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remarks which are intended to apply only to girls of Boys sin more openly, but less meanly, than girls ; the higher classes are comparatively few, and not and because their offences are open, they are more without their interest to others.
easily known and punished, and have less enduring About a hundred pages of the second volume are consequences. Girls in a large school may for devoted to instruction proper and to schools. The months carry on a course of deceit which may inauthor does not seem to be acquainted with recent jure them for life, and no one will be the wiser. investigations into the methods of teaching, and These considerations alone may be sufficient to contributes nothing to the determination of the com- shew that the objection to crowding girls together parative importance of the various kinds of know. in large schools is founded upon common sense and ledge, nor does she even discuss the propriety of experience. Many other evils might be adduced, girls in the higher classes extending their attention but public opinion, though in this case often exhito studies commonly considered as belonging to the bited in the form of prejudice, which can give no province of boys. The author has evidently a dread reason for its decision, is for the most part enlisted of innovations and of female monsters. She has on the same side, and therefore the subject does not heard of the various efforts made to open up new need to be enforced further. The best that can be felds for the employment of women, but she shirks said for the opposite view of the question is, that the discussion of how far a change in the mode of large schools are generally cheaper than those with their education might prepare for these. She looks limited numbers, and that it is hard that women, upon the boy and girl as beings entirely distinct. who have to labour in the arduous vocation of * The aim of education,” she says, " is to fit chil. teaching, should not make a full profit by it." dren for the position in life which they are hereafter We consider this to be in many respects a false to occupy., Boys are to be sent out into the world representation of the nature of boys and girls; but to buffet with its temptations, to mingle with bad we adduce the passage, not to discuss it, but to give and good, to govern and direct. The school is the au idea of the author's sentiments. type of the life they are hereafter to lead. Girls The author speaks strongly against the prevalent are to dwell in quiet homes amongst a few friends, system of large boarding-schools for young ladies. to exercise a noiseless influence, to be submissive “Whether," she says, “ the effect of crowding young and retiring. There is no connection between the girls together in one bedroom, giving them no means bustling mill-wheel life of a large school and that of privacy, stinting them in the time necessary for for which they are supposed to be preparing. This their toilette, summoning them to hasty, ill-appointed alone is a sufficient reason for supposing, even on a meals, and hiring inferior servants to wait upon them, cursory glance, that to educate girls in crowds is to can be compensated for by any amount of first-rate edacate them wrongly.
masters, or any quantity of “classes " for imbibing " But there are other objections even more im- science and history, may be proved by the tone and portant, though perhaps less obvious.
style usually known as that of a school.girl. It is " A boy's mind is not so easily sullied as a girl's. not the learning together which makes girls schoolIndiscriminate companionship may with the former girlish ; it is the living together—the being herded have an injurious effect for the time, but it does not like animals in the fold—the sense of sham and preleave the same lasting stain as with the latter. Un- tence—the fact that the decencies of life are dissedesirable knowledge is not an equal shock to the moral garded in the bedroom, though there may be damask nature. If a girl's natural delicacy and modesty are and ormolu in the drawing-room. wounded by intercourse with those who have learnt “School.girl tricks, a school-girl tone, are accepted evil, of which she has hitherto been ignorant, the by many persons as belonging to a certain age, but scars of the wound remain for years, and the con- as being sure to pass away with that age. It is a versation of one hour will leave its stamp upon the great mistake. The school-girl tone is low, untrue, memory for life. And so also the spirit of indepen- irreverent; it is based upon the belief that educadence and determination, the conflict of opinion, the tion is a mere matter of bargaining; and that, as foughnesses even of a large school, are congenial to the governess desires to make the most for herself a boy's nature; they are utterly opposed to that of a in money, so the pupils may make the most for girl. There is an element of good in these things, themselves in what they call fun, or, more truly, but when applied to girls the evil preponderates. deceit. And it will last long after the period of Strong - minded, or, in other words, masculine, school life is over. It will exhibit itself in an out. women, are no doubt useful in their generation, but ward polish of manner, but no ease-a flimsy show we may well desire to be delivered from them of accomplishments, and very little information ; a
And yet, further, there is amongst | flippant tone of conceit, and a weak judgment; an boys, especially at public schools, a recognition of intense secret worldliness, combined with the newest the world's opinion, a traditionary honour which fashion in religion. It is not only essentially of acts as a check to the pettiness, the deceit, and fri- the earth, earthy,' but it implies the lowest kind of Folity, that too often characterise assemblies of girls. I earthliness. And let the instruction given in a
&S & race.
