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assumption of titles, it only leaves humbug to do are not yet closed against unexamined men, it its worst without a title. If, in addition, registra- would hardly become the College (if I may be tion can be claimed with the lowest qualification, allowed to assume so authoritative a style

) to maniit guards against an infinitesimal humbug. Every fest an arrogant spirit of exclusiveness, by ignoring shade of pretence is found in the scholastic ranks. hundreds of hard working, respectable, and intelliThe assumption of titles is one of the smallest of gent educators. I would further add, that in the its forms. A ten-pound German doctorship is list of members published annually, a marked disnot an assumption. A registration, to be of service, tinction is made between those who hold the College should provide for the excision of charlatanism degrees and those who do not, by placing them in The mountain should not bring forth a mouse.

separate lists,

If a permissive bill pass the legislature, it certainly highest authority) fully to ascertain the character

Every possible care is taken (I speak on the ought to be but tentative. A compulsory regis- and position of persons proposed for election as tration should follow in reasonable course, say in a members. The Council has absolute power to grant generation, admission to which should be through or to refuse admission, since the bye-laws state that distinctive educational diploma.

A. J.

"all persons engaged in education are admissible as

members " not that they are to be admitted. I shall COLLEGE OF PRECEPTORS,

not trouble you with any information respecting the

examinations for the College degrees, as that is in SIR, -As frequent reference is made by your cor- print, and may be obtained from the secretary. respondents to the College of Preceptors, will you I may observe that the College has done more to kindly permit me to make a few statements for the promote the interests of the profession than any information of your readers in general, and espe- other institution in England. It is the only incorcially for those of them who speak of this corporation porated body of educators, excluding the Educational in a manner which shews that they are not fully Institute of Scotland; it is empowered to grant de. conversant with its constitution and operations. grees, which it does twice every year; it first instituted

From the report of the Council, January 1861 :— the examination of schools, and thus set Oxford and “ The Council having heard from various quarters Cambridge the example; it holds monthly meetings that persons who had no right to designate them for the reading of papers on educational questions ; selves members of the College assume that title in it originated the movement in favour of scholastic advertisements, &c., have obtained the opinion of registration, which has secured the approval of counsel on the best means of preventing such prac-schoolmasters in general; and it has done much, tices. This opinion is to the effect, that an appli- in many other ways, to advance the cause of educa. cation may be made to the Court of Chancery for tion. I am, Sir, yours truly,

R. an injunction against any person so offending, with a certainty of its being granted. The Council have determined to resort to this measure should it be

THE REVISED CODE AND THE PRESS. come necessary for the protection of the members, Sir,- In your issue for September, I am pleased who are requested to communicate to the secretary to observe that you invite teachers, " to avail theme any instances of the kind of which they may hare selves of the pages of the Museum more than they any personal knowledge.”

have hitherto done, to let their feelings, opinions, It must be borne in mind that mere membership and experiences be known.” Every reader of your of the College is not considered by the Council to magazine must feel how much information is derived be any guarantee whatever of attainment, or of in this way, and how greatly such an interchange ability to instruot; and in proof of this assertion, I of sentiments and experience tends to maintain give an extract from the report of the address de- that esprit da corps which is necessary to the life livered by the president, the Rev. B. H, Kennedy, and vigour of the profession. D.D., at the general meeting in June 1862:-" It But teachers should not confine their efforts to is important that the public should understand that expression of opinion among themselves, or through the only titles which imply either examination or the pages of magazines circulating chiefly among any recognition on the part of the College, of as- the members of their own profession. In the words certained professional competency, are Fellow, Licen- of your closing article last month, they should let tiate, and Associate.”

their voices be heard everywhere.” Allow me to The object of admitting persons as members suggest as a suitable means of doing so, the more without compelling them to undergo examination, frequent use of the newspaper press. The public is to give any who may desire to promote the are very generally ignorant of educational matters. interests of the College and of education the op. Few even of educated and intelligent persons outportunity of co-operating with their professional side of those immediately connected with it know brethren. Besides, as the doors of the profession much of the Privy Council system, or the Revised

Code. Let teachers take up the pen, in most cases readers who are in the secret would clear the matter they will get access to the newspapers, and in up. this way circulate information, and do something 1. If pupil teachers are apprenticed as under the towards the formation of an enlightened public old Code, 1 for every 50 scholars, 2 for 80, and 1 opinion, which is necessary to a satisfactory solution more for every additional 40, during the period of the problem of national education.

while the Revised Code is suspended in Scotland, W. A.C. will the Privy Council allow them the usual gratui

ties which they were allowed under the old Code ?

