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might certainly be supplied by increasing the num- holders of good character, of however humble rank ber of these officers.

in life. In conclusion, it seems to me that all that is 3. Before moderations, and again before the final wanted for the extension of the University might examinations, require proof by certificate, either be comprised in the three following proposals :- from a Master of Arts or from a Professor, that

1. Open the responsions to candidates who are the legal number of days' residence in each Term not members of the University on their producing had been kept. satisfactory testimonials to character, and matri- If this plan were adopted, I have little doubt culate all who passed.

that the University would double its number in 2. Allow those who were thus matriculated to less than twenty years, with the greatest advanlodge wherever they pleased in licensed lodging- tage both to Oxford and England. F. T. houses, and grant the licences freely to all house



shall be happy to correspond with him, with a vier to obtain the report of my school (Hurlford School) for that year.-Yours,

P. M.C. Schoolmaster, West Kilbride.

SIR,-If any of your numerous readers have a copy of Mr Gordon's Tabulated Reports for 1858, I

[B. R.'s reply to A. J., being too late for insertion, will appear in the February number of this Journal.]


Notices of Books.

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Constitutionalism of the Future; or, Parliament the believe is able to devise more prudent schemes for

Mirror of the Nation. By James LORIMER, them than they can do themselves, If education Regius Professor of Public Law in the University give this insight, then the man who is thoroughly of Edinburgh, author of “Political Progress not educated becomes necessarily a power in the country. Necessarily Democratic," &c., &c. Edinburgh: But as yet the Legislature of our land has recognised Adam and Charles Black. 1865.

property as almost the only basis of electoral right.

Professor Lorimer maintains that this should not be This book has a close connection with the pro- the only basis, that all the elements of power should gress of education. It is, in the first place, an ex. be taken into account, and, of course, intelligence ample of a kind of work which, unfortunately, is too among the rest. It is manifest that, if the state ever rare amongst us. If ever politics is to form the sub-come to recognise the value of education in this way, ject of instruction in schools or universities, it must the whole cause of education will receive a perma. be in the form of political science. The fundamental nent stimulus, and teachers will ultimately receive laws on which political measures are, or should be more respect and consideration than they now geuebased, must be exhibited. In other words, we must rally do. have a theory of politics. Professor Lorimer states It is out of our way to discuss minutely the various again and again that such laws do exist, refers to opinions which Professor Lorimer has broached in some of them, and expounds them in clear, vigorous his volume. The book is exceedingly readable; it language. When politics take this shape, party is evidently intended to be popular, and set it bears feeling disappears, the student becomes an inquirer traces on every page of being the production of one simply after truth, and then there can be no objec- who has gone to the foundations of thought. It is tion to the introduction of such studies into our Uni. eminently suggestive. versities. But I'rofessor Lorimer's book has another In the first chapter, he describes the doubts which aspect towards education. Intelligence gives an in- have arisen within the last ten years as to whether dividual power in a state. It was a maxim of So- the common symbols of parties exhausted the posicrates, that people willingly obey him who they bilities of politics, whether there might not arise i

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"new symbol more liberal than Radicalism, more political power by any Reform Bill at all likely to conservative than Conservatism, safer and more find acceptance in this country, I hope and believe ;

orldly wiso than Whiggery, which should har. and that belief is to me the greatest source of conmonize and ultimately supersede them."

fidence when I look forward to other changes which In the next chapter, he describes the new-born may be disastrous, and which I believe to be infaith that has arisen out of such doubts. The ques- evitable. But whilst I join with Mr Mill in this tion, he says, which men have felt put to them by hope, and shall thank him for every effort that he circumstances, is this:

makes for its realisation, I am still not altogether at "What, seen in this light, is the true character one with him; for I hold strongly the opinion, that and measure of the political power which may be education, in the sense of the acquisition of know. justly claimed, and which alone can be justly re- ledge, or in any sense in which it can be ascertained cognised as belonging to the various classes of the by examination, is not in fact, and ought to be recommunity? If fact be the basis of law—if the ob- cognised in law as the sole basis of political power. ject of legislation be to recognise the distribution This opinion I rest on the following considerawhich God has made of his gifts, and to assert and tions :vindicate it, not to redistribute them-ought the “ 1st. The social importance of an individual is suffrage to be extended at all, and if so, ought it to seldom coincident with the amount of knowledge be extended equally ?”.