school be® what it may; let the scriptural instruc- | Dictionary. We happen to peruse a poet, and the tion be orthodox, the precepts of morality pure, the word “wold” occurs; we turn up our Dictionary, French and German teachers unwearied, the music. but are again disappointed. We pic-nic near an master first-rate—this will be the result of school ancient fortress, and our guide-book speaks of a education, so long as the pecuniary profit is the fortalice; we turn up our Dictionary again and first subject of consideration, and mean economies fail. We see a ship sailing past: we turn up for a are practised in order to save money."
definition of the special kind of ship. It is in the There are very many things in this book which book, and mention is made of the gaff. The definiwe should like to have discussed or extracted. Our tion is useless, if we do not know the gaff. We space forbids. We quote only one or two sentences, turn up gaff, but no gaff is to be found. We see which may be taken as a specimen of reflections some ladies and gentlemen playing at croquet; ve which abound in the volumes. “Seen through the tum up croquet, and fail. We are fond of golf, and grating” [of a boarding-school], she says, “marriage try our Dictionary to see if it knows anything of is the one end and object—the ultima thule of a drivers, putters, sand-irons, and such implements, woman's life. Seen as it really is, it is simply the and again we are disappointed. But in this last most important accident of life. It is this distinc-case we find no fault with the Dictionary, for such tion which creates the difference between romance names may be safely omitted. But the Dictionary and reality.
should at least supply the student with the words " Romance says, 'And so they were married, and that occur in our best poets even of the present day, lived happily ever after.'
and should help them to understand the unusual "Reality says. “And so they were married, and terms found in newspapers and journals. entered upon new duties and new cares.'
The Student's English Dictionary, Etymological, Pro- A Series of 132 Geographical Lessons on England,
nouncing, and Explanatory, in which the words are Scotland, and Ireland, with an Appendix on the traced to their ultimate sources, the root or primary Continents, expressly arranged for Home Learn meaning inserted, and the other meanings given fully Use. By G. GILL, Hope Street Schools, Liter according to the best usage. By JOHN OGILVIE, pool. London: Philip, Son, & Nephew, 32 Flexi LL.D., Editor of “The Imperial” and of “ The Street; 51 South Castle Street, Liverpool. 1865 Comprehensive” Dictionaries; the Pronunciation adapted to the best modern usage, by RICHARD
This little work will be welcome to many teacbCULL, F.S.A. Illustrated by about one hundred
Its object is to furnish a cheap, methodical engravings on wood. London : Blackie & Son, comprehensive, geographical text-book, so arranged Paternoster Row; Edinburgh, and Glasgow. 1865. that the teacher can easily give a lesson out of it to
be prepared at home. He will not, therefore, reThis Student's English Dictionary is distin- quire to devote much time to the subject in the guished by some features well calculated to recom- class, and yet he need not neglect it altogether, as mend it. Special attention has been paid to the he is tempted to do by the Revised Code. The etymology, and the results of comparative philology work is divided into a series of lessons. Each of are embodied in the work. Then great care has these lessons is distinctly marked off and nonbeen taken to trace the meanings of words, the bered. The author has been very judicious in etymological meaning being first given in italics. determining the size of the lessons and the chaThen pronunciation has also been attended to, racter of the facts. Indeed, it contains a great deal and there is a copious supply of pictorial illustra- of really useful matter, not to be found in much tions, an exceedingly useful feature in such a work. more ambitious works. The only defect we bote A compiler of such a Dictionary has, however, is, that sufficient prominence is not given to our rather a difficult task to perform, and we doubt railway systems, either in the lessons or the map, whether the editor of this one has been altogether in the work are contained coloured maps of the successful. He has to omit a large number of words world and of England, and yet the price is low. in order to bring the book within a practicable size, and a great deal of judgment is required to determine what words are to be omitted. We are afraid the editor of this work has omitted too many The Elements of English Grammar and Analysis: of the important words of the language. We have
Simplified for Beginners. By A. K. ISBISTER, given it a trial for this last month, and we have
M.A. Part I. London: Longmans & Co. 1865. been frequently disappointed. Reading a law report in the newspapers, we come upon the word This is a good and sensible book, and it will no cantankerous, but no explanation is given in the doubt be welcomed by teachers who have felt, as
many have, the difficulty of finding an elementary the safest and most serviceable author we can use grammar at once simple and explicit, without being for educational purposes; and that, whether as rechildish or meagre. The arrangement is good, and gards the matter of his works, and their power of the explanations are for the most part clear, while developing a pure and natural taste, or as regards they are interspersed with useful exercises. If we the regularity, force, and classical purity of their have any objection to the book, it is that the defi- style. The volume before us is one of several atnitions of the parts of speech, &c., while sound and tempts that have been made lately to render Cowper clear in their matter, are hardly convenient enough more directly available in school-work; and, as such, in form for committing to memory.