2. Supposing pupil teachers are not paid as under PUPIL TEACHERS.

the old Code, but as under the Revised Code, one SIR, -As there is some misconception in the being required for every ninety scholars, is the minds of many of the teachers in Scotland, and I teacher's augmentation grant in any way curtailed confess to a certain extent in my own mind, in re- | in order to pay the pupil-teacher ?-I am, Sir, yours gard to the following points, perhaps some of your respectfully,

F. E. I. S.

.

Notices of Books.

Dictionnaire de la Langue Française. Par. E. LITTRE work we are now noticing will be, when terminated de l'Institut. Ato, Parts 1-11. Paris and London, more than double the size of its rival. L. Hachette & Co.

We must now account for this enormous difference;

and this leads us next to examine the plan adopted The publication of the eleventh livraison of M. by M. Littré. Littré's Dictionnaire de la Langue Française affords us The object of the Academicians in publishing an excellent opportunity of noticing one of the most their dictionary, was merely to give a list of words valuable works that have been recently issued by the used at present, both in conversation and in producindefatigable Paris booksellers, Mess. Hachette & Co. tions of a bonâ fide literary character. They ne

It is well known that the Académie Française had glected, as entirely foreign to their purpose, archaisms some years ago determined to prepare a kind of on the one hand, and neologisms on the other, exhistorical dictionary of the language. The plan, cluding; moreover, a number of expressions which, however, was not well digested; the scale upon which although thoroughly French, have not yet received the undertaking had been conceived was ridiculously the sanction, - rather arbitrary, we are inclined to large; and finally, it seemed hopeless to expect any think,- of the tribunal whose courts are held at the unity of design in a compilation to which forty Palais Mazarin. As M. Littré has, on the contrary, persons were invited to supply their respective shares. admitted indistinctly all these words, as he takes At all events, only one part of the long talked of care to explain the different meanings of each ex. lexicon has appeared; and in the mean while, M. pressiou—to give its history ; to discuss its ety. Littré, after having devoted fifteen years of assiduous mology; to sift, when needful, the grammatical prolabour to the accomplishment of a similar work, blems connected with it ; to illustrate the synonyms; steps in single-handed, to emulate the “forty im. to supply a chronological list of quotations,—we mortals." Before giving an idea of the livraison see how it is that the proportions of his dictionary we have just received, we shall, in the first place, have reached far beyond those of the Dictionnaire de notice the material features of M. Littré's dictionary; l'Académie. and, in doing so, the following results strike us at * In his preface, the author begins by justifying the

The entire work will consist of two large plan he has followed ; and whilst alluding to this quarto volumes, containing together between 350 plan, we shall take our examples chiefly from thə and 400 sheets, or from 2,800 to 3,200 pages. The livraison, which is the special subject of our article. Dictionnaire de l'Académie, which is at present re- 1. Nomenclature.-The Dictionnaire de l'Académie garded as the standard authority of its kind, in- strikes us as particularly defective here. All neolocludes only 1800 pages ; so that the difference in gisms are not good, we readily acknowledge, and favour of M. Littré is of no less than 1000 or 1400 discrimination is necessary to retain what is unpages. If, besides, we take into consideration that objectionable, and to discard the rest. Now, instead each page of M. Littré's volume comprises 11,000 of making a selection, the Academicians have adopted letters on an average, that is to say, 3000 more than the easier plan of proscribing, and thereby they have the corresponding space in the Dictionnaire de excommunicated a number of words universally l'Académie, we are warranted in affirming that the employed even by the most thorough purists. Who

once.

of years.

will ever be brought to believe that the expressions Revolution. Then again, about the adjective filleul, flâner, flâneur, flânerie are not French? We talk of we find that even at the time when Vaugelas wrote, un spectacle férique, and of un auteur expurge, and we it was generally spelt fillol. The paragraph faire shall probably continue to do so for a long time, includes the explanation of no less than twenty-two notwithstanding the verdict pronounced at the proverbs; and in fact, the entire portion devoted to Palais Mazarin. The same remark applies to that verb, and extending over nearly seven quarto archaisms. The only words of the kind which M. pages, is one of the best specimens we can quote of Littré omits are those that have become quite M. Littré’s wonderful lexicographical erudition. obsolete ; and even here he gives a place to all the 6. Definitions and