which he possesses, or of direct mental training He thinks that this question has been the pro- which he has received. By giving to the latter the blem of the last ten years, and he believes that the fullest political recognition, therefore, you may fail answer which has been given to it in an unconscious to exhaust him socially ; whilst relatively to others and irregular manner might be presented in the you not impossibly assign to him an amount of form of a syllogism thus :

political power which his social value does not Our representative system must accept and con- warrant. Take, for example, the representative form itself to the arrangements providence, or, in of our great commoner families; or a merchantother words, to the facts of nature as exhibited in prince, who is in a condition to negotiate a foreign society.

loan. Any number of votes which should represent Human inequality is a fact of nature which so- their intelligence merely, would not represent their ciety exhibits.

real actual social value ; or disarm them of the power, “Therefore : Our representative system must ac. or of the right, of seeking to represent themselves cept and conform itself to the fact of human in- by indirect means. It is impossible to imagine any equality as socially exhibited."

examination in which the usher of the nearest gramThe recognition of this principle or fact of human mar-school would not be extremely likely to surpass inequality is the basis of the new party which em- them both. Now the usher of a school may be reaily braces all parties, and which Professor Lorimer the superior of an ancient country gentleman, or a new names the Constitutionalists.

merchant prince; but it is very certain that social Professor Lorimer discusses in the next three opinion in this country does not recognise him as chapters the answers which the Radical, the Whig, such, and I do not think it belongs to the suffrage to and the Conservative give to the question of the redress the wrong that society does him. If, by the problem. He sympathises with the Radical and the help of the educational appliances at his disposal, Conservative, the Radical having hold of one sound he can induce the next generation to reverse the idea, liberty, and the Conservative having hold of judgment of the present, he will be entitled to the another, order, while the Whig has no idea at all, benefit of the reversal ; but till the reversal is probut a mere temporary shift. Constitutionalism is nounced, the judgment must stand, and he must acthe union of liberty and order. Professor Lorimer cept the consequences of it politically, as in other discusses in the next two chapters the nature of respects. human inequality, and the measures which should “ 2d. But suppose we adhere to Mr Mill's view be taken to represent it fairly. His remarks on that personal qualities alone are to be taken into education will be read with deep interest.

account, the examination test, even if there existed " 2. The Educational Theory and the Examination such a thing as a really rational education, or a trustTest. — The scheme which proposes to base political worthy system of general examination,' would not power upon mental qualifications, and to proportion measure them. It is the indefinable quality called it to their extent, is that which unquestionably en character, far more than anything that can be either joys the greatest amount of favour with the political | taught or learnt, that distinguishes man from man theorists of the present time. As it has already had in after-life. The amount of knowledge demanded the advocacy of Mr Mill's pen, and will doubtless by the callings which they have chosen, the manow have that of his tongue, it woulıl be worse than jority of men are able to acquire ; and a very large needless that I should say anything to commend it. minority do actually acquire it. But the character That education will be recognised as a ground of requisite for their successful exercise is intransmis


sible, unattainable, and wholly inappreciable by ex. A New Course of Practical Grammar; or a Plain, anıination ; and yet it is its presence or its absence Straight Road to Good English. Being an attempt that determines not only between success and failure, to teach simply and thoroughly English Spelling, but, I think also, between political importance and Inflection, and Composition, in one volume, and insignificance.

with an improved system of exercises, adapted " 3d, But even if we accept knowledge as a substi- both for schools and for self-instruction, By tute, or as a guarantee, for all other personal quali- John VICKERS, Master of the Grammar School, ties, I doubt the adequacy of examination as a test Blakesley, Towcester. London: F. Pitman, 20 of knowledge; and this on grounds somewhat dif- Paternoster Row, E.C. ferent from those I have usually heard stated. There

