. They are apt tory, and grammar. No one is likely to advocate to be seduced by the attractions of a false economy, the omission of any one of these from the syllabus, apt to be too much led by local as opposed to and therefore the whole question, as far as they are

national influences. Perhaps, too, we may be concerned, turns on the use to be made of them, pardoned for saying that there runs through the the form in which they should be exhibited, the middle class character a vein of coarseness, a ten- way in which they should be taught. Before, dency to animal enjoyment, a want of apprecia- however, we enter on the consideration of this tion of eulture for its own sake. Well now these matter, we will enumerate and classify the subare some of the facts, and if space allowed we jects which appear most suitable for a middle class might extend our analysis, but these are some of course. And it will, we think, be admitted, that the facts which the educator has to keep in mind a classification of these subjects into elementary, when he is making out his programme of middle- disciplinary, practical, and mixed, will be sufficlass studies. Reflecting on them, he finds that ciently complete and exhaustive. By the elethe education which he is to give must be a prac- mentary subjects, are of course meant those which tical one, must be in affinity with common things serve as the foundation of all education, which are and the daily business of life, must deal largely, the necessary equipments of the learner, without therefore, in facts and phenomena. But then he which he can make no advances in knowledge, is bound also to remember that the middle-class the scaffolding by aid of which the great temple man ought to be something more than a bundle of the intellect is edified. The disciplinary subof business aptitudes and habits, something more jects, again, are those which are taught exclusively than a goods-producing, prosperity increasing, or chiefly for their use in mental training. They credit-sustaining machine. The life is more than have not perhaps any near relation to the business ineat; and so the man has a higher calling than of life, or to the future calling of those who study that which associates him with farm or merchan- them ; but they avail to awaken thought, to dise, with desk or counter. The raw material, concentrate attention, to strengthen memory, to therefore, which comes into the teacher's hands develop reasoning, to stimulate the perceptive has to be wrought up, if possible, into a thought- powers, to refine and exalt the whole nature. ful, large-hearted, liberal-minded English citizen, What, then, are the subjects of this class which seem best suited for middle class schools? They way to get it. The school is intended, not to teach should be few, for it is a serious mistake in educa- business, but to give aptitude for learning it. So tion to include too wide a circle of subjects, and we do not as a rule incline to farm schools, trade it is a mistake which is very generally made, schools, schools for particular sections of the and which there are many strong temptations to middle class. make. The subjects, then, which appear to us at But there are some subjects, notwithstanding, once sufficient and most suitable, are geometry of a practical and professional character, which and language. The Elements of Euclid should be should not be omitted from the programme. Such a text-book in every middle school. Two or three are the elements of surveying and book-keeping, and books of it should be thoroughly got up, intelli- we may add mechanical drawing.' gently taught, and intelligently learned in the Lastly, There is a class of subjects to which more advanced classes. This will secure a fair the name of mixed may perhaps conveniently be amount of severe logical training. It will be fitly given, because, while they have an important supplemented by some study of language. By bearing on everyday life, they may also be so this last must be understood the study of language taught as to be a valuable mental discipline. In in a scientific and philosophical way, so far as the this class may be placed arithmetic, geography, hisscience and philosophy of language can be adapted tory, and physical science. But there are yet two to boys. The principles of grammar should be other subjects which certainly ought to be added taught, the etymology and structure of words to the list. One of these is an essentially pracexplained and illustrated, selections from standard tical one, and yet it is not merely practical, for it authors read. The question of teaching Latin in has something of the disciplinary power of a middle class schools has often been debated. For science. We refer to political economy. This our part, we have no hesitation in urging its subject may, on a first impression, seem unsuited admission into the programme. Grammar can- for boys, tvo uninviting, too harsh, dealing with not be very satisfactorily taught without it. It is things too much in advance of their intelligence a very great help to a thorough insight into and conscience. But we believe it to be capable English, and towards making the study of English of adaptation to their capacities, capable of being an effective discipline. And in middle class made interesting to their minds. And certainly schools it should be taught chiefly in relation to those whose lives are to be spent in close connecits bearing on English. It should be used directly tion with matters to which the science of political as an instrument to shew the nature of inflection, economy has regard, cannot too soon be initiated the phenomena of syntax, and the affinities of into its fundamental and leading principles. language. In short, in the scheme that we are The remaining subject for which a place is putting forth, we introduce Latin in its gramma-claimed on the list, is some one modern language. tical rather than its literary bearings. But under There may be reasons which, under some circumthe head of language, we strongly insist on the stances, and in some schools, one language should study of English literature. In this subject we be selected, and in other schools another.">; ni seem to discern a very admirable agency for giv- Generally, however, the language to which a ing higher culture to our middle classes. Some preference should be given must be French ; and acquaintance with such writers as Shakspeare, there can be no doubt that, considering the facili-i Milton, Bacon, Raleigh, Locke, and Dryden, to ties for communication and travel; the everincreas-> say nothing of more modern dames, would do ing points of contact between the two countries, much to broaden the views and elevate the tone their daily multiplying social and commercial of the middle class. Such a study, if pursued relations, it will not be out of place, to make with thoroughness, would, though limited in instruction in the French language an element in extent, carry their minds into a higher region, the education even of those who belong to what bring them under the influence of a more catholic would be called the lower section of the middle spirit, exercise them in a wider field of thought.: class. Indeed, this may be advocated, if for noi

We pass now from those subjects which we call other reason, yet for the sake of its effect on the disciplinary, to those which we call practical. And character of the middle classes themselves. It by these last, we mean the subjects which are to will be a help towards divesting them of their be learned, simply because they will be necessary national exclusiveness, their narrow 1 prejudices, or useful in the business of life. To the introduc- and false notions as to what is foreign: 10:15 4941.* tion of direct professional training into sehool- To know the language of a country, is an imwork, we are not friendly. Where such training portant step toward sympathy with its inhabitants ! is needed, apprenticeship pure and simple is the and surely one of the great responsibilities and

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