Synonyms.—If we consider the nouns which occur in classical writers, and to the absurdity of some of the definitions proposed in the most remarkable ones supplied by authors of the Dictionnaire de l'Académie, we must be led to suppose fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He has also that the art of defining correctly is extremely taken care to render as complete as possible the difficult. It ought, moreover, to be remembered vocabulary of historical and scientific expressions, that a definition, in order to be exact, cannot

2. Classification and meaning of the words.- When generally be worded in a concise manner; and M. a word has a variety of significations, the arrange- Littré has very wisely preferred perspicuity to ment of these significations is by no means arbitrary. laconism, in explaining the meaning of the various A close inspection of each paragraph will shew that words admitted in his dictionary. The question of one meaning has naturally led to another one, and synonyms is closely allied with that of definitions, that there is a kind of genealogy of which the start- and has been dwelt upon by our author as far as it ing-point must, and may, be strictly ascertained. was necessary. Thus the distinction between the M. Littré illustrates this law by a variety of ex- adjectives fade and insipide is well pointed out, also amples, and he proves how essential a knowledge of between fatal and funeste, fc. it is to those who would study the language in 7. Historical quotations.-Whilst illustrating the a truly scientific manner. As instances in point, we present significations of each expression, M. Littré may refer the reader to the articles feuille, fin, fade. has given his quotations in logical sequence; that

3. Pronunciation.— This, like everything else, is to say, he has begun with the primary meaning, has undergone a number of modifications in course and shewn how the association of ideas or other

We are told that a gentleman, who, metaphysical laws have led from one construction to during a long lifetime, had constantly frequented the next. But, in addition to this, he has placed the Theâtre Français, observed how differently the under the title historique, a series of quotations actors of the present day pronounced certain words arranged in chronological order, and containing as compared with what the custom was sixty years extracts from the most celebrated writers, beginning ago. Such details are essential in a dictionary with the twelfth century, and ending with the sixwhich professes to be historical, and M. Littré has teenth. These quotations are particularly suggestive, accurately noticed them. See, for example, thə and in some cases give the only clue we have to the paragraphs fat, faisand, familier.

true meaning of a word hitherto considered as either 4. Quotations taken from classical or other authors.- obscure or entirely unaccountable. We cannot leave The custom of admitting, as part of a work like the unnoticed, in connection with this part of the subpresent, quotations from various authors, seems, in ject, the great number of historical and biographical France at least, of comparatively recent date. allusions scattered throughout the dictionary, which Richelet is the first who adopted it, but very sparingly. are all fully explained, adding much to the interest The great writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth of the work. centuries, and the most eminent of our contempo- 8. Patois.—The knowledge of patois is often imporraries, are quoted by M. Littré by way of exemplifying tant, because it supplies us with the real sense of & the usual signification of the different words. The word or phrase, which, in its present usual form, substantive famille thus affords the opportunity of cannot be etymologically explained.

Thus, the introducing twenty-six quotations, whilst no less substantive lierre has preserved its correct spelling than ninety-nine illustrate the several meanings of in certain provinces where the peasants say hierre façon.

(hedera), instead of using the barbarism resulting 5. Remarks.-Under thishead our author has from the amalgamation of the article with the noun. discussed —1. A number of grammatical niceties 9. Etymology. This forms one of the most in. referring to the language of the present day ; 2. Some teresting features in M. Littré's dictionary. The peculiarities to be found in classical authors, and advanced state of philological science has dispelled which are now discarded; 3. Proverbs and proverbial the fanciful explanations put forward by Ménage expressions. Thus the verb fanatiser,giren, we are and other savants of bygone days, when mere told, neither by Richelet nor by Furetière, was ingenuity prevailed, leading to conjectures admitted in the Dictionnaire de l'Académie only thirty times happy, but oftener positively erroneous. Wa years ago, although freely nised so far back as the

can now appeal to positive facts, and in cases which

some

remain still doubtful, our author distinctly says so, sophy is not an exception. There are many points preferring to leave the particular problem unsolved, of moral science which he has not discussed at all rather than to propose solutions which could, after or merely touched. These Professor Bain has supall, be only hypothetical.