Mr Vickers has attempted what we may call a are not only kinds, but there are degrees of knowledge, very important for political purposes, and novelty in education, and has, in vur opinion, sticwhich admit of being ascertained by other means

ceeded. English grammars generally aim at two which elude it altogether. Take, for example, the incongruous euds. Theytry to teach the pupil hos professions. It is only the rudiments of professional to use his own language accurately, and at the same knowledge which can be tested, or are even proposed philosophy of language, and make the study of the

time they initiate him to a certain extent in the to be tested, by any examination, however stringent. The gulf which divides the tyro from the expert, English forms of speech preparatory to severer logithe briefless junior of yesterday from the senior cal studies. Mr Vickers has discarded the second whose presence is priceless, and whose mere absence

of these aims altogether. He has drawn up a book men are willing to purchase with half their sub- which shall teach children how to use their own stance,-—is as great, even as regards knowledge, as

language with accuracy and cleariess, and has in. that by which the young aspirant to forensic honours troduced the technicalities of grammar only so far and emoluments that will never come, is separated

as they are indispensable for this purpose. It is from the vulgar laity without. A single glance, plain that such a work will be of vast value to the such as the income-lax commissioners are in the great mass of children who leave school at a comhabit of directing annually at the fee-books of these paratively early period. Their minds are utterly

unfit for the abstractions which philosophical gram. professional brothers, will furnish an indication, not infallible certainly, but very significant, of their re.

mar expects them to make and understand. But spective acquirements, and of the differences between of language. Mr Vickers has prepared his work for

they are not unfit for dealing with the concrete facts them ; whereas the examination-test to which they this numerous class of children but it is equally have both already submitted has not improbably useful for even those who intend to go through a pronounced them equal.

course of classical training. Philosophieal grammar “ But though it appears to me that education, as a solitary basis for political power, would be quite deferred till the mind is somewhat mature, and at

is generally taught too soon in schools. It should be as objectionable as the property basis to which we are accustomed, or perhaps even more so, I do not should then be thorough and systematic, The very

least thoroughly versant in the use of language. It think there would be the same objection to educa- best preparation for such a course, is a perfect mastion being represented by separate constituencies, that there would be to the creation of such constitu: tery of Mr Vickers's manual. Throughout the work encies within the borders of the property basis itself.

Mr Vickers shews himself a thoughtful and experi

enced teacher. The spelling lessons are judiciously From the fact that most individuals who would be competent to vote under an educational qualification arranged, the exercises are all in harmony with the

laws of education, the language is clear and intelwould be the possessors of property, and would vote on that qualification also, no absolute line of demar-ligible at once, and the information given is exactly cation between classes would be traced by the for- such as ought to be given in such a manual. We

most heartily commend the manual to the notice of mation of separate educational constituencies.

teachers. “All persons, however, who are competent to vote on the educational basis at all, ought, I think, to vote together, though not equally. By this I mean

The Apostle of the North. The Life and Labours of the that if a University, for example, grants ordinary or

Rev, Dr M Donald. By the Rev. J. KENNEDY, honorary certificates, as the result of what are called

Dingwall. London: T. Nelson & Sons, Pateriniddle-class examinations, the holders of such cer

noster Row; Edinburgh and New York. 1866. tificates-associates, or whatever else they may be called-ought to vote as members of the same con- This is an exceedingly interesting work. Dr stituency with the graduates of that University, M‘Donald is characteristically a native of the Highthough not on equal terms with them."

lands of Scotland, and his whole history reveals phases We most heartily recommend this remarkably of character which are widely different from those of able aud interesting work to our readers.

the Saxon type. In this aspect the work well repays

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the student of human nature. And additional in- Elements of Euclid, in their usual form, are not terest is given to the history of such a life, that it is adopted as a text-book. written by one who is himself perhaps a still purer There have been many attempts, like the present embodiment of the Celtic form of puritan Christi- one, at renovation and alteration, yet none of the anity. The work is well written, lively, full of facts, works have received much favour, or been deemed and of moderate size.