it deserves consideration commensurate with the In a few points of detail, we differ from Mr Is- important position which, in this connection, we bister. Two of them may be briefly referred to believe Cowper to hold. The first relates to the function of the preposition. The book belongs to a class more useful than inIn the sentence, “ The book lies before me on the tellectual in conception, the main design of which table" (p. 18), the preposition before, aco ing to seems to be to save both pupil and teacher as much Mr Isbister, “shews the relation between the book trouble as possible. According to his model, Mr and me; and the word on, the relation between the M.Leod has achieved a large measure of success. pbook and the desk.” If this were true, the phrases He has left hardly anything which presents itself in * before me," and "on the desk," would both be the form of a difficulty unexplained. The naturalattributed to “ book :" the book before me, the book history allusions give rise to short encyclopædic artion the table, lies. Not so; both phrases shew where cles; the local references are illustrated by copious the book lies ; it “lies before me,” it “lies on the extracts from Hugh Miller, and from Cowper's own table ;" and the prepositions relate the words “me” | letters; and the grammatical and analytic notes and “table” respectively to the verb“ lies.” make it nearly altogether unnecessary for the schoMr Isbister is generally careful to keep his ex. | lar to try his own powers, or puzzle his own brains. planations, however simple, in harmony with mo- But surely this defeats the main purpose for which dern philology. He has made a slip, however, in an author is studied, especially in connection with the word brother. He gives brether as an old form the last particular. Of course, if it be the end of of brother, from which the plural brethren is derived. such study to enable the pupil to pass an examinaNow, brether is not an old form of the singular, but tion on the book or author prescribed, nothing could an old form of the plural, the plural being supposed be better than Mr M‘Leod's book; and all that the to be sufficiently indicated by the modification of student need do is to cram up the notes. But if, as the root vowel o into e, just as in German, der bruder, we incline to believe, the purpose of such study die brüder. In the English, brethren, the addition of rather is to test the knowledge of, and to put in ** modifies the root vowel of the singular, just as practice, the principles previously learned, it is surely in women, the change of a to e modifies the preceding a serious mistake to supply such and so much as0, giving it a y sound; and, indeed, in old English, sistance as renders previous study or present effort Te find the form wymen. Compare with this the all but needless. Some helps are doubtless necesGerman das haus, die haiiser, der sohn, die söhne, and sary, and some are expedient. It is necessary to the English cow (ky-en, giving us the English kine) explain peculiar or unusual constructions,-points and the Scotch kye.
which involve a real or supposed departure from ordinary rules. It is also expedient to take advantage of passages which illustrate, in a striking man
ner, well-known principles. But to give a complete The First Book of Corper's Task (The Sofa). With analysis of every passage which is likely to be Explanatory Notes, Exercises in the Analysis of pitched upon by an examiner, is to vitiate every Sentences, and a Life of the Poet. For the use of right system of examination and of education, and Colleges and Schools. By WALTER M‘LEOD, to destroy the true end both of good teaching and of F.R.G.S., &c. London: Longmans, Green, & profitable learning. Co. 1865.