plied to this edition. Professor Bain's writings are One of the most amusing instances of the flights distinguished for their thoroughness, their independof imagination to which etymologists occasionally ence, and their originality. There is no better exrise, is suggested by the substantive galetas. Let ponent of that system of psychology which he has us quote M. Littré: “Ménage derives the word from adopted than Professor Bain, and his books are of valetostasis, (post or station of the valets); Scheler great value to the teacher. Professor Bain agrees thinks of the radical of galerie ; some one else has with Paley in maintaining what is called the utiliadduced an Arabic expression, colata, high or upper tarian system of morality, but he takes care to exroom ; Diez says nothing, and in the absence of all plain the true nature of the utility which he believes positive evidence, this course was perhaps the wisest. to lie at the basis of morals. His supplements to Let us leave the domains of conjectures, which can Paley are extremely valuable. There is no work of neither be refuted nor verified, and let us come to the same size in which a student will find a more private information, which alone affords a satisfactory complete exposition of moral principles, and the explanation in the use of what I may call fortuitous book has moreover the advantage of being readable etymologies. Who would believe it? It is the proud and suggestive. and lofty tower of Galata, at Constantinople, that has enriched the French language with a new word. In The Study of German Simplified, in a new Systematic the first instance, from designing a special object,

and Practical Grammar, according to the systems of Galata has assumed a general meaning. Then, it

Ollendorf amd Dr Ahn. By H. MANNHEIMER, has been used to signify part of a public building in

Author of the “ The Perfect Speaker." The Paris. Finally, it has come to represent the meanest

Third Edition, carefully revised, greatly enlarged, room in any house. It was necessary that the

and improved. London: Trübner and Co, 60 crusaders should start for the East towards the end

Paternoster Row, 1864. of the twelfth century; that their treaty with the

This work can be recommended as an admirable republic of Venice should direct their course against introduction to a knowledge of German. It is sucConstantinople, instead of the Holy Land, as origi- cessful in giving neither too many nor too few exernally arranged; that the metropolis of the Greek cises. It is moreover lucid in arrangement, and empire should be taken by them; that a French contains a number of tables calculated to be of great dynasty should for a short time rule on the shores

service. of the Black Sca; all this was necessary, to introduce into our language as a common substantive | The Elements of Botany, for Families and Schools. the name of a foreign locality.”

Published under the direction of the Committee of We might easily multiply, from the dictionary we General Literature and Education, appointed by are now noticing, examples illustrating what may the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. be called the curiosities of etymology, but time will Tenth Edition. Revised by Thomas MOORE, F.L.S., not allow of our doing so. Enough, however, has Curator of the Chelsea Botanic Garden, author of been said to give our readers a clear notion of the · The Handbook of British Ferns," &c. London: plan adopted in the compilation of M. Littré's great Longmans, Green, and Co. 1865. work. For further details, let us refer to the intro

This is a clear exposition of the principal facts of ductory disquisition, entitled Coup d'ail sur l'histoire botany. There is nothing peculiar in its method. de la langue Française. This excellent résumé, sub- It sets out from the commencement with the use of divided into seven chapters, is a complete treatise on French grammar, and should be attentively perused scribes the root, the stem, and the other parts of a plant.

scientific language, and after the usual fashion deby all those who want to be thoroughly acquainted it then passes to the elementary organs, the strucwith the subject. The eleventh livraison of the ture of the stem, germination of the seed, the food, work takes us, we may add, as far as the verb flétrir. and secretions of plants. Afterwards we have crypto

gamic plants, and lastly, the classification of plants. The Moral Philosophy of Paley, with additional Dis- The little work abounds in neatly executed illustra

sertations and Notes. By ALEXANDER BAIN, A.M., tions. It has also a good glossarial index. Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the Univer. sity of Aberdeen, and Examiner in Logic and Key to Dalgleish's Grammatical Analysis, with ExMoral Philosophy in the University of London.

planatory Notes. For the use of Teachers, EdinW. and R. Chambers, London and Edinburgh.

burgh : Oliver & Boyd. 1865. All Paley's writings are remarkable for their sin- This book contains full analyses of the various gular clearness and pertinency, and his moral philo- sentences and passages set down in the Text Book.