of sufficient merit to supply the place, and mathematical teachers, content with the general verdict,

have unhesitatingly adhered to Euclid, explaining A Collection of Problems and Theorems, with Hints, as opportunity presents itself wherein the defects

Results, and occasional Solutions, forming Examples lie. in the methods of Modern Geometry; especially Tri- In the subject of parallels, which has been long linear Co-ordinates. By the Rev. R. H. WRIGHT,

a vexed question, the author adopts the following M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge. Longmans, definition: “ Parallel lines, or those straight lines Green & Co., London.

which are in the same plane, and being produced This book, as the title shews, contains a collection

ever so far both ways, do not meet, are such as

make equal alternate angles, with a single third of examples on the method of trilinear co ordinates - new branch of science which has lately engaged from this he gives a direct demonstration of the

straight line, which either meets or intersects them." the attention of some of the ablest mathematicians of the day. In the ordinary method, the position fact that, when a straight line falls upon two parallel of a point is determined by its distances from two straight lines, it makes the alternate angles equal. fixed lines, called co-ordinate axes; in the trilinear We question much if this is so satisfactory as the method, it is determined by the ratios of its dis- indirect methods, founded on the principle that tances from three given straight lines in that plane

" two straight lines cannot be drawn through the which do not pass through the same point. This

same point parallel to a given straight line."

The preface, which contains a short history of the new method was- fully explained in a work lately issued by the Rev. N. M. Ferrers. The author of progress of geometrical science, is well and ably

written. the work in question bad nearly completed a treatise on the same subject, when he found himself anticipated by Mr Ferrers, and he consequently abandoned The Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin Messenger of his intention of publishing. Under these circum

Mathematics. Edited by W. ALLAN WHITWORTH, stances, he contemplated the issue of the present

M.A., Professor of Mathematics in Queen's Col. series of examples in the new theory. The examples

lege, Liverpool, Joan CASEY, B.A., Trinity Col. are numerous, selected with considerable judgment,

lege, Dublin, &c. Macmillan & Co., London and and afford to the student an interesting variety of

Cambridge. questions to which the method is applicable. Several

This is a mathematical journal conducted by solutions are given as illustrations of the mode of former students of the three universities, and conworking the examples. The volume should be per- tains problems and solutions of an interesting nature used in conjunction with the work just referred to, in all the departments of the subject. the two together forming a pretty complete course

The present number contains a good and able acof the new system.

count of Professor Sylvester's proof of Newton's

Theorem, which has excited so much interest lately Elements of Plane Geometry. Book I. Containing in the mathematical world. We cordially recom.

nearly the same propositions as the first book of mend the journal to the attention of mathematicians. Euclid's Elements ; in which an attempt is made to improve the arrangement and supply the de- Outline of the Geography of Palestine. "With Scrip. fects of that book, and also to give a direct de- ture References. By Charles Michie, M.A, monstration of the properties of Parallel Lines. Rector of Silver Street Academy, Aberdeen. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.

Aberdeen : Lewis Smith, M.Combie's Court,

Edinburgh: Thomas Laurie, 1865. The author of this book has not given his name, for what reason we are at a loss to conjecture. He Mr Michie informs us, that he thinks teachers attempts to obviate the defects which exist in Eu- may find his manual “ useful in imparting a better clid, to improve upon the arrangement and demon- acquaintance with the geography of the Holy Land stration of the propositions as contained in the first than can be obtained from the common text-books book,

of general geography.” Mr Michie does not tell us Every mathematician is aware that such defects in what respect he supposes his manual superior, exist; notwithstanding, we presume there is scarcely and we cannot discover it for ourselves. It is a carea school or college in the country, in which the fully prepared manual of the ordinary kind, well

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written, and with numerous references to the Scrip. The Illustrated Book of Nursery Rhymes, with Music. tures, but with almost no indication of the results Edited by T. L. HATELY. Illustrations by KEELEY which modern travellers have reached in regard to

HALSWELLE. T. Nelson and Sons, London, the sacred localities.