This is the error in principle committed by Mr
M'Leod, and, indeed, by the whole of the Reverend Cowper is one of our most valuable school-classics. John Hunter school of editors. They surround the Himself one of the sweetest of nature's poets, one of learner with so complete a system of life buoy, that the gentlest monitors and most faithful expostu- he cannot help swimming ; but, should these at any lators, one of the sternest champions of the truth, time be cut away from him, he can do nothing but his works, at the same time, afford some of the best flounder and sink. We admit that there is a great material for studying the grammatical structure of mass of useful information collected in this little the English tongue. More exact and concise than volume,—information which it would cost the pupil Thomson, more varied than Goldsmith, and less much labour and thought to glean for himself from involved and puzzling than Milton, he is perhaps I many sources : but is not that labour well-bestowed ?
no, but is
= no one.
is not that thought both an instrument and an end rather say it is an adverbial of manner, or of caur, of the higheşt educational value ?
to the verb owes. We conclude with one or two remarks upon spe- Line 491. “ Whom call we gay." We are told cial notes that seem to us not altogether satisfac. that “whom is the object of call,” an instance of tory :
over-annotation ; but we are not told what guy is, Line 4. “ Escaped is a past participle after being which might have been useful information. Gayis understood ;' rather after having understood. Escape the complement or secondary object of call ; noi su is an intransitive verb.
attribute to whom, as we suspect the editor wodd Line 6. “Though the theme is humble ;" we call it, judging by the following note :should suggest “ be humble."
Line 534. " Whom better days saw better clad." Line 9. None = no, not any, is an adjective. No Clad is an attribute to whom.” Not so; it is the when placed alone becomes none." None is not complement of saw. The meaning is not that betier
It is not an adjective, but a days saw Kate, who was better clad; bat that better pronoun. It is not correct to say that no ever be- days saw Kate to be better clad: otherwise, the being comes none. None is a pronoun standing for its noun " better clad ” was the thing seen, with reference to together with no. In the line referred to, none = no or in connection with Kate. clothing. Line 24. “Such, an adjective, is here used as a
The Progressive English Reader. By JAMES DOCGLAS. noun.” Such is sometimes an adjective, sometimes
Teacher of English, Great King Street, Edin. In the text here, it is simply a noun.
burgh. Edinburgh : Adam & Charles Black. Lines 118-121. “How oft . . . austere. These lines are a noun sentence to of, line 117.” Why This is a series of sis reading books, ranging not to remember, line 116 ? You“ remember how;" from the alphabet up to extracts from Macaulas, you do not " remember of how'
Brougham, Dickens, and Tennyson. They aru Line 131. “And not a year but pilfers.” Mr evidently framed by a skilful teacher. The most M.Leod supplies he as the subject of pilfers, and striking feature is the tact shewn in graduating the makes the clause“ but he pilfers,” &c., adverbial to lessons. The child rises from the easiest to the “there is not a year.” But is the well known nega- most difficult by almost imperceptible steps. These tive relative, which not (cf. quin qui non), and is also a judicious use made of repetitior. The the clause is attributive to year. Compare with portions of the series which please us best are the this,
third and fourth books. The reading lessons are at Line 307. “No tree in all the grove but has its once interesting and instructive. They are also charms.” Mr M.Leod correctly enough paraphrases, varied, but they are not miscellaneous. One sectioa " that has not ;" but unfortunately adds in a note, gives moral lessons, anecdotes calculated to show
or but what has its charms ;'” which, we need the right or the wrong of actions, another details hardly say, is not English.
the habits of animals, and so on. The same varier Line 134. “They spare." It should have been and concentration characterise the fifth and sixth pointed out that the proper construction requires the books. Both are very good of their kind. We are singular here, the subject of the clause on which it least pleased with the first two books of the series. depends being he. Cowper had obviously before his | Mr Douglas begins with unintelligible combinatioes mind the “our years” of line 129, to which, indeed, of letters, or in other words, with the sounds of the the reference is, in the connection, more correct. letters and not with words. In the first book the
Line 371. “And lives but while she moves.” Mr exercises in reading intelligible sentences are too M‘Leod says,
only is an adverb, and modi- few, and there is no attempt to make any of the fies the verb lives.” We say it modifies the clause, i lessons continuous sense. In many cases, too, we “ while she moves." The meaning is not “she are unable to find out what the illustrations illns. (only lives] while she moves ;” but “she lives [only trate. At the same time, if we are to commence while she moves]."
teaching English by means of the sounds, Mr Line 384. More fixed below, the more disturbed Douglas's two books are well adapted for the purabove.” Mr M.Leod makes more fixed below “an pose, and skilfully arranged. Altogether the series enlargement of the subject monarch.” We should | is very good.