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Many teachers, not well acquainted with the system shewing the spelling and meaning of words similarly of analysis, will find it very useful. Indeed, we pronounced. XIV. has engraved exercises in corhave taken notice of it principally because we have respondence, bills, receipts, &c. XV. and XVI. had the question frequently put to us, whether there have copies similar to XII. and XIII., but in anwas such a work in existence.

gular hand, and XVII, and XVIII. are exercise

books, ruled with small round and small lines respecThe Ready Writer: A course of Eighteen carefully tively, and with margin for corrections."

graduated narrative Copy-books, designed to meet as far as possible the writing requirements of the Chants and Anthems for Sunday School Worship. several standards of the Revised Code, and, gene

London : Jackson, Walford, and Hodder, 27 Pater. rally, to lead to good and correct writing. By

noster Row. HENRY COMBEs, Head Master of the Poplar and

These chants and anthems are published in parts, Blackwall Free School, London, and E. T. STE either the words alone, or words and music sol-fa VENS and CHARLES HOLE, Editors of the Grade Lesson Books, &c. London : Longmans, Green, The selection, as far as we can judge from the small

notation, or words and music ordinary notation. Reader, and Dyer.

portion sent us, is good. We give our warmest commendation to this series of writing-books. They are based on sound prin- Outlines of Modern Geography. A book for beginners.

By the Rev. ALEXANDER MACKAY, A.M., F.R.G.S., ciples, they are well adapted for their purpose, and

author of Elements of Modern Geography for the they are sure to be favourites with the pupils. The best thing we can do to give an idea of their charac

use of junior classes ;' a ‘Manual of Modern Geoter is to extruct from the prospectus :

graphy, Mathematical, Physical, and Political, on The present series of narrative copy-books is an

a new plan, embracing a complete development

William attempt to combine all that is useful in the preceding

of the River Systems of the Globe.' methods. Good models are presented for copying,

Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London.

1865. and a little help is afforded the young beginner in the way of lines and dotted letters, but care has been

Mr Mackay's larger manual is well known, and taken not to do too much for him. He is thrown has deservedly received high praise. This is an mainly on his own efforts, and is called upon from adaptation of it to beginners. It certainly contains the first to exercise his judgment and power of imi

a good deal for beginners. The peculiarity of the tation. Very large hand has been avoided, because, work is, that after giving the chief towns in a counin the first place, its utility is very questionable, and try according to its political divisions, he arranges in the second, children's fingers are not long enough them all again under the river basins in which they to form such large letters properly.

are situated, or the seas near which they lie. The “The copies in the first four books, which teach the pupil is also aided in the right pronunciation of formation of all the letters and figures, are in text peculiar words. The book is very neatly printed, hand on every half-page. Where possible and de- but the type is rather too small for beginners. sirable, they are so arranged as to recapitulate the second part of the previous lesson before introducing Exercises on Etymology. By WILLIAM GBAHAY, a new combination. In the next four, and in Num. LL.D., of the Scottish Institution for the Educaber XI., the pupil is taught to apply his knowledge

tion of Young Ladies, &c. New and thoroughly of the letters to the writing out of continuous inter

revised edition. William and Robert Chambers, esting narratives, beginning at a good bold round

London and Edinburgh. hand, and proceeding to small round and double small, engraved on every other line throughout the Dr Graham has attempted in this work to supply books. To give more practice, however, after a page a teachable text-book of etymology. It is not a mere has been written he is required to write over every dictionary of derivations, but the matter has been alternate copy line in Numbers V. VII. and XI. so arranged that lessons can be set and regularly Number XII, has couplets from Dean Trench's learned. It may be questioned whether etymology Proverbs” and “ Herbert's Church Porch," engraved should be so learned, whether it is wise to set boys in double small on every half-page, and Number or girls to the regular task of preparing the etymoXIII. presents as a small hand copy four consecutive logies of a certain number of words, and not rather lines of "Gray's Elegy' on every page, with space for demanding a knowledge of etymologies as the words writing each verse three times. Numbers IX. and turn up in the course of other lessons. But if such X, are writing-books in small round hand, suitable lessons are to be given, Dr Graham's manual is to for the third and fourth standards. They contain be recommended. He has spared no pains to make exercises for transcription, alternately from script his work a thorough one. He has gone to Grimm and narrative, and from short sentences in Roman type Curtius, Diez and Wedgewood, and many others,

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