Edinburgh, and New York.

This is the best book of nursery rhymes that can Rescued from Egypt. By A. L. O. E., Author of the be presented to a child, for it is complete in every

“Shepherd of Bethlehem,” Exiles in Babylon,” respect. It has all the favourite rhymes and non“Pride and his Prisoners,” &c., &c. London : sensical jingles. It is beautifully illustrated, the T. Nelson & Sons, Paternoster Row; Edinburgh artist shewing remarkable skill in drawing exactly and New York. 1866.

what would please the young and amuse older people. The initials A. L. O. E. are security that “ Reg

And every rhyme is set to music, so that the child cued from Egypt” is an interesting work. The plan may learn to sing the words for himself. In every the author has adopted is to give a story which young traditional tunes have been retained, and in other

case where it was possible, the preface says, the people will read with interest. The members of the family, who occupy a prominent place in the story,

cases the words have been adapted to well known go to hear cottage lectures. These lectures narrate airs, and in some instances new and beautiful melothe history of Moses in simple language. The book dies have been prepared for them. is sure to be a favourite with young people, and it is Scripture Facts Chronologically arranged in plain and calculated to do them good in every way.

concise Lessons : with References and Questions for

Self-Instruction. A Complete Abstract of the Old The Illustrated Book of Songs for Children. Edited and New estaments. By HENRY COMBE, Poplar

by K. L. L., Author of Hymns from the Land and Blackwall Free School, and Joint Editor of of Luther." T. Nelson and Sons, London, Edin- “ The Ready Writer;" and EDWIN Hines, Mid. burgh, and New York.

dlesex Society's School, Cannon Street Road, E.

London : Longmans, Green, and Co. 1865. This is a new edition of a book which is already a great favourite.

We have here such songs as This little book is somewhat of the nature of the “ Four-and-twenty Blackbirds," Froggy would Old and New Testament Biography, published by A- wooing go," "The North Wind doth blow," to the Scottish School-Book Association. It is, how. gether with some new songs by A. L. O. E. and ever, prepared on a better plan. Each section conothers. These are all set to music, and beautifully tains rather a full analysis of what is to be found in illustrated. The printing is beautiful, the paper is Scripture, the passages being placed beside the beautiful, the binding is beautiful, and altogether analysis, and then a series of questions follows, the it is an exceedingly nice book for young or old. answers to which are to be gathered from the Bible

itself. “The following," say the authors, " is the

The first event taken is the The Old Testament History, from the Creation to the plan of the book.

Return of the Jews from Captivity. Edited by creation. Each separate event in the creation is WILLIAM SMITA, LL.D., Classical Examiner in printed in a separate line, and the chapter and

verses are marked in which the event is described the University of London. With Maps and Woodcuts. London : John Murray, Albemarle

in the Bible. The scholar reads up the details of Street. 1865.

each event as they are given in the Bible, and then

learns the notes given in this book. All the perThis work is prepared with great care, and em

sons and great events in the Bible are treated in 3 bodies the results of modern investigation. We are similar way. But as children cannot learn a history very far from agreeing with many of the opinions by reading it once, a great many questions are which are propounded; but we willingly bear our

nserted at the end of each section ; and to answer testimony to the genuine excellence and thorough these questions, almost all the history must be read ness of the manual. We do not know a volume over again." The little work will be found of great where the student of the Old Testament will find use in religious instruction. s0 compact and accurate an account of all that he Récréations Françaises. Petit Drames pour la Jeunesse

. ought to know. Not only is the history clearly

London : Published by Relfe Brothers, 150 Aldersnarrated, but topographical difficulties are explained,

gate Street. 1866. Jewish customs and political institutions are discussed, an account is given of the books of the Old This is a delightful little volume of short French Testament, and useful genealogical and chronolo- plays. The French simple and elegant, the diagical tables are added. The work is moreover logue lively, and the incidents interesting. It is amply illustrated with maps, plans, and engravings well calculated to attract young people who are of coins and similar matters.

making acquaintance with the French language.


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