Notes and Queries.
I. PHILOLOGICAL AND CRITICAL.
fecerunt," i, e. the berry feast, and organisms
WREN.-The name of this bird is ennobled in ing one of Shelley's poems. The query elicited many languages: regulus, gierde konge, Dan.; stark knave, stark blind, stark mad = RED wud dreathan, Gael. In Gaelic, triath : = a lord, hence (Scot.). Now in the Gaelic, dearc = a berry, dearg dreathan
little lord ; and since dreathan is prored, i.e. the colour of the berry when ripe, and nounced dreunn, it may be esteemed the origo of dearg mature complete; hence stark from our wren. dearg complete, and stark gloom, a gloom that In John Gilpin we have “his friend in merry has been matured into complete darkness. Burns pin.” Pin tune, from the Gaelic Binn, the cogsays, when I was stark ripened into manhood. nate in Greek being Ilavcev; ww llaway was the burden Again, in the Greek we have ouegodese = a festival of the choral chant to Apollo. of Apollo in Midsummer, “cum pro PRIMITIIS sacra
H. PARADE. (The continuation of the Analysis of “ Enoch Arden," and the Mathematical Notes, are unavoidably postponed
till our next Number.)
UNIVERSITY INTELLIGENCE. John of Ephesus, which had been found in the same OXFORD.—The Master and Fellows of Balliol collection of MSS. by Dr Cureton. Mr Smith is at College have decided on the admission of Roman present engaged in preparing for the delegates of Catholic undergraduates, who will be exempted from the Oxford Press a Syriac lexicon, based on that of attending service in the college chapel and other Castelli, but a new and much larger work. He religious exercises required in the case of Protestant passes also for an excellent Arabic scholar, and he students.
is a profound Hebraist. How Mr Smith can teach It appears from a letter sent to the T'imes by Pro- theology, and apply his erudition to the great quesfessor Daubeny, that the new Waynflete Professor- tions of the day, may be seen in his " Messianic ship of Chemistry will be given to Sir B. Brodie, the Interpretation of the Prophecies of Isaiah,” and present Aldrichian Professor of Chemistry, and that will be soon further shewn by a commentary on the latter office will then be suppressed. The new
Jeremiah, which he has engaged to contribute to Professorship is one of four to be founded and main- the large work that is to appear under the auspices tained in Magdalen College by direction of the of the Speaker. C'niversity Commissioners. The only other yet founded is the Professorship of Moral and Meta- CAMBRIDGE.—The annual examination for the physical Philosophy, the holder of which is Mr Carus Greek Testament Prize for Bachelors will Mansel.
commence in the Arts School on the 6th prox. The Rev. R. Payne Smith, M.A., the newly ap- There will be Congregations on the following days pointed Regius Professor of Divinity in the Univer- of the ensuing Michaelinas Term, viz., Monday, sity of Oxford, was educated in Pembroke College, October 2, at ten; and Thursdays, October 12 and graduated with second-class honours in 1841, and 26, November 9 and 23, and December 7, at twelve obtained the Boden (Sanscrit) and the Pusey and o'clock each day. Ellerton (Hebrew) University Scholarships. He has published an elaborate Latin catalogue raisonné LONDON.- University College.—Dr Joseph Sharpe of the Syriac MSS. belonging to that library. He has has resigned the Professorship of Jurisprudence in edited those works of St Cyril of Alexandria which | University College. His successor will be appointed are extant only in Syriac, from the MSS. brought in November. to this country by Archdeacon Tattam ; and he has also translated the curious ecclesiastical history of DURHAM.—Some important changes have recently